Medical Terminology Systems Chapter 14 Endocrine System

antagonistic
acting in opposition; mutually oposing
electrolyte
mineral salt (sodium, potassium, and calcium) that carries an electrical charge in solution
(proper balance of this is essential to the normal functioning of the entire body)
glucagon
hormone produced by pancreatic alpha cells that stimulates the liver to change stored glycogen (a starch form of sugar) to glucose
(__ opposes the action of insulin. It is used to reverse hypoglycemic reactions in insulin shock)
glucose
simple sugar that is the end product of carbohydrate digestion
(found in many foods, especially fruits, and is a major source of energy for living organisms. Analysis of blood glucose levels is an important diagnostic test in diabetes and other disorders)
insulin
hormone produced by pancreatic beta cells that allows body cells to use glucose for energy or store it in the liver as glycogen
sympathomimetic
agent that mimics the effects of the sympathetic nervous system
(epinephrine and norepinephrine are __ hormones because they produce effects that mimic those brought about by the sympathetic nervous system)
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adren/o adrenal/o
adrenal glands (combining forms) (2 spellings)
adrenomegaly
enlargement of adrenal glands
adrenalectomy
excision of (one or both) adrenal glands
calc/o
calcium (combining form)
hypercalcemia
excessive calcium in the blood
-emia
blood condition (suffix)
crin/o
secrete (combining form)
endocrineology
study of endocrine glands (and their functions)
endo-
in, within (prefix)
gluc/o glyc/o glycos/o
sugar, sweetness (combining forms) (3 spellings)
glucogenesis
forming or producing glucose
-gen -genesis
forming, producing, origin (suffix) (2 spellings)
hypoglycemia
abnormally low level of glucose in the blood
glycosuria
abnormal amount of glucose in the urine
home/o
same, alike (combining form)
homeostasis
state of equilibrium in the internal environment of the body
-stasis
standing still (suffix)
kal/i
potassium (an electrolyte) (combining form)
kalemia
potassium in the blood
pancreat/o
pancreas (combining form)
pancreatotomy
incision of the pancreas
parathyroid/o
parathyroid glands (combining form)
parathyroidectomy
excision of (one or more of the) parathyroid glands
thym/o
thymus gland (combining form)
thymoma
tumor of the thymus gland
thyr/o thyroid/o
thyroid gland (combining forms) (2 spellings)
thyromegaly
enlargement of the thyroid gland
-megaly
enlargement (suffix)
hyperthyroidism
condition of excessive thyroid gland (function)
-ism
condition (suffix)
toxic/o
poison (combining form)
toxicologist
specialist in the study of poisons
(also study the effects of toxins and antidotes used for treatment of toxic disorders)
-crine
secrete (suffix)
endocrine
secrete within
-dipsia
thirst (suffix)
polydipsia
excessive thirst
(one of the three “polys” (as well as polyphagia and polyuria) associated with diabetes)
androgen
any steroid hormone that increases masculinization
andr/o
male (combining form)
-toxic
pertaining to poison (suffix)
thyrotoxic
pertaining to poison (associated with) the thyroid gland
-uria
urine (suffix)
glycosuria
glucose in the urine
eu-
good, normal (prefix)
exo-
outside, outward (prefix)
hyper-
excessive, above normal (prefix)
euthyroid
resembling a normal thyroid gland
exocrine
secretes outside (of bloodstream)
hyperglycemia
excessive glucose in the blood
hypo-
under, below (prefix)
hypoinsulinism
condition of deficiency of insulin
poly-
many, much (prefix)
polyuria
excessive urination
glycolysis
destruction of glucose (by enzymes)
pancreatolithectomy
removal of a stone from the pancreas
adipsia
without thirst
thymolysis
destruction of the thymus
adrenalitis
inflammation of the adrenal glands
hypocalcemia
blood condition of below (normal) calcium
pancreatography
process of recording (x-ray) the pancreas
acromegaly
rare hormonal disorder in adulthood, usually caused by a GH-secreting pituitary tumor (adenoma) that promotes the soft tissue and bones of the face, hands, and feet to grow larger than normal
diruresis
increased formation and secretion of urine
glycosuria
abnormal amount of glucose in the urine
Graves disease
multisystem autoimmune disorder characterized by pronounced hyperthyroidism usually associated with enlarged thyroid gland (goiter) and exophthalmos (abnormal protrusion of the eyeball)
