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Med-Surg Success a Course Review Applying Critical Thinking

Med-Surg Success A Course Review Applying Critical Thinking to Test Taking Med-Surg Success KATHRYN CADENHEAD COLGROVE RN, MS, CNS, OCN Trinity Valley Community College Kaufman, Texas A Course Review Applying Critical Thinking to Test Taking JUDY CALLICOATT RN, MS, CNS Trinity Valley Community College Kaufman, Texas Consultant: Ray A.Hargrove-Huttel RN, PhD Trinity Valley Community College Kaufman, Texas F.A.

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Davis Company 1915 Arch Street Philadelphia, PA 19103 www. fadavis. com Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis Company Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis Company. All rights reserved. This book is protected by copyright.

No part of it may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher. Printed in the United States of America Last digit indicates print number: 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Publisher, Nursing: Robert G. Martone Content Development Manager: Darlene D. Pedersen Project Editor: Thomas A. Ciavarella Art and Design Manager: Carolyn O’Brien As new scienti? c information becomes available through basic and clinical research, recommended treatments and drug therapies undergo changes.

The author(s) and publisher have done everything possible to make this book accurate, up to date, and in accord with accepted standards at the time of publication. The author(s), editors, and publisher are not responsible for errors or omissions or for consequences from application of the book, and make no warranty, expressed or implied, in regard to the contents of the book. Any practice described in this book should be applied by the reader in accordance with professional standards of care used in regard to the unique circumstances that may apply in each situation.

The reader is advised always to check product information (package inserts) for changes and new information regarding dose and contraindications before administering any drug. Caution is especially urged when using new or infrequently ordered drugs. ISBN 13: 978-0-8036-1576-2 ISBN 10: 0-8036-1576-0 Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the internal or personal use of speci? c clients, is granted by F. A. Davis Company for users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) Transactional Reporting Service, provided that the fee of $. 0 per copy is paid directly to CCC, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923. For those organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged. The fee code for users of the Transactional Reporting Service is: 8036-1576/07 $. 10. Dedication The authors would like to dedicate this book to the Trinity Valley Community College Associate Degree nursing students who graduated in 2005 and 2006. Thank you for giving of your time to pilot the questions and provide us constructive feedback.

We would like to thank Bob Martone for giving us the opportunity to embark on this endeavor. Our appreciation goes to Barbara Tchabovsky for her assistance in editing the book and answering our numerous questions via e-mail, which is a wonderful invention. Our thanks go to Tom Ciavarella for supporting us through the maze of publishing this book. This book would not be possible without the unbelievable computer skills of Glada Norris. —The Authors I would like to dedicate this book to the memory of my mother, Mary Cadenhead, and grandmother, Elsie Rogers.

The Cardiovascular System

They always told me that I could accomplish anything I wanted to accomplish. I would like to dedicate this book to my husband, Larry, daughter Laurie and son-in-law Todd, and son Larry Jr. and daughter-in-law Mai, and grandchildren Chris, Ashley, Justin C. , Justin A. , and Connor. Without their support and patience, the book would not have been possible. —Kathryn Colgrove This book is dedicated to my husband, George; my family, and my friends, who love and support me. Many thanks are given to the students who teach me and inspire me by persevering through the difficulties of nursing school.

I want to extend my gratitude to members of the profession of nursing, both faculty and staff who share their art with nursing students. —Judy Callicoatt This book is dedicated to the memory of my husband, Bill, and my parents, T/Sgt. Leo and Nancy Hargrove, who are the rocks on which my life is built. I would like to thank my sisters, Gail and Debbie; my nephew Benjamin; and Paula for their support and encouragement through the good times and the bad. My children, Teresa and Aaron, are the most important people in my life and I want to thank them for always believing in me. —Ray Hargrove-Huttel v Reviewers

Freda Black, MSN, RN, ANP-BC Assistant Professor Ivy Tech State College Gary, Indiana Anne Dunphy, RN, MA, CS Nursing Instructor Delaware Technical & Community College Newark, Delaware Judy R. Hembd, RN, BSN, MSN Assistant Professor Montana State University-Northern Department of Nursing Havre, Montana Linda Ann Kucher, BSN, MSN Assistant Professor of Nursing Gordon College Barnesville, Georgia Regina M. O’Drobinak, MSN, RN, ANP-BC Assistant Professor, Associate of Science in Nursing Ivy Tech State College Gary, Indiana Elizabeth Palmer, PhD, RN Assistant Professor of Nursing Indiana University of Pennsylvania Indiana, Pennsylvania ii Editors and Contributors Joan L. Consullo, RN, MS, CNRN Advanced Clinical Nurse, Neuroscience St. Luke’s Episcopal Hospital Houston, Texas Michelle L. Edwards, RN, MSN, ACNP, FNP Advanced Practice Nurse, Cardiology Acute Care Nurse Practitioner/Family Nurse Practitioner St. Luke’s Episcopal Hospital Houston, Texas Gail F. Graham, APRN, MS, NP-C Advanced Practice Nurse, Internal Medicine Adult Nurse Practitioner St. Luke’s Episcopal Hospital Houston, Texas Elester E. Stewart, RRT, RN, MSN, FNP Advanced Practice Nurse, Pulmonary Family Nurse Practitioner St.

