Microbiology Chapter 1

The scientist usually considered the first to see microorganisms, which he called “animalcules”, was
Redi
van Leeuwenhoek
Pasteur
Tyndall
van Leeuwenhoek
The idea of Spontaneous Generation postulated that
organisms could evolve into the next generation of organisms.
organisms could spontaneously combust.
organisms could spontaneously arise from other living organisms.
living organisms could spontaneously arise from non-living material.
living organisms could spontaneously arise from non-living material.
The work of Tyndall and Cohn
supported the idea of spontaneous generation.
was used to explain why others investigating spontaneous generation had obtained results that were opposite of those obtained by Pasteur.
showed that microbes caused disease.
allowed scientists to see microorganisms.
was used to explain why others investigating spontaneous generation had obtained results that were opposite of those obtained by Pasteur.
The opposite results obtained by scientists apparently doing the same experiments in investigating spontaneous generation
shows the importance of repeating experiments.
shows the importance of exactly duplicating experimental conditions.
led to further experiments that ultimately furthered knowledge.
All of the choices are correct.
All of the choices are correct
Cellulose is a major component of plants and is only directly digested by
herbivores.
carnivores.
termites.
microorganisms.
microorganisms
Microorganisms are involved in
causing disease.
curing/treating disease.
preparing food.
cleaning up pollutants.
All of the choices are correct.
All of the choices are correct
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Microorganisms are involved in
production of medicinal products.
transforming atmospheric nitrogen to a form useful to plants.
food production.
pollution cleanup.
All of the choices are correct.
All of the choices are correct
The Golden Age of Medical Microbiology
occurred during the late 1800s to early 1900s.
started in the 1990s with the advent of genetic engineering.
is a time when the knowledge of and techniques to work with bacteria blossomed.
was when people realized that diseases could be caused by invisible agents.
→ occurred during the late 1800s to early 1900s, is a time when the knowledge of and techniques to work with bacteria blossomed AND was when people realized that diseases could be caused by invisible agents.
occurred during the late 1800s to early 1900s, is a time when the knowledge of and techniques to work with bacteria blossomed AND was when people realized that diseases could be caused by invisible agents.
Lyme Disease is an example of a disease
→ that is due to a greater degree of interaction between humans and tick-carrying animals.
that is due to a decline in vaccinations.
that is due to a mutation in the human genome.
that is due to climate change leading to a greater mosquito population
that is due to a greater degree of interaction between humans and tick-carrying animals.
Smallpox
has been eliminated as a naturally occurring infection in human beings.
still occasionally occurs in Third World Countries.
probably only had a human reservoir.
was dealt with by vaccination.
has been eliminated as a naturally occurring infection in human beings, AND was dealt with by vaccination.
has been eliminated as a naturally occurring infection in human beings, AND was dealt with by vaccination.
Diseases such as ulcers and cardiovascular disease
have been shown to be, or may be due to, a bacterial infection.
are solely due to lifestyle.
are solely due to genetics.
are due to new mutations in bacteria.
have been shown to be, or may be due to, a bacterial infection.
Bacteria
are not found on our bodies.
are only found on small select parts of our bodies.
provide protection to us from disease by covering our bodies, crowding out ‘bad’ invading bacteria.
always cause disease when growing on our bodies.
provide protection to us from disease by covering our bodies, crowding out ‘bad’ invading bacteria.
Bacteria are good models to use because they
are large in size.
share many biochemical/physiological properties with more complicated organisms.
can be assembled into multicellular organisms.
have complicated growth requirements.
share many biochemical/physiological properties with more complicated organisms.
Which is usually true of Archaea?
They are found as rods, spheres, or spirals.
They reproduce by binary fission.
They contain rigid cell walls.
They are found as single cells.
All of the choices are correct.
All of the choices are correct
Some Archaea are commonly found in
meteors.
boiling hot springs.
the Great Salt Lake.
your refrigerator.
boiling hot springs AND the Great Salt Lake.
boiling hot springs AND the Great Salt Lake.
The prokaryotic cell scheme is found in
Bacteria.
Archaea.
Eucarya.
All of the choices are correct.
Bacteria AND Archaea.
Bacteria AND Archaea.
Which group(s) below contain single-celled and multicellular organisms?
algae
fungi
protozoa
All of the choices are correct.
algae AND fungi
algae AND fungi
The system by which organisms are named is referred to as
systematics.
naming.
nomenclature.
cladistics.
nomenclature
