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Middle East History

Essay Topic:

The war between Iran and Iraq occurred when Iraq invaded Iran in September 1980 in an attempt to regain border territory it had ceded in 1975.

Iraqi forces seized control of some Arab-populated border regions. After Iran drove Iraqi forces put of most of the invaded territory in 1982, the war turned into a stalemate.

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A cease fire went into effect in 1988.

The factors that had let to this war were likely because of the conflict between the two countries regarding the border debate or argument. In Iraq, internal guerilla warfare began in 1961, when Iraq refused to grant self-government to its Kurdish tribesmen in the north. The in 1963, their leader was overthrown was overthrown in a military revolt. The new government followed a socialist, Arab nationalist policy, but was wracked by rivalry between factions supporting and opposing Egypt’s President, Nasser. A peace with the Kurds was concluded in 1966, but skirmishes continued.

Iraq was a member of the Arab Alliance that was defeated in the Six Day War against Israel in June, 1967. However, few Iraqi troops were involved in combat. In 1968, the Kurds resumed hostilities against the government. In 1970, Kurdish autonomy was recognized, but many Kurds, supported by aid from Iran, continued the Rebellion.

During the 1970’s, large increases in oil prices made it possible for the shah to accelerate the modernization of Iran and to build up the country’s military strength on a massive scale. In 1978 protests over the shah’s rule began to grow. Much of the opposition came from conservative religious leaders, led by the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, who opposed modernization because it was contrary to traditional Islamic ways. Many opponents, however, some of them socialists and Communists, demanded a more equal distribution of wealth and an end to dictatorial rule. In 1974, the country started giving weapons for war to the Kurds.

In 1975 Iran agreed to end its aid to the Kurds in exchange for some disputed territory. The Kurdish rebellion then collapsed.

Saddam wanted to occupy Iran’s near to the oil and its feeble military which Saddam though for revolutionary disorder.

The aggressor was Saddam Hussein. Because he wanted that the river which they were arguing will be owned by Iraqi- Arab, to bring back the essence through the history and that they had all the rights over the river. The only thing that hinders or stops the two countries from fighting was the Arvand Rud waterway, where in they had an agreement. Saddam wanted to display to the whole nations his conquering of other place but was just using the area of dispute as a front.

Reference;

Marr, Phebe. The Modern History of Iraq (West view Press, 1985).

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