Medical Terminology Chapter 8

cyst/o
bladder
vesic/o
bladder
glomerul/o
glomerulus
meat/o
opening, meatus
nephr/o
kidney
ren/o
kidney
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pyel/o
renal pelvis
ur/o
urine, urinary tract
urin/o
urine, urinary tract
ureter/o
ureter
urethr/o
urethra
-emia
blood condition
-iasis
abnormal condition (produced by something specific)
-lysis
separation; destruction; loosening
-pathy
disease
-pexy
fixation (of an organ)
-ptosis
prolapse, downward displacement
-tripsy
crushing
-uria
urine
an-
without, not
poly-
many, much
supra-
above; excessive; superior
azoturia
increase of nitrogenous substances, especially urea, in urine
cystocele
bulging of the urinary bladder through the wall of the vagina as a result of weakening of supportive tissue between the bladder and the vagina; also called prolapsed bladder
diuresis
increased formation and secretion of urine
dysuria
painful or difficult urination, typically caused by a urinary tract condition, such as cystitis
edema
abnormal accumulation of fluids in the cells, tissues, or other parts of the body that may be a sign of kidney failure or other disease
end-stage renal disease (ESRD)
kidney disease that has advanced to the point that the kidneys can no longer adequately filter blood and eventually requires dialysis or renal transplantation for survival; also called chronic renal failure (CRF)
enuresis
involuntary discharge of urine after the age at which bladder control should be established; also called night-time-bed-wetting or nocturnal enuresis
hypospadias
abnormal congenital opening of the male urethra on the undersurface of the penis
interstitial nephritis
form of nephritis in which pathological changes in renal interstitial tissue result in destruction of nephrons and severe impairment in renal function
nephrolithiasis
formation of calculi in the kidney that results when substances that are normally dissolved in the urine (such as calcium and acid salts) solidify
renal hypertension
high blood pressure that results from kidney disease
uremia
elevated level of urea and other nitrogenous waste products in the blood; also called azotemia
urinary tract infection (UTI)
infection of the kidneys, ureters, or bladder by microorganisms that either ascend from the urethra or spread to the kidney from the bloodstream
Wilms tumor
malignant neoplasm of the kidney that occurs in young children, usually before age 5, and includes common early signs such as hypertension, a palpable mass, pain, and hematuria
blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
lab test that measures the amount of urea in the blood and demonstrates the kidneys’ ability to filter urea from the blood for excretion in urine
culture & sensitivity (C&S)
lab test that isolates and grows colonies of microorganisms to identify a pathogen and to determine which drugs might be effective for combating an infection
kidneys, ureters, bladder (KUB)
radiographic examination to determine the location, size, shape, and possible malformation of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder
pyelography
radiographic study of the kidneys, ureters, and usually the bladder after injection of a contrast agent
intravenous pyelography (IVP)
radiographic imaging in which a contrast medium is injected intravenously and serial x-ray films are taken to provide visualization of the entire urinary tract
retrograde pyelography (RP)
radiographic imaging in which a contrast medium is introduced through a cytoscope directly into the bladder and ureters to provide detailed visualization of the urinary structures and to locate urinary tract obstruction
renal scan
nuclear medicine imaging procedure that determines renal function and shape through measurement of a radioactive substance injected intravenously that concentrates in the kidney
urinalysis (UA)
physical, chemical, and microscopic analysis of urine
voiding cystourethrography
radiography of the bladder and urethra during the process of voiding urine after filling the bladder with a contrast medium
catheterization
insertion of a catheter into a body cavity or organs to instill a substance or remove fluid, most commonly through the urethra into the bladder to withdraw urine
cytoscopy (cysto)
insertion of a rigid or flexible cytoscope through the urethra to examine the urinary bladder, obtain biopsy specimens of tumors or other growths, and remove polyps
lithotripsy
method of removing stones by crushing them into smaller pieces so that they can be expelled in the urine
extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL)
use of powerful sound wave vibrations to break up stones in the kidney
nephrolithotomy
surgical procedure that involves a small incision in the skin and insertion of an endoscope into the kidney to remove a renal calculus
renal transplantation
organ transplant of a kidney in a patient with end-stage renal disease; also called kidney transplantation
ureteral stent
insertion of a thin tube into the ureter to prevent or treat obstruction of urine flow from the kidney
antibiotics
treat bacterial infections of the urinary tract by acting on the bacterial membrane or one of its metabolic processes
antispasmodics
decrease spasms in the urethra and bladder (caused by UTIs and catheterization) by relaxing the smooth muscles lining their walls, allowing normal emptying of the bladder
diuretics
block reabsorption of sodium by the kidneys, increasing the amount of salt and water excreted in the urine (causes reduction of fluid retained in the body and prevents edema)