Which is/are the correct form(s)?
Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus aureus
staphylococcus aureus
S. aureus
Staphylococcus aureus AND S. aureus
Staphylococcus aureus AND S. aureus
Viroids
are naked (lacking a protein shell) pieces of RNA.
are naked (lacking a protein shell) pieces of DNA.
are known to cause neurodegenerative diseases in animals.
are composed of protein encasing DNA.
are known to cause neurodegenerative diseases in animals AND are composed of protein encasing DNA.
are naked (lacking a protein shell) pieces of RNA.
Viruses may only be grown
in sterile, cell-free chemical growth media.
in living cells.
at body temperature.
in darkness.
in living cells
Viruses
are obligate intracellular parasites.
are single-celled organisms.
consist of only proteins.
are in the Domain Archaea.
are obligate intracellular parasites AND are single-celled organisms.
are obligate intracellular parasites.
Viruses, viroids and prions all
operate intracellularly.
may be considered acellular agents of disease.
contain DNA.
infect only animals.
operate intracellularly AND may be considered acellular agents of disease.
operate intracellularly AND may be considered acellular agents of disease.
Prions
are only composed of RNA.
are only composed of DNA.
are only composed of protein.
cause diseases in plants.
are only composed of RNA AND cause diseases in plants.
are composed only of protein
Viruses, viroids, and prions are obligate intracellular agents.
True
False
true
Spontaneous generation referred to the idea that organisms came from other organisms.
True
False
false
Bacteria and Eucarya both contain membrane-bound organelles.
True
False
false
Viroids are naked (lacking a protein shell) pieces of DNA that infect plants.
True
False
false
Viruses, viroids, and prions are obligate intracellular agents.
True
False
true
The size of an organism determines its domain.
True
False
false
Thiomargarita namibiensis could not be a eukaryote because it is only 1mm in width.
True
False
false
An illness outbreak occurs in New York City birds in the late 1990s. After a lengthy scientific investigation, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) determine that the agent causing the birds to die is the West Nile virus. Outbreaks of this illness have been observed in several other countries in Asia and the Middle East across the last 50 years, but not in the United States. With this information, what would be the best categorization of this infectious agent/disease?
This is clearly a reemerging infection. It’s been around for a long time, and it is reappearing in a susceptible population again.
This is clearly a nosocomial infection. It’s transmitted from animals to human beings in urban environments.
This is clearly an emerging infection. It hasn’t been around that long, and it has made a jump across continents into a new susceptible population.
This is clearly not a concern to human beings-maybe it’s emerging in animals, maybe it’s reemerging, maybe it’s nosocomial. But who cares? It’s only in birds.
This is clearly an emerging infection. It hasn’t been around that long, and it has made a jump across continents into a new susceptible population.
A microbiologist obtained two pure isolated biological samples: one of a virus, and one of a viroid. The labels came off during a move from one lab to the next, however. The scientist felt she could distinguish between the two samples by analyzing for the presence of a single type of molecule. What type of molecule would she be looking for to differentiate between the two?
DNA
→ protein
lipids
RNA
protein
A scientist discovers a new species near coral reefs in Australia. On basic microscopic examination and after conducting a few simple experiments, he finds that this single-celled species is photosynthetic (using sunlight for energy), has a rigid cell wall structure with no peptidoglycan, uses a flagellum for motion, and contains a variety of internal structures that are bound by plasma membranes. Given this information, this new species is most likely a ______ cell in the _____ subcategory.
bacterial; eubacterial
eukaryotic; fungus
archaebacterial; fungus
eukaryotic; algae
eukaryotic; protozoan
eukaryotic; algae
The structures present in the hay infusions used in experiments on Spontaneous Generation that made them difficult to sterilize are
chlorophyll.
endospores.
toxins.
organelles.
endospores
If while investigating Spontaneous Generation, Pasteur had his laboratory located in a stable
the results would, most likely, have not supported the idea of spontaneous generation.
the results would, most likely, have supported the idea of spontaneous generation.
this would have shown his love of horses.
this would have had no effect on his results.
the results would, most likely, have supported the idea of spontaneous generation.
Bacteria have been used to help produce or modify food products
since the late 1800s.
since the 1950s.
since the middle ages.
for several thousand years.
for several thousand years
Bioremediation refers to
vaccine development.
rehabilitating wayward bacteria.
using bacteria to clean up pollutants.
monitoring newly discovered disease organisms.
