Modern World History- Final Exam Review Packet

the development of industry on an extensive scale
First country to industrialize
Factors of production
Land, labor, capital, entrepeneur
Adam Smith
Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790)
Karl Marx
German journalist and philosopher, founder of the Marxist branch of socialism. He is known for two books: The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (Vols. I-III, 1867-1894). (p. 709)
Communist Manifesto
a socialist manifesto written by Marx and Engels (1842) describing the history of the working-class movement according to their views
the economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will untimately be superseded
, a form of socialism that abolishes private ownership
Traditional economy (features, examples & definition)
An economy in which production is based on customs and traditions and economic roles are typically passed down from one generation to the next.
Command economy (features, examples & definition)
An economic system in which the government controls a country’s economy.
Market economy (features, examples & definition)
an economy that relies chiefly on market forces to allocate goods and resources and to determine prices
policy based on the idea that government should play as small a role as possible in the economy
a social class comprising those who do manual labor or work for wages
the social class between the lower and upper classes
Labor unions
Organizations of workers who, together, put pressure on the employers in an industry to improve working conditions and wages.
Major reforms to living conditions during the Industrial Revolution
Major reforms to working conditions during the Industrial Revolution
a political theory advocating state ownership of industry
Agricultural Revolution
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering, A time when new inventions such as the seed drill and the steel plow made farming easier and faster. The production of food rose dramatically.
Berlin Conference
Conference that German chancellor Otto von Bismarck called to set rules for the partition of Africa. It led to the creation of the Congo Free State under King Leopold II of Belgium.
Reasons European nations able to take over Africans
Significance of Ethiopia
African country, defeated Italy, able to stay independent during imperialism
Causes of Imperialism (economic, social, political, religious,
Industrialization caused many European nations to look outside their country for more resources to fuel their industrial production. They looked to Africa and Asia as sources of raw materials and as markets for finished products. This caused Europeans to practice the policy of Imperialism-where a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically, or socially.
White Man’s Burden
idea that many European countries had a duty to spread their religion and culture to those less civilized
Maxim machine gun
Cause of low food supply and lack of economy diversity in Africa
Sepoy Mutiny
discontent with British administration in India led to numerous mutinies in 1857 and 1858 noun
Ex. the revolt was put down after several battles and seiges (notably the seige at Lucknow)
The Amritsar Massacre
In April 1919, thousands of Indians unaware of a ban on public meetings, gathered for the Hindu religions festival in Amritsar. Army officer ordered o open fire, killing over 400 people and wounding more than 1,200. India stood on the edge of Nationalist violence.
Non-violent civil disobedience
A philosophy of opposing a law one considers unjust by peacefully violating it and allowing oneself to be punished as a result.
Mohandas Gandhi
A philosopher from India, this man was a spiritual and moral leader favoring India’s independence from Great Britain. He practiced passive resistance, civil disobedience and boycotts to generate social and political change
Division of India into Muslin and Hindu areas
creates conflicts, between two groups, leads Great Britain to split them up. ➪ Partition of India- Pakistan, India, etc.
Salt March
Gandhi led a march over 240 miles to protest the British monopoly on salt in India
Opium War
War between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government’s refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories. The victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China.
Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
Mao Zedong
Chinese communist leader (1893-1976)
Sun Yet-San
1st Nationalist, Chinese leader who tries to get rid of imperialism
Long March
The 6,000-mile (9,600-kilometer) flight of Chinese Communists from southeastern to northwestern China. The Communists, led by Mao Zedong, were pursued by the Chinese army under orders from Chiang Kai-shek.
Chinese Civil War of 1946-1949
Nationalist (Jeishi) vs. Communist (Mao), after WW2, when got rid of common enemy, Japan. Fighting for control, ➪ Communists win
Significance of the Meiji Restoration
shows modernization of Japan, of certain Western ideas
Cause(s) of Japan opening its doors to foreign trade
Sino-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
Arch Duke Francis Ferdinand
his assaination contributed to the outbreak of WWI
The Schlieffan Plan
a strategy drawn up by Germany to avoid fighting on 2 fronts
Woodrow Wilson
28th President of the United States noun
Ex. led the United States in World War I and secured the formation of the League of Nations (1856-1924)
ancient region and Roman province of the Iberian peninsula noun
Ex. corresponds roughly to modern Portugal and parts of Spain
territory disputed by Germany and France, one cause of WW1
The Blank Check
A symbolic figure sent to Austria- Hungary by Germany saying that Germany will have Austria- Hungary’s back no-matter what.