Luke’s Episcopal Hospital Houston, Texas Leslie Prater, RN, MS, CNS, CDE Clinical Diabetes Educator Associate Degree Nursing Instructor Trinity Valley Community College Kaufman, Texas Helen Reid, RN, PhD Dean, Health Occupations Trinity Valley Community College Kaufman, Texas ix Contents 1 Fundamentals of Critical Thinking Related to Test Taking: The RACE Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 GUIDELINES FOR USING THIS BOOK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 PREPARING FOR LECTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 PREPARING FOR AN EXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 TAKING THE EXAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 UNDERSTANDING THE TYPES OF NURSING QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 THE RACE MODEL: THE APPLICATION OF CRITICAL THINKING TO MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2 Neurological Disorders ………………………………………… 7 PRACTICE QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Cerebrovascular Accident . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Head Injury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Spinal Cord Injury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Seizures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Brain Tumor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Meningitis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Parkinson’s Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Substance Abuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Encephalitis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 PRACTICE QUESTIONS ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 3 Cardiac Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 PRACTICE QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Congestive Heart Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Angina/Myocardial Infarction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Coronary Artery Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Valvular Heart Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Dysrhythmias and Conduction Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 In? ammatory Cardiac Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 PRACTICE QUESTIONS ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 4 Peripheral Vascular Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 PRACTICE QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Arterial Hypertension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Arterial Occlusive Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Atherosclerosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Deep Vein Thrombosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Peripheral Venous Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 xi xii CONTENTS PRACTICE QUESTIONS ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 5 Hematological Disorder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 PRACTICE QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Leukemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Lymphoma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Anemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Bleeding Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Blood Transfusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Sickle Cell Anemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 PRACTICE QUESTIONS ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 6 Respiratory Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 PRACTICE QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Upper Respiratory Infection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Lower Respiratory Infection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Chronic Pulmonary Obstructive Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Reactive Airway Disease (Asthma) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Lung Cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Cancer of the Larynx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Pulmonary Embolus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Chest Trauma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 PRACTICE QUESTIONS ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 Gastrointestinal Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 PRACTICE QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Gastroesophageal Re? ux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 In? ammatory Bowel Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Peptic Ulcer Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Colorectal Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Diverticulosis/Diverticulitis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Gallbladder Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 Liver Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 Hepatitis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Gastroenteritis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 Abdominal Surgery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Eating Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Constipation/Diarrhea Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 PRACTICE QUESTIONS ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 7 8 Endocrine Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 PRACTICE QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 Diabetes Mellitus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 Pancreatitis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 Cancer of the Pancreas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 Adrenal Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 Pituitary Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 Thyroid Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 CONTENTS PRACTICE QUESTIONS ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 xiii 9 Genitourinary Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 PRACTICE QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306 Acute Renal Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306 Chronic Renal Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 Fluid and Electrolyte Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 Urinary Tract Infection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 Renal Calculi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313 Cancer of the Bladder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 PRACTICE QUESTIONS ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 Reproductive Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341 PRACTICE QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342 Breast Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342 Pelvic Floor Relaxation Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 Uterine Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345 Ovarian Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346 Prostate Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348 Testicular Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 Sexually Transmitted Diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351 PRACTICE QUESTIONS ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 10 11 Musculoskeletal Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 PRACTICE QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 Degenerative/Herniated Disc Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 Osteoarthritis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 Osteoporosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381 Amputation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382 Fractures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 Joint Replacements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385 PRACTICE QUESTIONS ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404 Integumentary Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 PRACTICE QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410 Burns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410 Pressure Ulcers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 Skin Cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 Bacterial Skin Infection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 Viral Skin Infection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416 Fungal/Parasitic Skin Infection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417 PRACTICE QUESTIONS ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 12 13 Immune System Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441 PRACTICE QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442 Multiple Sclerosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442 Guillain-Barre Syndrome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444 xiv CONTENTS Myasthenia Gravis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445 Systemic Lupus Erythematous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447 Acquired Immunode? ciency Syndrome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448 Allergies and Allergic Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 Rheumatoid Arthritis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451 PRACTICE QUESTIONS ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473 14 Sensory De? cits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477 PRACTICE QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478 Eye Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478 Ear Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479 PRACTICE QUESTIONS ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489 15 Emergency Nursing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493 PRACTICE QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494 Shock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494 Bioterrorism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495 Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497 Disaster/Triage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498 Poisoning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500 Violence, Physical Abuse, Neglect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501 PRACTICE QUESTIONS ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 518 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522 16 Perioperative Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527 PRACTICE QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528 Preoperative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528 Intraoperative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529 Postoperative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531 Acute Pain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532 PRACTICE QUESTIONS ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 542 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546 17 Cultural Nursing and Alternative Health Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549 PRACTICE QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 550 PRACTICE QUESTIONS ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563 18 End-of-Life Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 567 PRACTICE QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568 Advance Directives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568 Death and Dying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 569 Chronic Pain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 571 Ethical/Legal Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 572 Organ/Tissue Donation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 574 PRACTICE QUESTIONS ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 576 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 587 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 595 TEST-TAKING HINTS FOR PHARMACOLOGY QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 595 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 600 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 614 19 Pharmacology CONTENTS xv 20 Comprehensive Final Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 627 COMPREHENSIVE FINAL EXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 628 COMPREHENSIVE FINAL EXAMINATION ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . 642 Glossary of English Words Commonly Encountered on Nursing Examinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 655 Index ……………………………………………………………….. 659 Fundamentals of Critical Thinking Related to Test Taking: The RACE Model This book is the second in a series of books, published by the F. A. Davis Company, designed to assist the student nurse in being successful in nursing school and in taking examinations, particularly the NCLEX-RN examination for licensure as a registered nurse. Med-Surg Success: A Course Review Applying Critical Thinking to Test Taking focuses, as its name implies, on critical thinking as it pertains to test-taking skills for examinations in the nursing ? ld. It contains the usual practice test questions found in review books, but it also provides important test-taking hints to help in analyzing questions and determining the correct answers. It follows book one of this series— Fundamentals Success: A Course Review Applying Critical Thinking to Test Taking by Patricia Nugent, RN, MA, MS, EdD, and Barbara Vitale, RN, MA—which de? nes critical thinking and the RACE model for applying critical thinking to test taking, but it does not repeat the same speci? c topics.

