Medical Microbiology Study Guide for Unit 1: History and Introduction to Medical Microbiology

Louis Pasteur
His association of particular microbes with certain diseases furthered the establishment of the germ theory.
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Dutch Shopkeeper who looked at pondwater using a simple microscope, observed
Joseph Lister
Lister’s studies further proved to be effective by decreasing surgical wound infections in his surgical wards; father of antiseptic surgery. This man promoted the idea of sterilizing medical equipment before operating
Edward Jenner
In 1796 the British doctor created the smallpox vaccine, from the cowpox virus. (The vaccine helped lay the foundation for science of immunology in the 19th century.)
Robert Koch
Developed 4 postulates that aided in the definitive establishment of the germ theory of disease.
This was the first man to isolate a bacterium and a virus and as a result could create new vaccines for the disease
Ignaz Semmelweis
Attempted to encourage more sanitary procedures by telling doctors to wash their hands. , A Hungarian physician who vindicated Holmes by noticing that that infection seemed to spread by medical students who had working with disease corpses. Once he began requiring students to wash their hands and disinfect their instruments, tne infections virtually dissapeared. 1840s
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Francesco Redi
Experiment refuted the spontaneous generation of maggots in meat
Koch’s Postulates
The specific causative agent must be found in every case of the disease.
The disease organism must be isolated in pure culture.
Inoculation of a sample of the culture into a healthy, susceptible animal must produce the same disease.
The disease organism must be recovered from the inoculated animal.
Koch also developed techniques for isolating organisms, identified the bacillus that causes tuberculosis, developed tuberculin, and studied various diseases in Africa and Asia.
Centers for Disease Control (CDC)
o Control disease outbreaks
o Ensure food/water is safe
o Prevent leading causes of death
o Work globally reduce health threats
Pasteur Institute
o June 1887
o French nonprofit foundation
o Dedicated to study of biology, microorganisms, diseases and vaccines.
National Institute of Health (NIH)
o Seek fundamental knowledge of the behavior of living systems
o Application ensures health, length life, and reduced illness and disabilities.
World Health Organization
o Directing & coordinating authority for health within UN
o Responsible for providing leadership for global health matters
o Shaping health research agenda
o Setting norms & standards
o Articulating evidence
o Policy based options
Microorganisms
Bacteria, algae, fungi, viruses, viroids, prions, and protozoa, all which are too small to see.
Bacteria Locations
All around us, water & soil, air, plants, rocks, animals, surfaces, foods, and our bodies.
Locations where bacteria shouldn’t be found
Blood stream & spinal fluid
Examples of PPE in Med Micro
-Gloves : Gloves help protect you when directly handling potentially infectious materials or contaminated surfaces.

-Gowns: Gowns help protect you from the contamination of clothing with potentially infectious material.

-Shoe and Head Covers : Shoe and head covers provide a barrier against possible exposure within a contaminated environment.

-Masks and Respirators: Surgical masks help protect your nose and mouth from splattered of body fluids, respirators filter the air before you inhale it.

Other Face and Eye Protection: Goggles help protect only your eyes from splatters. A face shield provides splatter protection to facial skin, eyes, nose, and mouth.