Zimmerman Note
Written by Arthur Zimmerman, a german foreign secretary. In this note he had secretly proposed a German- Mexican alliance. He tempted Mexico with the ideas of recovering Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. The note was intercepted on March 1, 1917 by the U.S. government. This was a major factor that led us into WWI.
Armistice of Nov. 11, 1918
Paris Peace Conference of 1919
Major provisions of the Treaty of Versailles
Countries created out of the Treaty of Versailles
Causes of WWI
1)Assassination of Franz Ferdinand,
4)Alliance System,
Russian Revolution
the revolution against the Czarist government which led to the abdication of Nicholas II and the creation of a provisional government in March 1917
Western Front
In WWI, the region of Northern France where the forces of the Allies and the Central Powers battled each other.
a policy of nonparticipation in international economic and political relations
Central Powers
in World War I the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary and other nations allied with them in opposing the Allies
Allied Powers
the coalition formed by Britain and her colonies (including Australia, New Zealand, Canada and India), France and Russia from the beginning of the war, and later other countries including Belgium, Italy and the United States.
Effects of technology from the Industrial Revolution on WWI
Austria’s Ultimatum
If Serbia doesn’t take fault for the deaths allow secret police, get rid of anti-Austrian-Hungary groups. Austria-Hungary will attack
Why Italy switched sides during WWI
Effects of the Treaty of Versailles
Germany blamed for war, end of war, eauge of nations
Romanov Dynasty
Ruling family of Russia
Causes of the Russian Revolution
World War 1 Large number of peasants shortage of food not industrialized no power to legislature Czar Nicholas absolute ruler Vladimir Rasputin
Siberian peasant monk who was religious advisor in the court of Nicholas II noun
Ex. was assassinated by Russian noblemen who feared that his debauchery would weaken the monarchy (1872-1916)
White Army
The Army of supporters of monarchy and the old order
Red Army
the regular army of the former Soviet Union
Provisional Government
The government established in 1917 which replaced Nicholas II when he abdicated. The only mistake of this government was not getting Russia out of the brutal World War I.
Vladimir Lenin
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924)
Joseph Stalin
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953
Great Purge
(1934), stalin cracked down on Old Bolsheviks, his net soon widened to target army heroes, industrial managers, writers and citizens, they were charged with a wide range of crimes, from plots to failure to not meeting production quotas
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
This treaty ended Russias participation in the war.
5 Year Plan
Stalin’s economics. Forced, rapid industrialization, targets for production. Devastating to agriculture, complete state takeover
Totalitarian government (characteristics and examples during 1920s)
a system of rule in which the government recognizes no formal limits on its power and seeks to absorb or eliminate other social institutions that might challenge it…
Weimar Republic
…, The new German republic the in 1921 owed 33 billion annually to the allied reparations commission. In order to recover from its severe economic issues the annual fees were reduced each year depending on the level of German economic prosperity and Germany received large loans each year from the United States.
Global depression
world wide recession which was far worse in defeated powers
Fascism (characteristics, examples, leaders)
Adolf Hitler
German Nazi dictator during World War II (1889-1945)
Mein Kampf
“My Struggle”
space sought for occupation by a nation whose population is expanding
Non-aggression Pact of 1939
agreement between Joseph Stalin and Hitler to divide Eastern Europe
Weaknesses of the League of Nations
Axis Powers
Germany, Italy, and Japan
Early US policy of WWII
Battle of Stalingrad
Unsuccessful German attack on the city of Stalingrad during World War II from 1942 to 1943, that was the furthest extent of German advance into the Soviet Union.
Significance of Dunkirk
Cause of US entry into WWII
First invasion of WWII
planned June 5th June 6 1944 Germans occupied Normandy France Germans though it would occur at Calais and goal was to liberate Paris
systematic killing of a racial or cultural group
the Nazi program of exterminating Jews under Hitler
“Iron Curtain”
Goals of Truman Doctrine
the policy of pushing a dangerous situation to the brink of disaster (to the limits of safety)
(military) the act of containing something or someone
an international organization created in 1949 by the North Atlantic Treaty for purposes of collective security
Warsaw Pact
treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
Marshall Plan
a United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
Domino Theory
the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control
First industry to industrialize
Textiles (woven clothes)
Industrial Revolution
the transformation from an agricultural to an industrial nation
The Wealth of Nations
Adam Smith argued that the free market should be allowed to regulate business activity, strong supporter of laissez faire, government has duty to protect society