MGMT 310 Final

Individuals have the tendency to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually. Which of the following concepts relates most closely to this behavior?
social loafing
A low-to-moderate level of task conflict consistently has a positive effect on group performance. What is the reason for this?
It stimulates discussion of ideas that help groups be more innovative
Behavior patterns expected of someone occupying a given position in a social unit is called a ________.
role
Asch’s experiment, which used lines of varying lengths to test group behavior, has shown the existence of ________.
workplace conformity
Research on conformity suggests that ________.
conformity is a culture-bound behavior
Which of the following is true about social loafing?
It is common in cultures that are dominated by self-interest
A social network structure refers to ________.
the informal connections among individuals within groups
In which stage of group development does the group focus its attention on wrapping up activities instead of task performance?
adjourning
The acceptable standards or expectations that are shared by a group’s members are referred to as ________.
norms
Leadership is very important to effective teams. In most cases, effective team leaders act as ________.
facilitators
Which of the following is a benefit of global teams
Global teams usually have a greater diversity of ideas.
An organization brings together members from various departments such as marketing, accounting, human resources, and finance to form a team. This is an example of a ________ team.
cross-functional
The ________ stage of the group development process is one in which close relationships develop and the group becomes cohesive.
norming
Which of the following countries is most likely to assign status based on accomplishments rather than on titles and family history?
Australia
In comparison to large groups, small groups ________.
are faster at completing tasks
________ conflict relates to the content and goals of the work.
Task
________ interact primarily to share information and to make decisions to help each member do his or her job more efficiently and effectively.
Work groups
Which of the following suggestions will help reduce the effect of social loafing in groups?
clearly identify individual responsibilities
Which of the following stages in group development involves defining the group’s structure and leadership?
forming
An incentive system which appropriately recognizes team activities is an example of which of the following characteristics of effective teams?
internal support
The influence of models depends on how well an individual remembers the model’s behavior. This refers to the individual’s ________.
retention process
________ is the tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors such as ability or effort while putting the blame for personal failure on external factors such as luck
Self-serving bias
Which component of attitude is reflected in the sentence “This is the best way to reach the place”?
cognitive
A manager makes decisions very quickly and requires little information for making the decisions. Which of the following is a likely reason for this?
The manager is high in risk-taking.
A person who believes that what happens to him is due to luck or chance is said to have a(n) ________.
external locus of control
Which of the following is true for organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)?
OCB is discretionary behavior which promotes the effective functioning of the organization.
In the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), “sensing” personality types are those who ________.
have a high need for closure and show patience with routine details
________ is a personality trait that measures an individual’s ability to adjust his or her behavior according to external situational factors.
Self-monitoring
According to research, employees who have a high internal locus of control ________.
exhibit more satisfaction with their jobs than externals
The study of group behavior includes the study of ________.
norms, roles, and leadership
By using ________, we form a general impression about a person based on only a single characteristic, such as intelligence or appearance.
the halo effect
Which of the following is true of a person who believes that “the ends justify the means”?
He is likely to be high in Machiavellianism.
When someone chooses to act in a certain way, she is demonstrating the ________ component of her attitude.
behavioral
The degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization is the employee’s ________.
organizational commitment
The regular use of ________ can alert managers to potential problems and employees’ intentions early enough to do something about them.
attitude surveys
If you believe that you control your own destiny, which of the following personality traits are you likely to possess?
internal locus of control
Which of the following is associated with the study of individuals?
perception
________ behavior is voluntary or learned behavior.
Operant
Individual behavior in organizations inlcudes ________.
attitudes, learning, and motivation
Which of the following is true for Gen Y workers?
They are knowledgeable and willing workers, but do not compromise on their personal lives.
The ________ communication system within an organization permits employees to satisfy their need for social interaction with their peers.
informal
George prepares a memorandum explaining the objectives of a newly created work team that he is expected to manage, and makes sure it reaches each team member. He is involved in ________.
organizational communication
Which of the following describes the number of different messages that can be transmitted using a particular method of communication?
breadth potential
________ communication keeps managers aware of how employees feel about their jobs, their coworkers, and the organization in general.
