MGMT 3611 Chapter 6

Schwartz’s Value Theory
values are motivational in that they represent broad goals that apply across context and time.

10 broad values that guide behavior
1- power
2- achievement
3- hedonism
4- stimulation
5- self-direction
6- universalism
7- benevolence
8- tradition
9- conformity
10- security

power
schwartz’s value theory
social status and prestige, control or dominance over people and resources (social power, authority, wealth)
achievement
schwartz’s value theory
personal success through demonstrating competence according to social standards (successful, capable, ambitious, influential)
hedonism
schwartz’s value theory
pleasure and sensuous gratification for oneself (pleasure, enjoying life)
stimulation
schwartz’s value theory
excitement, novelty, and challenge in life (daring, a varied, an exciting life)
self-direction
schwartz’s value theory
independent thought and action choosing, creating, exploring (creavity, freedom, independent, curious, choosing own goals)
universalism
schwartz’s value theory
understanding, appreciation, tolerance, and protection of the welfare of all people and of nature (broadminded, wisdom, social justice, equality, a world at peace, a world of beauty, unity with nature, protecting the environment)
benevolence
schwartz’s value theory
preservation and enhancement of the welfare of people with whom one is in frequent personal contact (helpful, honest, forgiving, loyal, responsible)
tradition
schwartz’s value theory
respect, commitment, and acceptance of the customs and ideas that traditional culture or religion provides the self (humble, accepting my portion in life, devout, respect for tradition, moderate)
conformity
schwartz’s value theory
restraint of actions, inclinations, and impulses likely to upset or harm others and violate social expectations or norms
(politeness, obedient, self-discipline, honoring parents and elders)
security
schwartz’s value theory
safety, harmony, and stability or society, of relationships, and of self (family, security, national, security, social order, clean, reciprocation of favors)
intrapersonal, interpersonal, and individual-organization value conflict
value conflicts related to attitudes, job satisfaction, turnover, performance, and counterproductive behavior
intrapersonal value conflict
from inside the person
interpersonal value conflict
between people
individual-organization value conflict
between the person and the organization
value similarity
____ ______ relates to the degree of consensus among family members about family valus
value congruence
____ _____ involves the amount of value agreement between employee and employer
attitude
learned predisposition toward a given object
affective component
the feelings or emotions one has about an object or situation
cognitive component
the beliefs or ideas one has about an object or situation
behavioral component
how one intends to act or behave toward someone or something
cognitive dissonance
psychological discomfort experienced when attitudes and behavior are inconsistent
methods to reduce cognitive dissonance
1-change your attitude or behavior, or both
2-belittle the importance of inconsistent behavior
3-find consonant elements that outweigh dissonant ones
factors of middle-age attitude stability
1-greater personal certainty
2-perceived abundance of knowledge
3-a need for strong attitudes
Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior
shows three separate but interacting determinants of one’s intention to exhibit a specific behavior
attitude towards behavior
Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior

refers to the degree to which a person has a favorable or unfavorable evaluation or appraisal of the behavior in question

subjective norm
Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior

refers to the perceived social pressure to perform or not to perform the behavior

perceived behavior control
Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior

refers to the perceived ease or difficulty of performing the behavior and it is assumed to reflect past experience as well as anticipated impediments and obstacles

organizational commitment
extent to which an individual identifies with an organization and its goals
components of organizational commitment
1- affective commitment
2- normative commitment
3- continuance commitment
affective commitment
refers to the employee’s emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in the organization

employees continue employment because they WANT to

continuance commitment
refers to an awareness of the costs associated with leaving the organization

employees continues employment because they NEED to

normative commitment
reflects a feeling of obligation to continue employment

employees continue employment because they feel they OUGHT to

psychological contracts
an individual’s perception about the terms and conditions of a reciprocal exchange with another party
employee engagement
extent to which employees give it their all at work

includes feelings of urgency, being focused, intensity, and enthusiasm

job satisfaction
An affective or emotional response to one’s job
met expectations
the extent to which one receives what he or she expects from a job
value attainment
the extent to which a job allows fulfillment of one’s work values
organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs)
employee behaviors that exceed work-role requirements
counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs)
types of behavior that harm employees and the organization as a whole
withdrawal cognitions
overall thoughts and feelings about quitting a job