Rather, it focuses on how to use the thinking processes and test-taking skills in answering questions on topics speci? cally addressed in the NCLEX-RN exam and in other nursing exams. Test-taking skills and hints are valuable, but the student and future test taker must remember that the most important aspect of taking any examination is to become knowledgeable about the subject matter the test will cover. There is no substitute for studying the material. 1 GUIDELINES FOR USING THIS BOOK This book contains 19 chapters and a ? nal comprehensive examination. This ntroductory chapter on test taking focuses on guidelines for studying and preparing for an examination, speci? cs about the nature of the NCLEX-RN test and the types of questions contained in it, and approaches to analyzing the questions and determining the correct answer using the RACE model. Thirteen chapters (Chapters 2–14) focus on disorders affecting the different major body systems. Each of these chapters is divided into four major sections: Practice Questions, Practice Questions Answers and Rationales, a Comprehensive Examination, and Comprehensive Examination Answers and Rationales.

Key words and abbreviations are also included in each chapter. Different types of multiple-choice questions about disorders that affect a speci? c body system help the test taker to more easily identify speci? c content. The answers to these questions, the explanations for the correct answers, and the reasons why other possible answer options are wrong or not the best choice reinforce the test taker’s knowledge and ability to discern subtle points in the question. Finally, the test-taking hints provide some clues and tips for answering the speci? c question.

The Comprehensive Examination includes questions about the disorders covered in the practice section and questions about other diseases/disorders that may affect the particular body system. Answers and rationales for these examination questions are given, but test-taking hints are not. Chapters 15–18 follow the same pattern but focus on emergency nursing, perioperative nursing, cultural nursing and alternative health care, and end-of-life issues. Chapter 19, the pharmacology chapter, deals speci? cally with what the student nurse should know about the administration of medications, provides test-taking tips speci? to pharmacology questions, and provides questions and answers. A ? nal 100-question comprehensive examination completes the main part of the book. 1 2 Test Taking MED-SURG SUCCESS PREPARING FOR LECTURE To prepare for attending a class on a speci? c topic, students should read the assignment in the textbook and prepare notes to take to class. Highlight any information the test taker does not understand so that the information may be clari? ed during class or, if the instructor does not cover it in class, after the lecture. Writing a prep sheet while reading (studying) is very useful.