hirsutism
excessive distribution of body hair, especially in women
hypercalcemia
condition in which the calcium level in the blood is higher than normal
hyperkalemia
condition in which the potassium level in the blood is higher than normal
hypervolemia
abnormal increase in the volume of blood plasma (liquid part of the blood and lymphatic fluid) in the body
hyponatremia
lower than normal level of sodium in the blood
insulinoma
tumor of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas
obesity
excessive accumulation of fat that exceeds the body’s skeletal and physical standards, usually an increase of 20 percent or more above ideal body weight
morbid obesity
body mass index (BMI) of 40 or greater, which is generally 100 or more pounds over ideal body weight
panhypopituitarism
total pituitary impairment that brings about a progressive and general loss of hormone activity
pheochromocytoma
small chromaffin cell tumor, usually located in the adrenal medulla, causing elevated heart rate and blood
thyroid storm
crisis of uncontrolled hyperthyroidism caused by the release into the bloodstream of an increased amount of thyroid hormone; also called thyroid crisis or thyrotoxic crisis
virilism
masculinization or development of male secondary sex characteristics in a woman
exophthalmometry
measures the degree of forward displacement of the eyeball (exophthalmos) as seen in Graves disease
parathyroidectomy
excision of one or more of the parathyroid glands, usually to control hyperparathyroidism
transsphenoidal hypophysectomy
endoscopic procedure to surgically remove a pituitary tumor through an incision in the sphenoid sinus (transsphenoidal) without disturbing brain tissue
thymectomy
excision of the thymus gland
thyroidectomy
excision of the entire thyroid gland (thyroidectomy), a part of it (subtotal thyroidectony), or a single lobe (thyroid lobectomy)
fasting blood sugar
test that measures glucose levels in a blood sample following a fast of at least 8 hours
glucose tolerance test (GTT)
screening test in which a dose of glucose is administered and blood samples are taken afterward at regular intervals to determine how quickly glucose is cleared from the blood
insulin tolerance test (ITT)
diagnostic test in which insulin is injected into the vein to assess pituitary function, adrenal function, and to determine insulin sensitivity
thyroid function test (TFT)
test that detects an increase or decrease in thyroid function
total calcium test
test that measures calcium to detect bone and parathyroid disorders
computed tomography (CT)
imaging technique that rotates an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measures the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
noninvasive imaging technique that uses radio waves and a strong magnetic field, rather than an x-ray beam, to produce multiplanar cross-sectional images
radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU)
administration of radioactive iodine (RAI) in pill or liquid form is used as a tracer to test how quickly the thyroid gland takes up (uptake) iodine from the blood
thyroid scan
images of the thyroid gland are obtained after oral or intravenous administration of a small dose of radioactive iodine
ACTH
adrenocorticotropic stimulating hormone (abbreviation)
ADH
antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin) (abbreviation)
DI
diabetes insipidus; diagnostic imaging (abbreviation)
DKA
diabetic ketoacidosis (abbreviation)
DM
diabetes mellitus (abbreviation)
FBS
fasting blood sugar (abbreviation)
FSH
follicle-stimulating hormone (abbreviation)
GH
growth hormone (abbreviation)
GTT
glucose tolerance test (abbreviation)
HRT
hormone replacement therapy (abbreviation)
K
potassium (an electrolyte) (abbreviation)
LH
luteinizing hormone (abbreviation)
NPH
neutral protamine Hagedorn (insulin) (abbreviation)
PRL
prolactin (abbreviation)
PGH
pituitary growth hormone (abbreviation)
PTH
parathyroid hormone; also called parathormone (abbreviation)
RAI
radioactive iodine (abbreviation)
RAIU
radioactive iodine uptake (abbreviation)
T3
triiodothyronine (thyroid hormone) (abbreviation)
T4
thyroxine function test (abbreviation)
TFT
thyroid function test (abbreviation)
TSH
thyroid-stimulating hormone (abbreviation)