Mexican American war

When was the Mexican-American War
April 25th 1846 – Febuary 2nd 1848
What were the deaths on each side as a consenquence of the Mexican American War?
About 25,000 Mexicans died (some from disease) and about 13,000 Americans died.
Who won the Mexican American war?
The Americans delcare victory.
What was the original dispute of the Mexican American war?
The Mexicans wanted the Nueces River to be the boundary of Texas, but hte US wanted the Rio Grande to be the boundary.
What was the treaty name that Mexico had to sign with the US as an outcome of the Mexican American war? When?
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in early 1848.
What did the Treaty that Mexico signed with the US after the Mexican American War state?
That the US got the Mexican Cession and the disputed territory of Texas and in return paid Mexico $15 million.
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How much did the Mexicans and Americans gain or lose of their land as a result of the Mexican American War?
The US increased its land by 25%. Mexico lost half of its territory.
What was the Mexican Cession?
It was the land of California, Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and parts of Colorado and Wyoming.
What is so interesting about the loss of Mexico and the US?
Before, the US offered Mexico $30 Million for the disputed territory, but later through the war, get the Mexican Cession and disputed territory for only $15 Million.
What did President Polk desire? Details. What was he determined to do to get them and why did he believe he could? What happened?
He desired New Mexico and California. He was determined to have them both, by purchase it possible, or by force if necessary. He believe he could get them since they were first colonized by Spain and it became Mexican territory when Mexico won its independance in 1821. They were both thinly settled and the Mexican government long neglected them. He sent an official to Mexico to try to buy it, but they refused to even see him.
When did the relationship between the US and Mexico become “sour”? Why? Also, what else made matters even worse?
When Congress voted to annex Texas. It turned “sour” since to Mexico, it was an act of war. Also, Texas and Mexico couldn’t decide on a border. Texas wanted it to be the Rio Grande, but Mexico wnated it to be the Nueces River, about 150 miles northeast of the Rio Grande.
What allowed for the US to declare war on Mexico? When?
On April 25, 1846, Mexican soldiers fired American troops who were patroling. 16 americans were killed or wounded.
How did President Polk view the war?
Polk declared that Mexico “has invaded our territory and shed American blood on American soil.”
How did the Mexican President view the war? Who was he?
Mexican president Mariano Paredes delcated that a greedy people “have thrown themselves on our territory…The time has come to fight.”
Describe the Fall of New Mexico.
General Stephen Kearny led the Army of the West out of Kansas. his orders were to occupy New Mexico and continue west to California. The Mexican opposition melted away in front of Kearny’s army. They took over without even firing a single shot.
Describe the Fall of California.
A group of Americans led by the explorer John C. Frémon launched a rebellion against Mexican rule in California. They then arrested and jailed Gerneral Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, the commander of Northern California. After, they raised a flag and declared California as the Bear Flag Republic. Then Kearny reached California and joined forces with the rebels and California become under American control shortly after.
Who led the American troops for the conquest of Mexico? What type of general is he?
Zachary Taylor. He was a no-nonsence general.
Describe the invastion of Northern Mexico. Include details. (when, who, how many, where)
After 6,000 troops took the Mexican city of Monterrey, they were met with Gerneral Santa Anna with an army of 20,000 troops. In Febuary 1847, the two forces met near a ranch called Buena Vista. After two days of hard fighting, both armies were cut to pieces. Because Santa Anna didn’t want to lose his remaining forces, he retreated south. The war in Northern Mexico was over.
Describe the invasion of Southern Mexico/the Capital.
A month after getging Northern Mexico, Gerneral Winfield Scott and his troops landed at Veracruz in Southern Mexico. There, they fought for the next six months to the capital. Finally in September 1847, Scott’s army captured Mexico City.
Describe the resistance that Scott and his troops were met with outside Mexico’s capital. (name)
They met fierce resistance at the castle of Chapultepec. There were about 1,000 mexican soldiers and 100 young military cadets. 6 cadets chose to die fighting than to surrender and today, are known as Los Niños Héroes
Describe the views on the treaty between the Mexico and US from the Mexican American war.
Some senators opposed the treaty because they argued that the US had no right to any Mexican territory other than Texas. They thought the war unjust and the treaty even more so. They said that New Mexicao and CA were
“now worth a dollar” and should be returned to MX. Others opposed because they wanted more land. They wanted a large part of northern MX as well. But most agree. MX cession= Manifest dream come true.
By how many votes did the senate ratify the treaty between MX and US by?
a vote of 38 to 14
What purchase was made from the US and MX after the war? Describe it. (who, when, why)
It was the Gadsden Purchase. In 1853, James Gadsden arranged the purchase of a strip of land just south of the Mexican Cesion for $10 Million. Railroad builders wanted this because it was flat and would be a good railroad route.
Define Manifest Destiny.
God’s plan for the U.S. to expand. (westward expansion)
Why should the US expand westward?
Manifest destiny, also more land for farming, industry, jobs, opportunity; Financial problems (panic of 1837) caused unemployment. People wanted ot go west to get more land to farm/grow food(money); If we could control CA we could control/ us pacific ocean(trade w/ Russia Japan China=easier); national security(worried England (control Canada)=attack(more land=more areas for it to attack)
How did the US recieve the 13 Colonies? (who, when, how)
Native Americans, 1763, Proclamation of 1763(ended french and indian war)
How did the US recieve land from Appalachian Mountains to Mississsippi R.(who, when, how)
Britian, 1783,Treaty of Paris which ended the Revolutionary war.