A single sheet of paper divided into categories of information, as shown in the following, should be sufficient for learning about most disease processes. If students cannot limit the information to one page, they are probably not being discriminatory when reading. The idea is not to rewrite the textbook; the idea is to glean from the textbook the important, need-to-know information. Sample Prep Sheet Medical Diagnosis: Diagnostic Tests: (List normal values) De? nition: Signs and Symptoms Nursing Interventions: (Include Teaching)

Procedures and Nursing Implications: Medical Interventions: Complete the prep sheet in one color ink. Take the prep sheet to class along with a pen with different color ink or a pencil and a highlighter. Highlight on the prep sheet whatever the instructor emphasizes during the lecture. Write in different color ink or with a pencil any information the instructor emphasizes in lecture that the student did not include on the prep sheet. After the lecture, reread the information in the textbook that was included in the lecture but not on the student’s prep sheet.

By using this method when studying for the exam, the test taker will be able to identify the information obtained from the textbook and the information obtained in class. The information on the prep sheet that is highlighted represents information that the test taker thought was important from reading the textbook and that the instructor emphasized during lecture. This is need-to know-information for the examination. Please note, however, that the instructor may not emphasize laboratory tests and values but still expect the student to realize the importance of this information.

Carry the completed prep sheets in a folder so that it can be reviewed any time there is a minute that is spent idly, such as during children’s sports practices or when waiting for an appointment. This is learning to make the most of limited time. The prep sheets also should be carried to clinical assignments to use when caring for clients in the hospital. If students are prepared prior to attending class, they will ? nd the lecture easier to understand and, as a result, will be more successful during examinations.

Being prepared allows students to listen to the instructor and not sit in class trying to write every word from the overhead presentation. Test takers should recognize the importance of the instructor’s hints during the lecture. The instructor may emphasize information by highlighting areas on overhead slides, by repeating information, or by emphasizing a particular fact. This usually means the instruc- CHAPTER 1 FUNDAMENTALS OF CRITICAL THINKING RELATED TO TEST TAKING 3 Test Taking tor thinks the information is very important. Important information usually ? nds its way onto tests at some point.

PREPARING FOR AN EXAMINATION There are several steps that the test taker should take in preparing for an examination— some during the course of the class and some immediately before the day of the test. Study, Identify Weaknesses, and Practice The test taker should plan to study three (3) hours for every one (1) hour of class. For example, a course that is three (3) hours of credit requires nine (9) hours of study a week. Cramming immediately prior to the test usually places the test taker at risk for being unsuccessful. The information acquired during cramming is not really learned and is quickly forgotten.

And remember: Nursing examinations include material required by the registered nurse when caring for clients at the bedside. The ? rst time many students realize they do not understand some information is during the examination or, in other words, when it is too late. Nursing examinations contain highlevel application questions requiring the test taker to have memorized information and to be able to interpret the data and make a judgment as to the correct course of action. The test taker must recognize areas of weakness prior to seeing the examination for the ? rst time.

This book is designed to provide assistance in identifying areas of weakness prior to the examination. Two to 3 days prior to the examination the test taker should compose a practice test or take any practice questions or comprehensive exams in this book that have not already been answered. If a speci? c topic of study—say, the circulatory system and its disorders—proves to be an area of strength, as evidenced by selecting the correct answers to the questions on that system, then the test taker should proceed to study other areas identi? ed as areas of weakness because of incorrect answers in those areas.

Prospective test takers who do not understand the rationale for the correct answer should read the appropriate part of the textbook and try to understand the rationale for the correct answer. However, test takers should be cautious when reading the rationale for the incorrect answer options because during the actual examination, the student may remember reading the information and become confused about whether the information applied to the correct answer or to the incorrect option. The Night Before the Exam The night before the examination the test taker should stop studying by 6:00 P.

M. or 7:00 P. M. and then do something fun or relaxing until bedtime. Don’t make bedtime too late: A good night’s rest is essential prior to taking the examination. Studying until bedtime or an all-night cram session will leave the test taker tired and sleepy during the examination, just when the mind should be at its top performance. The Day of the Exam Eat a meal before an examination. A source of carbohydrate for energy, along with a protein source, make a good meal prior to an examination. Skipping a meal before the examination leaves the brain without nourishment.

A glass of milk and a bagel with peanut butter is an excellent meal; it provides a source of protein and a sustained release of carbohydrates. Do not eat donuts or other junk food or drink soft drinks. They provide energy that is quickly available but will not last throughout the time required for an examination. Excessive ? uid intake may cause the need to urinate during the examination and make it hard for students to concentrate. 4 Test Taking MED-SURG SUCCESS Test-Taking Anxiety Test takers who have test-taking anxiety should arrive at the testing site 45 minutes prior to the examination.