Upward
An organization’s grapevine works as ________.
a filter and a feedback mechanism for managers
CISCO’s Unified Personal Communicator allows fast and easy access to voice, video, instant messaging, web conferencing, voicemail, and presence capabilities through a single, multimedia interface on your PC or Mac. Which of the following aspects of communication problems does this personal communicator address?
time-space constraint
Because rumors that flow along the grapevine can never be eliminated entirely, managers can minimize the negative consequences of rumors by ________.
communicating openly and honestly with employees
Which of the following is a disadvantage of using IT in organizational communication?
psychological costs
In a ________ communication network, all communication passes through a clearly identifiable leader to the others in a team and upward from team members to the leader.
wheel
Which of the following management styles will most likely encourage upward communication?
participative
In which of the following cases has communication occurred?
Ana tells her manager that she needs a new computer, but he says that the company can’t afford it.
lec is hired as a senior analyst at Tech Research Institute and is assigned to a project with four other researchers. He soon realizes that two of his team mates do not see eye-to-eye on many issues. Far from being solved, the situation escalates over the next couple of months. This bothers Alec a great deal because he is expected to coordinate his work with them. He decides to speak to his manager about the problem and seek his advise. In this example, communication is being used ________.
to control
Jargon is ________.
specialized terminology that members of a group use to communicate among themselves
When an organization has an interest in increasing the efficiency and speed of communication between managers at different levels and in different departments, then ________.
diagonal communication should be used
When a manager asks an employee to complete a task, he or she is using ________ communication.
formal
Which of the following is true for active listeners?
They should not interrupt the speaker, but should feel free to ask questions about the topic.
Which of the following methods of communication should be used when the sender requires quick and accurate feedback?
face-to-face
In the all-channel network, communication flows ________.
freely among all members of a formal work team
Though IT has improved organizational communications in recent years, ________ remains a major concern.
security
Which of the following is true of nonverbal communication?
It carries greater impact than verbal communication.
________ refers to the degree of control employees have over their work.
Job depth
In the context of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, when a company has a space where employees can meet during breaks and catch up with each other, the company is taking care of the employees’ ________ needs.
social
________ refers to the vertical expansion of a job by adding planning and evaluating responsibilities.
Job enrichment
________ theory says that behavior is a function of its consequences.
Reinforcement
Which of the following are the three needs identified in the three-needs theory of motivation?
need for achievement, need for power, need for affiliation
According to the three-needs theory, the need for ________ is the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships.
affiliation
According to Herzberg’s two-factor theory, which of the following is a motivator?
responsibility
“In jobs today, employees rely more and more on those around them for information, advice, and assistance.” Which of the following approaches to job design best reflects this statement?
the relational perspective of work design
In the job characteristics model, ________ refers to the degree to which a job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work.
task identity
Frederick Herzberg’s two-factor theory proposes that ________.
extrinsic factors are associated with job dissatisfaction
In the expectancy theory, ________ is the degree to which the individual believes that performing at a particular level is instrumental in attaining the desired outcome
performance-reward linkage
________ and his associates proposed the three-needs theory.
David McClelland
Jacob is Project Manager at a large software services company. In a bid to maximize his team’s productivity, Jacob decides to follow the goal-setting theory. In line with the principles of the theory, he sets specific, difficult goals for all of his team members and ensures that they understand and accept the new standards. Which of the following facts, if true would support Jacob’s strategy?
Jacob’s company operates exclusively in the United States and has a policy of hiring from the local communities to ensure sensitivity to customer needs.