using bacteria to clean up pollutants.
Smallpox
aided European domination of New World Nations.
has not occurred naturally anywhere in the world since 1977.
has potential as a weapon of bioterrorism.
has killed millions of people.
All of the choices are correct
All of the choices are correct
Bacteria are present on the body
constantly.
only during disease-causing infections.
never.
only in certain restricted areas.
constantly
The cell types which lack a membrane bound nucleus are found in the
archaea.
prokaryotes AND archaea.
prokaryotes.
eukaryotes.
protista.
prokaryotes AND archaea.
Organisms
have never shared genes between domains.
probably do not have a common ancestor.
may be classified in three domains, probably do not have a common ancestor AND have never shared genes between domains.
may be classified in four domains.
may be classified in three domains.
may be classified in three domains.
Outside a cell, viruses are
constructing a cell membrane known as an envelope.
inactive.
synthesizing proteins necessary for entry into the host.
running a small number of biochemical reactions.
running a small number of biochemical reactions AND synthesizing proteins necessary for entry into the host.
inactive
Viruses are in the group
Viridaeae.
Eukarya.
Archaea.
Bacteria.
None of the choices is correct.
None of the choices are correct
Viruses are often referred to as
archaebacteria.
eubacteria.
infectious agents.
cellular agents.
infectious agents
Although it is said that the twentieth century was the Age of Physics, it is predicted that the twenty-first century will be the age of
mathematics.
computers.
chemistry.
microbial biodiversity.
microbial biodiversity
The human body only contains bacteria during illness.
True
False
False
Viruses simultaneously contain DNA, RNA and protein.
True
False
false
Archaea are very similar to Bacteria and have rigid cell walls made of peptidoglycan.
True
False
false
HIV/AIDS can be categorized as a new or emerging infectious disease. By putting it into this category, we are effectively saying that
the disease has always been in susceptible populations and causing disease, but we lacked the technology to detect it.
this disease has been in susceptible populations for centuries, but has only recently achieved infection levels that became detectable.
this infection hasn’t been observed in the human population prior to recent (approximately 50 years or sooner) outbreaks.
the infectious agent is still evolving and changing, unlike with older, more established diseases such as plague or polio.
this infection hasn’t been observed in the human population prior to recent (approximately 50 years or sooner) outbreaks.
Why are we concerned at all with monitoring emerging/reemerging diseases?
All of the above.
Because the speed of travel has increased greatly. With increased speed of travel, it is far more likely that a serious pathogenic threat from one area of the world can spread rapidly across the globe in a very fast manner. We need to monitor the occurrence of these illnesses to try to protect populations.
These represent growing threats to human health that will require new scientific research and resources to effectively combat.
Because globalization (greater trade and travel between countries) leads to more chances for spread of illnesses into new areas and populations. Monitoring these illnesses will help us to protect people.
All of the above
The property of endospores that led to confusion in the experiments on spontaneous generation is their:
a. small size
b. ability to pass through cork stoppers
c. heat resistance
d. presence in all infusions
e. presence on cotton plugs
C
The “Golden Age of Microbiology” was the time when:
a. microorganisms were first used to make bread
b. microorganisms were first used to make cheese
c. most pathogenic bacteria were identified
d. a vaccine against influenza was developed
e. antibiotics became available
C
Microorganisms play a role in:
a. disease
b. biodegradation
c. cheese production
d. nitrogen recycling
e. all of the above
E
Which disease was once thought to be due to stress but is now known to be caused by a bacterium:
a. smallpox
b. peptic ulcers
c. AIDS
d. plague
e. influenza
B
The prokaryotic members of the microbial world include:
1. algae
2. fungi
3. prions
4. bacteria
5. archaea

A) 1 & 2
B) 2 &3
C) 3 & 4
D) 4 & 5
E) 1 & 5

D
The Archaea:
1. are microscopic
2. are commonly found in extreme environments
3. contain peptidoglycan
4. contain mitochondria
5. are most commonly found in the soil

A) 1 & 2
B) 2 & 3
C) 3 & 4
D) 4 & 5
E) 1 & 5

A
Prokaryotes typically do not have:
a. cell walls
b. flagella
c. a nuclear membrane
d. specific shapes
e. genetic information
C
Nucleoids are associated with:
1. genetic information
2. prokaryotes
3. eukaryotes
4. viruses
5. prions

A) 1 & 2
B) 2 & 3
C) 3 & 4
D) 4 & 5
E) 1 & 5

A
Viruses:
1. contain both protein and nucleic acid
2. infect all domains of life
3. can grow in absence of living cells
4. are generally the same size as prokaryotes
5. always kill the cells they infect

A) 1 & 2
B) 2 & 3
C) 3 & 4
D) 4 & 5
E) 1 & 5

A
Antony van Leeuwenhoek could not have observed:
a. roundworms
b. E. coli
c. yeasts
d. viruses
D