How did the US recieve Louisiana Territory(Mississippi R. to Rocky Mtns.)(who, when, how,name)
France, 1803, US bought it from Franch for $15 million. Lousiana Purchase
How did the US recieve Florida(who, when, how)
Spain, 1819, Jackson occupied Florida. Spain demanded he give an appology. Instead the US said “govern or get out”. We then bought it for $5 million.
How did the US recieve the Texas Annexation(who, when, how,name)
Republic of Texas, 1845, Texas rebeled and won their independance(1836) from Mexico. It then joined the US. (annexed). Had been an independant country for a year. (Annexation of Texas)
How did the US recieve the Oregon Cession (Oregon, Washington, Idaho(who, when, how,why wanted)
Britain, 1846, Us demanded wanted Oregon. Since neither side wanted war, Britain and the US agreed to sigh a treaty in 1840 that gave the US oregon land south of the 49th parallel.(spain and russia also claimed but dropped). Wanted port acess.
Define to Annex
to claim land
Define Cede
To give up
Define Civil Disobedience
Peaceful resistance, Non-violent rebel, breaking the law peacefully
Who was Henry David Thoreau? What did he write?
He was a famous author from Mass. He refused to pay taxes that would have been used to pay for the Mexican American war, so he was thrown in jail. Eventually, a friend paid them for him adn was was released. He then wrote an essay titled “civil Disobedience”
Why is Thoreau critical of people who follow laws? What is his worry?
He says that laws themselves never make people do what is right. That even good people can end up doing bad things if they follow rules without thinking. He says that by blindly following the law, they lose their concience and inviduality.
What is Thoreau saying as a concluding thought?
Voting is important, but it is not enough. You shouldn’t leave it up to change.( to the person you elevt). You should be the change. Also, majority may be wrong. You can’t just talk the talk, you need to walk the walk as welll
What is Thoreau saying about the North and South?
There are many politicians in the south but 100,000 more in the north. The north claims antislavery but won’t carry out because they are more interested in money. They need the slaves to get the money.
Why did some people believe the US was justified in going into the Mexican American War?
Texas belongs to the US, so its our duty to protect it, even if it means war~John H Lumpkin
If MX controlled this area of land, shouldn’t they have built a military base? They didn’t so it shows this land is not theirs~Sam Houston
Why did some people believe the US was not justified in going into the war?
“To wish, To wait and to act” is the US. They are ambitious and ruthless,stopping at nothing to get what they want.~Jose Maria Tornol y Mendivil
The treaty of 1812 US gets FL and ack. Texas-Spains(transfered to MX) so we don’t own this land. We have no authority.~Abraham Lincoln
What did some people see they would gain from the war?
Another slave state. So can own slaves in peace. More power in Congress.
What did some people see that they would lose from the war?
Mexicans would lose all that they have worked so hard for. Ex: General Mariano Vallejo loses all 175,000 land.
When was polk elected?
1845
How did Polk first take action for the disputed territory?
Ordered troops to enter the land in feb. 1846. He wanted them to build forts in this area. He then sent a representative to MX to buy the territory for $20-$30 M. The mexicans were insulted and refused.
How did we obtain the land west of the Rockies(including texas)? General overview
1803, all of the land was controlled by spain. By 1820, it was controlled by MX since they won their independence. In 1846, US claimed it was American.
At first, how were the chinese recieved? How many ventured across the pacific? (a date)
At first they were recieved like guest and greeted with favor. By 1852, more than 20,000 had ventured across the pacific ocean. That year, one of 10 were chinese.
What happened to the Chinese as gold mining was more difficult? Did they leave?
In 1852, the state legislature passed a law requiring all foreign miners to pay a monthly fee for license to mine. As the tax collecters came, many left. But the Chinese stayed. They paid the tax.
What hardships did the Chinese face when they choose to stay instead of leaving?
The Americans tried to bully them to leave by hacking their braids off or beating or burning them.
What was the solution that the Chinese did when they faced the hardships?
They left the mines to open resaurants and laundries and stores in CA growing cities. (the best eating houses in San Francisco, one miner wrote, were those opened by the chinese). Many settled in San Fran, that the newspaper called their neighborhood Chinatown.
Others put their farming skills to work in CA fertile Central Valley.
Today, what legacy did the Chinese leave behind?
Chinatown still remains the oldest and largest Chinese community in the US. The Chinese not only helped build the West, but they smade it a more interesting place to live. Where very they settled, they brought with them the arts, tastes, scents, and sounds of one of the world’s oldest and riches cultures.
What happen to Most of the Chinese immigrants?
Many who came to CA in search of gold hoped to return to China as righ men. Only a few did. Most stayed in America. Their hard work, enery, and skills greatly benefited CA and other western states. One observed writer in 1876 wrote that “in mining, farming, in factories and in labor generally of CA, the employment of the Chinese has been found most desirable.”
What was the greatest legacy of the pioneer women?
Nowhere in the US did women enjoy the freedom and sense of equality of western pioneers.