Find a seat for the examination and place books there to reserve the desk. Walk for 15 minutes at a fast pace away from the testing site and then turn and walk back. This exercise literally walks anxiety away. If other test takers’ getting up and leaving the room is bothersome, try to get a desk away from the group, in front of the room or facing a wall. Most schools allow students to wear hunter’s earplugs during a test if noise bothers them. Most RN-NCLEX test sites will provide earplugs if the test taker requests them. TAKING THE EXAM The NCLEX-RN examination is a computerized exam. Tests given in nursing schools in speci? subject areas may be computerized or pen and pencil. Both formats include multiple-choice questions and may include several types of alternate questions: a ? ll-in-theblank question that tests math abilities; a select-all-that-apply question that requires the test taker to select more than one option as the correct answer; a prioritizing question that requires the test taker to prioritize the answers 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 in the order of when the nurse would implement the intervention; and, in the computerized version, a click-and-drag question that requires the test taker to identify a speci? area of the body as the correct answer. Examples of all types of questions are included in this book. In an attempt to illustrate the click-and-drag question, this book has pictures with lines to delineate choices A, B, C, or D. Refer to the National Council of State Boards of Nursing for additional information on the NCLEX-RN examination (http://www. ncsbn. org). Pen-and-Pencil Exam A test taker taking a pen-and-pencil examination in nursing school who ? nds a question that contains totally unknown information should circle the question and skip it. Another question may help to answer the skipped question.

Not moving on and worrying over a question will place success on the next few questions in jeopardy. The mind will not let go of the worry, and this may lead to missing important information in subsequent questions. Computerized Test The computerized NCLEX-RN test is composed of from 75 (the minimum number of questions) to 265 questions. The computer determines with a 95% certainty whether the test taker’s ability is above the passing standard before the examination concludes. During the NCLEX-RN computerized test, take some deep breaths and then select an answer.

The computer does not allow the test taker to return to a question. Test takers who become anxious during an examination should stop, put their hands in their lap, close their eyes, and take a minimum of ? ve deep breaths before resuming the examination. Test takers must become aware of personal body signals that indicate increasing stress levels. Some people get gastrointestinal symptoms and others feel a tightening of muscles. Test takers should not be overly concerned if they possess only rudimentary computer skills. Simply use the mouse to select the correct answer.

Every question asks for a con? rmation before being submitted as the correct answer. In addition to typing in pertinent personal information, test takers must be able to type numbers and use the drop-down computer calculator. However, test takers can request an erasable slate to calculate math problems by hand. Practice taking tests on the computer before taking the NCLEX-RN examination. Many textbooks contain computer disks with test questions, and there are many on-line review opportunities. CHAPTER 1 FUNDAMENTALS OF CRITICAL THINKING RELATED TO TEST TAKING 5 Test Taking

UNDERSTANDING THE TYPES OF NURSING QUESTIONS Components of a Multiple-Choice Question A multiple-choice question is called an item. Each item has two parts. The stem is the part that contains the information that identi? es the topic and its parameters and then asks a question. The second part consists of one or more possible responses, which are called options. One of the options is the correct answer; the others are the wrong answers and are called distracters. The client diagnosed with angina complains of chest pain while ambulating in the hall. Which intervention should the nurse implement ? rst? . Have the client sit down. 2. Monitor the pulse oximeter reading. 3. Administer sublingual nitroglycerin. 4. Apply oxygen via nasal cannula. } STEM } OPTIONS } } CORRECT ANSWER DISTRACTERS Cognitive Levels of Nursing Questions Questions on nursing examinations re? ect a variety of thinking processes that nurses use when caring for clients. These thinking processes are part of the cognitive domain, and they progress from the simple to the complex, from the concrete to the abstract, and from the tangible to the intangible. There are four types of thinking processes represented by nursing questions. . Knowledge Questions—These questions emphasize recalling information that has been learned/studied. 2. Comprehension Questions—These questions emphasize understanding the meaning and intent of remembered information. 3. Application Questions—These questions emphasize the use of remembered and understood information in new situations. 4. Analysis Questions—These questions emphasize comparing and contrasting a variety of elements of information. THE RACE MODEL: THE APPLICATION OF CRITICAL THINKING TO MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS Answering a test question is like participating in a race.

Of course, each test taker wants to come in ? rst and be the winner. However, the thing to remember about a race is that success is not just based on speed but also on strategy and tactics. The same is true about nursing examinations. Although speed may be a variable that must be considered when taking a timed test so that the amount of time spent on each question is factored into the test strategy, the emphasis on RACE is the use of critical-thinking techniques to answer multiplechoice questions. The RACE Model presented here is a critical-thinking strategy to use when answering multiple-choice questions concerning nursing.

