What are the three branches of the criminal justice system in the U.S?
The three branches are police, courts, and corrections.
Know examples of target hardening.
Target hardening os the process of making an object less attractive to a potential criminal.
What is general deterrence?
General deterrence seeks to prevent people from committing crimes by making an example out of a specific offender.
What is specific deterrence?
Specific deterrence seeks to prevent a specific offender from committing a crime again.
Studies show police officers spend what percent of their time directly protecting society?
Studies show police officers spend 1% of their time directly protecting society.
What are the consequences of allowing police officers discretion in who they arrest?
Consequences are that discretion leads to inequality in the system and racial profiling.
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How likely is someone to be accused of a crime if he or she is represented by a public defender?
The poor who have public defenders are much more likely to be convicted of a crime then the rich who can afford private attorneys.
In the recent years there has been a tendency for sentencing strategies to become what?
In recent years (the last 40 years) sentencing strategies has become more restrictive.
What are aggravating circumstances?
Aggravating circumstances describe a crime in which the gravity is greater then the average instance of the offense.
What are mitigating circumstances?
Mitigating circumstances are circumstances surrounding the commission of crime that may reduce the blameworthiness of the defendant.
Structured sentencing attempts to do what to judicial discretion?
Structured sentencing attempts to make it so the legislative system of a state enacts constraints on judicial discretion in regards to determining criminal sentences.( restricts judicial discretion).
According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1 out of how many people in the U.S. is likely to be incarcerated in his or her lifetime?
According to the Bureau, 1 out of 15 people in the US is likely to be incarcerated in his or her lifetime.
What best describes the incarceration rate of the United States?
The US has the highest incarceration rate of any nation in the world.
What percent of prisoners return to prison within three years of their release?
More than 50% of inmates return to prison within 3 years of their release.
Sociologists James Austin and John Irwin calculated that including hidden expenses it costs how much to incarcerate an inmate for a single year?
The sociologists calculated that including hidden expenses it costs 30,000 to incarcerate an inmate for a single year.
In Finland, prisons rely on what to achieve their aims?
In finland they have fences without razor wires but cameras instead, prison officers do not wear uniforms, inmates live in areas that look like college dorms, and guards interact with inmates as if to get to know them as actual citizens.
The number of states that currently have the death penalty in the U.S. is?
The number of states with the death penalty in the US is 32.
Alcohol was used by human beings starting from when?
Alcohol was used by human beings starting from 3000 BCE
During the U.S. Civil War soldiers were regularly given what drug?
During the US. Civil war, soldiers were regularly given opium and its derivative morphine.
By the beginning of the 20th century how widespread was drug use?
By the beginning of the 20th harmful and addictive drugs were readily available, and coca cola contained cocaine until 1906.
How is drug abuse defined?
Drug abuse is defined as the use of drugs despite adverse consequences.
How is a narcotic defined?
A narcotic is a drug that is considered illegal.
What are the depressants?
Depressants slow the activity of vital organs and cause a relaxed, sleepy feeling.
What are the effects of stimulants?
Stimulants excite the body and stimulate the brain and central nervous system.
Cannabis is classified as what kind of drug?
Cannabis is classified as a depressant.
What are the effects of hallucinogens?
Hallucinogens distort the senses and cause hallucinations.
The medical model of drug abuse assumes what?
The medical model of drug abuse assumes that individuals have biological predispositions to addiction, and these predispositions can be overcome by treatment.
Based on statistical data, a person of what age and gender is most likely to use drugs?
Adolescent males are most likely to use drugs. (26 year old male).
Know symbolic interactionist theory
Symbolic interactionist theory says that the social acceptability of a drug is linked to how society defines it.
What is one of the oldest and most well respected treatment programs?
Why are people in the inner city more likely to be arrested for drugs than those that live in the suburbs?
People are more likely to be arrested for drugs in inner city because the norm of successful lifestyle is not available to them, and they are constantly exposed to drug use from an early age. (You are more likely to be arrested for drugs in the inner city because you are more likely to be arrested period.)
According to the Drug Policy Alliance, which policy is likely to have more social benefits?
According to DPA, treatment policy is limey to have more social benefits.
Why is asset forfeiture a controversial way of controlling drug sales?
Asset forfeiture is a controversial way of controlling drug sales, because the burden of proof rests on the accused, the individual must provide evidence that the assets are not associated in illegal activity, the practice deviates from the civil rights standard of innocent until proven guilty, and over three quarters of people required to forfeit property were never charged with a crime.
When drug treatment programs are provided, what is the result?
When drug treatment programs are provided the results are: drug sales decreased by 78%, Assaults decrease by 78%, shoplifting decrease by 82%, and individuals associated with illegal activity decreased 48%.
The first medical school in the United States was established in what year?
The first medical school was established in the united states in 1765 in Philadelphia.
In order to furnish themselves with cadavers for dissection, colonial medical students often resorted to what?
In order to furnish themselves with cadavers, students often resorted to grave robbing.
What schools of medicine were popular in the early United States?
The schools of medicine popular in the early US were hydropaths, osteopaths, christian scientists, and homeopaths.
Osteopathic medicine is related to what kind of therapy?
Osteopathic medicine is related to the kind of therapy that rejected the use of drugs and believed the manipulation of the skeleton could improve health. (Acupuncture, Chiropractor)
What are the causes of childhood obesity?
The causes of childhood obesity are availability of energy dense foods and drinks combined with a lack of energy expenditure. Kids are eating more calories than they are burning.
According to the World Health Organization, a proper health system should have what?
According to WHO, a proper health system should have low infant mortality rates and high life expectancy, fair distribution of good health, a high level of health care responsiveness, a fair distribution of responsiveness, a fair distribution of financing health care.
When compared with other nations, the United States health care system is what?
The US is the only wealthy, industrialized, capitalist nation that does not provide some form of universal health care.
When compared to countries with integrated payment systems, the United States is what?
Insurance administrative costs in the US are more than three times the rate in countries with integrated payment systems.
Give examples of the medicalization of America
The control and respect doctors are given is proof of medicalization of America. The prevailing belief that we can find a pill for every problem.
In The Myth of Mental Illness, Dr. Thomas Szasz argues what?
Dr. Thomas argues that these illnesses are often misdiagnosed and used as a means for social control.
Which sociologist is associated with the sick role?
Parsons is associated with the sick role
According to sociologist Jill Quadagno, why has the U.S. government been resistant to universal health care?
According to jill, the US has been resistant to universal health care because people who are making money (private insurance companies) are going to be harmed because of profit interest.
Why do those lower in the socioeconomic ladder have worse health than those above?
Those lower in the socioeconomic ladder have worse health than those above because they cannot afford to pay for healthcare or medical bills.
In 2005, which group had the highest rate of chronic activity limitation?
In 2005, groups with the highest rate of chronic activity limitation were poor people with less income, blacks, and people age 75 or older.
Educated individuals are more likely to do what?
Educated individuals are more likely to practice a healthier lifestyle, visit their primary physicians more often, use new medical technologies and medicines, be aware of the health consequences of smoking and drinking, and transmit their healthier lifestyle to their children.
The sociological model of illness sees illness as what?
The sociological model sees illness as subjective, moral, and political.
What factors are related to the decline in dominance of medical doctors?
Factors that led to the decline in dominance of medical doctors were deprofessionalization, and proletarianization.