Milady Chapter 20 – Study Guide

Chemical texture service
Chemically altering the natural wave of the hair
Responsible for strength and elasticity
Most common neutralizer
Hydrogen peroxide
Base direction
The angle to which the rod is positioned on the head
Straight rods
Equal in diameter
Has base sections that are offset from each other
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Weave technique
Uses zig-zag patterns to divide base areas
On base placement
Causes most stress and tension on hair
Half-off base placement
Minimizes stress and tension on hair
Croquignole wrap
Wrapped ends to scalp
Double rod wrap
Piggy-back wrap
Bookend wrap
Uses one paper folded in half
Double flat wrap
Uses two papers, gives the most control
Shape and type of curl
Determined by the rod and wrapping method
Size of curl
Determined by size of rod
Reduction reaction
Created by the addition of hydrogen
When the solution breaks the disulfide bonds
Hydrogen bonds
Broken by water and re-formed when dry
Thiogyocolic Acids
The most common reducing agents
Glyceryl Monothioglycolate
The main ingredient in acid balanced perms
3 components in acid balanced perms
Waving lotion, activator, and neutralizer
Amonium thiogolcate
The active ingredient or reducing agent in alkaline perms
the pH scale
Ranges from 0 to 14
pH in most acid perms
7.8 to 8.2
pH in most alkaline perms
9.0 to 9.6
highly alkaline solution
Used for coarse resistant hair
Alkaline waves
Cold waves
Raising the pH
Softens and swells the hair shaft
Exothermic waves
Create their own heat
Endothermic waves
Heat must be added
Disulfide bonds
Chemical side bonds that form when two sulfur type chains join together
Too many broken disulfide bonds
The hair is over-processed and will not hold a curl
Thio neutralization
Stops the action of the permanent wave solution and rebuilds hair into its new form
Thio-free waves
Use and ingredient other than ATG, such as cysteamine or mercaptamine
Soft curl perm
A combination of a thio relaxer and a thio perm wrapped on a large rod
Chemical hair relaxing
The process of rearranging the basic hair structure of curly hair into a straighter, smoother form
Hydrogen ion
The active ingredient in all hydroxide relaxers
Hydroxide relaxers
Remove a sulfur atom from a disulfide bond, converting it into a lanthonine bond
Metal hydroxide relaxers
Contain only one ingredient and are used without mixing
Sodium relaxers
Lye relaxers
Potassium hydroxide relaxers
No mix-no lye relaxers
Guanidine hydroxide relaxers
Have two components and must be mixed immediately prior to use
No base relaxers
Do not require the application of a protective base cream
Concentration of hydroxide
Determines the strength in a chemical relaxer
Application of a chemical relaxer
Should be started in the most resistant area- usually the back of the head
Insufficiently relaxed
During a relaxer strand test, hair that is pressed to the scalp and continues to curl
Normalizing lotion
A conditioner with an acidic pH that restores hairs natural pH after a hydroxide relaxer
Hair treated with a hydroxide relaxer
Cannot be treated with a thio relaxer, and is unfit for perming
Japanese thermal straightening
Combines a thio relaxer with a flat iron
Keratin straightening treatments
Fix the keratin in place in a semi-permanent manner. No bonds are broken
Concentration of reducing agent
Determines strength of any permanent wave