If the test taker follows the RACE Model every time when looking at and analyzing a test question, its use will become second nature. 6 Test Taking MED-SURG SUCCESS This methodical approach will improve the ability to critically analyze a test question and improve the chances of selecting the correct answer. The RACE Model has four steps to answering a test question. The best way to remember the four steps is to refer to the acronym RACE. R — Recognize • What information is in the stem. • The key words in the stem. • Who the client is in the stem. What the topic is about. A — Ask • What is the question asking? • What are the key words in the stem that indicate the need for a response? • What is the question asking the nurse to implement? C — Critically analyze • The options in relation to the question asked in the stem. • Each option in relation to the information in the stem. • A rationale for each option. • By comparing and contrasting the options in relation to the information in the stem and their relationships to one another. E — Eliminate options • One option at a time. • As many options as possible.

The text Fundamentals Success: Course Review Applying Critical Thinking to Test Taking by Patricia Nugent and Barbara Vitale includes a discussion exploring the RACE Model in depth and its relation to the thinking processes used in multiple-choice questions in the ? eld of nursing. The ? rst step toward knowledge is to know that we are not ignorant. —Richard Cecil Neurological Disorders Test-taking hints are useful to discriminate information, but they cannot substitute for knowledge. The student should refer to Chapter 1 for assistance in preparing for class, studying, and taking an examination. This hapter focuses on disorders that affect the neurological system. It provides a list of keywords and abbreviations, practice questions focused on disease processes, and a comprehensive examination that includes other content areas involving the neurological system and the disease processes addressed in the practice questions. Answers and reasons why the answer options provided are either correct or incorrect are also provided as are some testtaking hints. The following chapters (Chapters 3–12) focus on disorders that affect other body systems and function. 2 KEYWORDS agnosia akinesia aphasia apraxia are? xia ataxia autonomic dysre? exia bradykinesia decarboxylase diplopia dysarthria dysphagia echolalia epilepsy papilledema paralysis paresthesia paroxysms penumbra postictal ABBREVIATIONS Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) As Soon As Possible (ASAP) Blood Pressure (BP) Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) Computed Tomography (CT) Electroencephalogram (EEG) Electromyelogram (EMG) Emergency Department (ED) Enzyme-Linked Immunoassay (ELISA) Health-Care Provider (HCP) Intracranial Pressure (ICP) Intensive Care Department (ICD) Intravenous (IV) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Nonsteroidal Anti-In? mmatory Drug (NSAID) Nothing By Mouth (NPO) Parkinson’s Disease (PD) Pulse (P) Range of Motion (ROM) Respiration (R) Rule Out (R/O) Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) STAT—immediately (STAT) Temperature (T) Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Unlicensed Assistive Personnel (UAP) Please note: The term health-care provider, as used in this text, refers to a nurse practitioner (NP), physician (MD), osteopath (DO), or physician assistant (PA) who has prescriptive authority. These providers are responsible for directing the care and providing orders for the clients. 7 PRACTICE QUESTIONS

Cerebrovascular Accident (Stroke) 1. A 78-year-old client is admitted to the emergency department with numbness and weakness of the left arm and slurred speech. Which nursing intervention is priority? 1. Prepare to administer recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). 2. Discuss the precipitating factors that caused the symptoms. 3. Schedule for a STAT computed tomography (CT) scan of head. 4. Notify the speech pathologist for an emergency consult. 2. The nurse is assessing a client experiencing motor loss as a result of a left-sided cerebrovascular accident (CVA). Which clinical manifestations would the nurse document? . Hemiparesis of the client’s left arm and apraxia. 2. Paralysis of the right side of the body and ataxia. 3. Homonymous hemianopsia and diplopia. 4. Impulsive behavior and hostility toward family. 3. Which client would the nurse identify as being most at risk for experiencing a CVA? 1. A 55-year-old African American male. 2. An 84-year-old Japanese female. 3. A 67-year-old Caucasian male. 4. A 39-year-old pregnant female. 4. The client diagnosed with a right-sided cerebrovascular accident is admitted to the rehabilitation unit. Which interventions should be included in the nursing care plan? Select all that apply. 1.

Position the client to prevent shoulder adduction. 2. Turn and reposition the client every shift. 3. Encourage the client to move the affected side. 4. Perform quadriceps exercises three (3) times a day. 5. Instruct the client to hold the ? ngers in a ? st. 5. The nurse is planning care for a client experiencing agnosia secondary to a cerebrovascular accident. Which collaborative intervention will be included in the plan of care? 1. Observing the client swallowing for possible aspiration. 2. Positioning the client in a semi-Fowler’s position when sleeping. 3. Placing a suction set-up at the client’s bedside during meals. . Referring the client to an occupational therapist for evaluation. 6. The nurse and an unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) are caring for a client with rightsided paralysis. Which action by the UAP requires the nurse to intervene? 1. The assistant places a gait belt around the client’s waist prior to ambulating. 2. The assistant places the client on the back with the client’s head to the side. 3. The assistant places her hand under the client’s right axilla to help him/her move up in bed. 4. The assistant praises the client for attempting to perform ADLs independently. 7. The client diagnosed with atrial ? rillation has experienced a transient ischemic attack (TIA). Which medication would the nurse anticipate being ordered for the client on discharge? 1. An oral anticoagulant medication. 2. A beta-blocker medication. 3. An anti-hyperuricemic medication. 4. A thrombolytic medication. 8. The client has been diagnosed with a cerebrovascular accident (stroke). The client’s wife is concerned about her husband’s generalized weakness. Which home modi? cation should the nurse suggest to the wife prior to discharge? 1. Obtain a rubber mat to place under the dinner plate. 2. Purchase a long-handled bath sponge for showering. 3.

