Medical Terminology Chapter 2 Terms: The Human Body in Health and Disease

anatomy
the study of the structures of the body
physiology
the study of the functions of the structures of the body
anatomic position
standing up straight so the body is erest and facing forward & holding the arms supine at the sides
vertical plane
up-and-down
midsagittal plane
divides the body into equal left and right halves- midline
sagittal plane
divides the body into unequal left and right halves
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frontal plane/coronal plane
divides the body into anterior and posterior portions
horizontal plane
flat corsswise plane
transverse plane
divides the body into superior and inferior portions
ventral
front
dorsal
back
anterior
front
posterior
back
superior
above
inferior
below
cephalic
head
caudal
tail
proximal
towards the midline
distal
away from the midline
medial
toward the midline
lateral
away from the midline
dorsal cavity
located along the back of the body and hear, contains organs of the nervous system
cranial cavity
within the skill, surrounds and protects the brain
spinal cavity
within the spinal column, sruuounds and protects the spinal cord
ventral cavity
located in front, contains organs that maintain homeostasis
homeostasis
processes through which the body maintains a constant internal environment
thoracic cavity/chest cavity/thorax
surrounds and protects the heart & lungs
diaphragm
separates the thoracic and abdonimal cavities
abdominal cavity
contains organs of digestion
pelvic cavity
space formed by the hip bones, contains organs of the reproductive and excretory systems
abdominopelvic cavity
abdominal cavity + pelvic cavity
inguinal
relating to the groin
hypochondriac
left & right sides under lower ribs
epigastric
above stomach
lumbar
left & right near inward curve of spine
umbilical
surrounds belly button
iliac
left & right over hip bones
hypogastric
below the stomach
peritoneum
multilayered membrane that protects and holds organs in plane within the abdominal cavity
parietal peritoneum
outer layer that lines the interior of the abdominal wall
visceral peritoneum
inner layer that surrounds organs of abdominal cavity
mesentery
fused double layer of the parietal peritoneum that attached parts of the intestine to the interior abdominal wall
retroperitoneal
located behind the peritoneum
peritonitis
inflammation of the peritoneum
cells
the basic structural and functional units of the body
cytology
the study of the anatomy, physiology, pathology and chemistry of the cell
cell membrane
the tissue that surrounds and protects the contents of the cell by separating them from its external environment
cytoplasm
the material within the cell membrane that is not part of the nucleus
nucleus
(1) controls the activities of the cell and (2) helps the cell divide
stem cells
unspecialized cells that are able to renew themselves for long periods of time by cell division. under certain conditions they can be transformed into cells with special functions
adult stem cells/somatic stem cells
undifferentiated cells found among differentiated cells in a tissue or organ
embryonic stem cells
they can form any adult cell. they can proliferate indefinitely in a lab and don’t require an exact match for a transplant. some come from the cord blood in the umbilical cord and placenta, others come from surplus in vitro embryos
gene
fundamental physical & functional unit of heredity
genetics
the study of how genes are transferred from parents to their children and the role of genes in health and disease
dominant gene
offspring WILL inherit that genetic characteristic
recessive gene
offspring will inherit the gene only if BOTH parents have it
sickle cell anemia
group if inherited RBC disorders
chromosomes
the genetic structures located within the nucleus of each cell. they are made up of DNA
somatic cell
any cell in the body except gametes. they contain 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs
sex cell/gamete
each egg or sperm has 23 chromosomes- in females one will be an X and in males they will be X or Y
DNA
contain genes that provide the information essential for heredity
genetic mutation
a change of the sequence of a DNA molecule
somatic cell mutation
cannot be transmitted
gametic cell mutation
can be transmitted
genetic engineering
manipulating or splicing genes for scientific research
genetic disorder/hereditary disorder
pathological condition caused by an absent or defective gene
cystic fibrosis
affects respiratory & digestive systems
down syndrome
characteristic facial appearance, learning disabilities & physical abnormalities- 47 chromosomes
hemophilia
blood coagulation disorder
huntington’s disease
nerve degeneration
muscular dystrophy
progressive weakness & degeneration of skeletal muscles that control movement
phenylketonuria
digestive enzyme is missing
tay-sachs disease
fatty substance build up in tissues & nerve cells in the brain
tissue
a group or layer of similarly specialized cells that join together to perform certain specific functions
histology
the study of the structure, composition and function of tissues
epithelial tissue
form a protective covering for all of the internal and external surfaces of the body
epithelium
specialized epithelial tissue that forms the epidermis of the skin and surface later of mucous membranes
endothelium
specialized epithelial tissue that lines the blood and lymph vessels, body cavities, glands and organs
connective tissues
support and connect organs and other body tissues
muscle tissue
specialized cells to contract and relax
nerve tissue
specialized cells to react to stimuli and conduct electrical impulses
aplasia
defective development of an organ or tissue
hypoplasia
incomplete development of an organ or tissue
-plasia
formation
anaplasia
change in the structure of cells and their orientation to each other
dysplasia
abnormal development or growth of cells, tissues or organs
hyperplasia
enlargement of an organ or tissue because of an abnormal increase in the number of cells in the tissues
hypertrophy
general increase in the bulk of a body part or organ that is due to an increase in size of cells in the tissues
-trophy
development
gland
group of specialized epithelial cells that are capable pf producing secretions
secretion
the substance produced by a gland
exocrine gland
secrete chemical substances into ducts that lead either to other organs or out of the body
endocrine gland
secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream
adenitis
inflammation of a gland
aden/o
gland
adenocarcinoma
malignant tumor that originates in glandular tissue
adenoma
benign tumor that resembles glandular tissue
adenomalacia
abnormal softening of a gland
adenosis
any disease condition of a gland
adenosclerosis
abnormal hardening of a gland
adenectomy
surgical removal of a gland
postmortem
after death
autopsy
postmortem examination
pathogen
disease-producing microorganism
transmission
spread of disease
contamination
a pathogen is possibly present
communicable/contagious disease
condition that is transmitted by contact
indirect contact transmission
situations in which a susceptible person is infected by contact with a contaminated person
bloodborne transmission
spread of disease through contact with body fluids contaminated with blood
airborne transmission
contact with contaminated respiratory droplets
food-borne & waterborne transmission
caused by eating or drinking contaminated food or water
vector-borne transmission
spread due to the bite of a vector (bug)
epidemiologist
specialist in the study of outbreaks of disease within a population group
epidemic
ongoing presence of a disease- sudden widespread outbreak within a specific population
pandemic
outbreak over a large geographic area
functional disorder
produces symptoms for which no physiological or anatomical cause can be found
iatrogenic illness
unfavorable response to prescribed medical treatment
idiopathic disorder
illness without known cause
infectious disease
illness caused by living pathogenic organisms
nosocomial infection
a disease acquired in a hospital or clinical setting
organic disorder
symptoms caused by detectable physical changes in the body
congenital disorder
abnormal condition that exists at the time of birth
developmental disorder/birth defect
can result in an anomaly or malformation
anomaly
deviation from what is regarded as normal
atresia
congenital absence of a normal opening or the failure of a structure to be tubular
prenatal influences
the mother’s health, behavior and prenatal medical care
fetal alcohol syndrome
growth abnormalities, mental retardation, brain damage and social difficulties due to the mother’s alcohol consumption
premature birth
earlier than 37 weeks
birth injuries
congenital disorders that were not present before the events surrounding the time of birth
geriatrics/gerontology
the study of the medical problem and care or the aged
gerontologist/geriatrician
a physician who specialized in the care of older people