According to the JCM, which three job characteristics are crucial to an employee experiencing meaningfulness of his or her work?
skill variety, task identity, and task significance
McGregor’s Theory Y assumes that employees ________.
enjoy work
In the context of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, when a company names an “Employee of the Month” and “Employee of the Quarter”, the company is addressing employees’ ________ needs.
esteem
According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, when an employer provides his employees health insurance, he is taking care of their ________ needs.
safety
Jacob is Project Manager at a large software services company. In a bid to maximize his team’s productivity, Jacob decides to follow the goal-setting theory. In line with the principles of the theory, he sets specific, difficult goals for all of his team members and ensures that they understand and accept the new standards. Which of the following facts, if true would undermine Jacob’s strategy?
Jacob’s team handles development projects that are critical to the company and is comprised largely of carefully selected high-achievers who excel at their work.
The hierarchy of needs theory of motivation was proposed by ________, a psychologist who proposed that within every person is a hierarchy of five needs.
Abraham Maslow
According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, ________ needs are predominantly satisfied externally while ________ needs are satisfied internally.
safety; self-actualization
When a young child emulates a professional sports star’s behavior, what kind of power does the star have over the child?
referent
Tim Waverly heads the financial analysis team at ABC Corp. and has done so for the last eight years. In all his years as a manager, he has come to realize one aspect about leading people-a supportive leadership style brings out the best in people and in work. Which of the following statements, if true, would weaken Tim’s argument that a supportive leadership style is highly effective
Tim’s subordinates are unclear about their roles within the team.
According to the Ohio State studies, the ________ dimension of leader behavior is defined as the extent to which a leader has job relationships characterized by mutual trust and respect for group members’ ideas and feelings.
consideration
This managerial grid used the behavioral dimensions “concern for people” and ________ and evaluated a leader’s use of these behaviors, ranking them on a scale from 1 (low) to 9 (high).
“concern for production”
One general conclusion that surfaces from leadership research is that ________.
effective leaders do not use any single style
When Alan Jackman got promoted as the head of the sales team at Mac Software Inc., he chose three of his closest friends in the team to form the core sales group with him. Which of the following predictions would be consistent with the LMX theory?
There will be a higher turnover among team members who are not a part of the core group.
Which of the following describes the leadership style in which a leader tends to centralize authority, dictate work methods, make unilateral decisions, and limit employee participation?
autocratic style
At Falcons Inc., Jeremy is the head of the marketing department. However, he is not in the habit of deciding everything on his own. He involves his team in the decision-making process as much as possible. He believes in communicating clearly and is always ready to help his team to get the best out of them. Jeremy’s leadership style will be classified as which of the following?
participating
Max considers himself to be a democratic leader-he involves his subordinates in decision making, delegates authority, and encourages participation. However, his employees do not feel empowered at all. Which of the following, if true, could explain the apparent discrepancy above?
They feel that his decisions are actually premeditated although he parades them as the result of group consensus.
Theodore Roosevelt once said “The best executive is the one who has sense enough to pick good men to do what he wants done, and self-restraint to keep from meddling with them while they do it.” Which of the following, if true, would be consistent with this approach?
The subordinates are experienced and independent.
According to the Ohio State studies, which of the following dimensions of leader behavior refers to the extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and the roles of group members in the search for goal attainment?
initiating structure
Which of the following leadership styles describes a leader who provides both directive and supportive behavior?
selling
The ________ model proposed that effective group performance depended upon the proper match between the leader’s style of interacting with his or her followers and the degree to which the situation allowed the leader to control and influence.
Fiedler contingency
According to the path-goal theory, a manager who consults with subordinates and uses their suggestions exhibits what type of leadership behavior?
participative
Research by Fiedler uncovered three contingency dimensions that define the key ________.
situational factors for determining leader effectiveness
The University of Iowa studies discussed all of the following leadership styles except ________.
accommodating
________ leadership is the ability to create and articulate a realistic, credible, and attractive vision of the future for an organization that improves on the present.
Visionary
The ________ theory is a contingency theory that focuses on followers’ readiness.
situational leadership
All of the following are sources of leader power EXCEPT ________.
status
Your firm’s attorney has ________ power when giving legal advice.
expert