Purchase clothes with Velcro closure devices. 4. Obtain a raised toilet seat for the client’s bathroom. 8 Neurological CHAPTER 2 NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS 9 9. The client is diagnosed with expressive aphasia. Which psychosocial client problem would the nurse include in the plan of care? 1. Potential for injury. 2. Powerlessness. 3. Disturbed thought processes. 4. Sexual dysfunction. 10. Which assessment data would indicate to the nurse that the client would be at risk for a hemorrhagic stroke? 1. A blood glucose level of 480 mg/dL. 2. A right-sided carotid bruit. 3. A blood pressure of 220/120 mm Hg. 4. The presence of bronchogenic carcinoma. 1. The 85-year-old client diagnosed with a stroke is complaining of a severe headache. Which intervention should the nurse implement ? rst? 1. Administer a nonnarcotic analgesic. 2. Prepare for STAT magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). 3. Start an intravenous line with D5W at 100 mL/hr. 4. Complete a neurological assessment. 12. A client diagnosed with a subarachnoid hemorrhage has undergone a craniotomy for repair of a ruptured aneurysm. Which intervention will the intensive care nurse implement? 1. Administer a stool softener BID. 2. Encourage the client to cough hourly. 3. Monitor neurological status every shift. . Maintain the dopamine drip to keep BP at 160/90. Neurological Head Injury 13. The client diagnosed with a mild concussion is being discharged from the emergency department. Which discharge instruction should the nurse teach the client’s signi? cant other? 1. Awaken the client every two (2) hours. 2. Monitor for increased intracranial pressure. 3. Observe frequently for hypervigilance. 4. Offer the client food every three (3) to four (4) hours. 14. The resident in a long-term care facility fell during the previous shift and has a laceration in the occipital area that has been closed with Steri-Strips™.

Which signs/symptoms would warrant transferring the resident to the emergency department? 1. A 4-cm area of bright red drainage on the dressing. 2. A weak pulse, shallow respirations, and cool pale skin. 3. Pupils that are equal, react to light, and accommodate. 4. Complaints of a headache that resolves with medication. 15. The nurse is caring for the following clients. Which client would the nurse assess ? rst after receiving the shift report? 1. The 22-year-old male client diagnosed with a concussion who is complaining someone is waking him up every two (2) hours. 2.

The 36-year-old female client admitted with complaints of left-sided weakness who is scheduled for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. 3. The 45-year-old client admitted with blunt trauma to the head after a motorcycle accident who has a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 6. 4. The 62-year-old client diagnosed with a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) who has expressive aphasia. 10 MED-SURG SUCCESS 16. The client has sustained a severe closed head injury and the neurosurgeon is determining if the client is “brain dead. ” Which data support that the client is brain dead? 1. When the client’s head is turned to the right, the eyes turn to the right. . The electroencephalogram (EEG) has identi? able waveforms. 3. There is no eye activity when the cold caloric test is performed. 4. The client assumes decorticate posturing when painful stimuli are applied. 17. The client is admitted to the medical ? oor with a diagnosis of closed head injury. Which nursing intervention has priority? 1. Assess neurological status. 2. Monitor pulse, respiration, and blood pressure. 3. Initiate an intravenous access. 4. Maintain an adequate airway. 18. The client diagnosed with a closed head injury is admitted to the rehabilitation department. Which medication order would the nurse question? . A subcutaneous anticoagulant. 2. An intravenous osmotic diuretic. 3. An oral anticonvulsant. 4. An oral proton pump inhibitor. 19. The client diagnosed with a gunshot wound to the head assumes decorticate posturing when the nurse applies painful stimuli. Which assessment data obtained three (3) hours later would indicate the client is improving? 1. Purposeless movement in response to painful stimuli. 2. Flaccid paralysis in all four extremities. 3. Decerebrate posturing when painful stimuli are applied. 4. Pupils that are 6 mm in size and nonreactive on painful stimuli. 20.

The nurse is caring for a client diagnosed with an epidural hematoma. Which nursing interventions should the nurse implement? Select all that apply. 1. Maintain the head of the bed at 60 degrees of elevation. 2. Administer stool softeners daily. 3. Ensure that pulse oximeter reading is higher than 93%. 4. Perform deep nasal suction every two (2) hours. 5. Administer mild sedatives. 21. The client with a closed head injury has clear ? uid draining from the nose. Which action should the nurse implement ? rst? 1. Notify the health-care provider immediately. 2. Prepare to administer an antihistamine. 3. Test the drainage for presence of glucose. . Place 2 2 gauze under the nose to collect drainage. 22. The nurse is enjoying a day out at the lake and witnesses a water skier hit the boat ramp. The water skier is in the water not responding to verbal stimuli. The nurse is the ? rst health-care provider to respond to the accident. Which intervention should be implemented ? rst? 1. Assess the client’s level of consciousness. 2. Organize onlookers to remove the client from the lake. 3. Perform a head-to-toe assessment to determine injuries. 4. Stabilize the client’s cervical spine. 23. The client is diagnosed with a closed head injury and is in a coma.

The nurse writes the client problem as “high risk for immobility complications. ” Which intervention would be included in the plan of care? 1. Position the client with the head of the bed elevated at intervals. 2. Perform active range of motion exercises every four (4) hours. 3. Turn the client every shift and massage bony prominences. 4. Explain all procedures to the client before performing them. Neurological CHAPTER 2 NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS 11 Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) 25. The nurse driving down the highway witnesses a one-car motor vehicle accident and stops to render aid. The driver of the car is unconscious.

Which action should the nurse take ? rst? 1. Carefully remove the driver from the car. 2. Assess the client’s pupils for reaction. 3. Stabilize the client’s cervical spine. 4. Attempt to wake the client up by shaking him. 26. In assessing a client with a T-12 SCI, which clinical manifestations would the nurse expect to ? nd to support the diagnosis of spinal shock? 1. No re? ex activity below the waist. 2. Inability to move upper extremities. 3. Complaints of a pounding headache. 4. Hypertension and bradycardia. 27. The rehabilitation nurse caring for the client with an L-1 SCI is developing the nursing care plan.

Which intervention should the nurse implement? 1. Keep oxygen on via nasal cannula on at all times. 2. Administer low-dose subcutaneous anticoagulants. 3. Perform active lower-extremity ROM exercises. 4. Refer to a speech therapist for ventilator-assisted speech. 28. The nurse in the neurointensive care unit is caring for a client with a new C-6 SCI who is breathing independently. Which nursing interventions should be implemented? Select all that apply. 1. Monitor the pulse oximetry reading. 2. Provide pureed foods six (6) times a day. 3. Encourage coughing and deep breathing. 4. Assess for autonomic dysre? xia. 5. Administer intravenously corticosteroids. 29. The home health nurse is caring for a 28-year-old client with a T-10 SCI who says, “I can’t do anything. Why am I so worthless? ” Which statement by the nurse would be the most therapeutic? 1. “This must be very hard for you. You’re feeling worthless? ” 2. “You shouldn’t feel worthless—you are still alive. ” 3. “Why do you feel worthless? You still have the use of your arms. ” 4. “If you attended a work rehab program you wouldn’t feel worthless. ” 30. The client is diagnosed with an SCI and is scheduled for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan.

Which question would be most appropriate for the nurse to ask prior to taking the client to the diagnostic test? 1. “Do you have trouble hearing? ” 2. “Are you allergic to any type of dairy products? ” 3. “Have you had anything to eat in the last eight (8) hours? ” 4. “Are you uncomfortable in closed spaces? ” Neurological 24. The 29-year-old client that was employed as a forklift operator sustains a traumatic brain injury secondary to a motor vehicle accident. The client is being discharged from the rehabilitation unit after three (3) months and has cognitive de? cits. Which goal would be most realistic for this client? . The client will return to work within six (6) months. 2. The client is able to focus and stay on task for ten (10) minutes. 3. The client will be able to dress self without assistance. 4. The client will regain bowel and bladder control. 12 MED-SURG SUCCESS 31. The client with a C-6 SCI is admitted to the emergency department complaining of a severe pounding headache and has a BP of 180/110. Which intervention should the emergency department nurse implement? 1. Keep the client ? at in bed. 2. Dim the lights in the room. 3. Assess for bladder distention. 4. Administer a narcotic analgesic. 32.

The client with a cervical fracture is being discharged in a halo device. Which teaching instruction should the nurse discuss with the client? 1. Discuss how to remove insertion pins correctly. 2. Instruct the client to report reddened or irritated skin areas. 3. I

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