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PMS CSS GENERAL KNOWLEDGE MCQS 1- what plants exhale at night Carbon dioxide 2- velocity of sound M/s3433- 3- Which vitamins not stored in human body? C 4- lake of vitamin c create which disease Skin disease 5-which vitamin helps blood clotting? K 6-Founder of Muslim rule in India? Qutubuddin Abek 7-Razia Sultana belongs to? Slave dynasty 8-Second battle of pani pat fought b/w correct option was not present my answer was none of these(akbar vs himu bakal) 9- Attack fort was constructed By Akbar 10- Marcher lake situated in? Dadu 11- Pakistan number among world population? 6th 12- share of Punjab among area of Pakistan 5% 13- Length of Khyber pass 53km 14- Uranium resources found in Pakistan? D G khan 15- Mostly part of gobi desert found in ? Magnolia 16- Taklimakan desert found Inxinjaning china 17- Longest river of the world is? Nile 18- Largest sea of the world? South China Sea 19-Largest coastal boundary country? Canada 20- Brazil situated in? South America 21-Which country is peninsula? Saudi Arabia 22- Pakistan situates on which line? 1- equator 2- cancer 3- inecapricorn 4- none 2- correet answer is option 4 23- McMahan line is situated b/w? India and china 24- Who is david patrias? american general in Afghanistan 5- 1 meter is equal to? 3. 28 foot 26- Caspian sea makes his boundaries with Iran, Russia, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan. 27- Largest agency among area in Pakistan? South Waziristan 28- Old name of Iraq? Mesopotamia 29-Blood is red due to? Hemoglobin 30-Marian trance situated near? Philippines 31- Headquarter of ghandhara civilization is? Texila 32- Head quarter of SAARC is situated at? Katmandu 33- Maximum wool producing country is? Australia 34- Official religion of japan is? Shintoism 35- Which element use for producing nuclear fuel? Uranium 36- How many rooku in 30 Para of Quran? 9 37-which is less conductor? 1- iron, 2-copper 3- silver 4- wood My answer was wood but not satisfied 38-nigara fall lies b/w USA and Canada 39- Which is smallest country of world among area 1- Maldives 2- Malta 3- San Marino 4- Bahrain Correct answer is option 3 San Marino 40-Holy Prophet PBUH appointed governor of Yemen for collection zakat? Hazrat Muaz bin Jabal 41- How many times zakat mention in Quran? 32 times 42-which Sura gives details among zakat receiver? Sura Tuba 43-where1st wahii nazall hoe? Ghar-e-hira 44- When zakat declared must 2 hijra 45-Light of sun reach in earth 8.

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5 mint While other options was 3mint 4mint 6. 5 mint) 46- Headquarter of ILO situated in? Geneva 47- Muslim league name was purposed by? Nawab Saleem Ullah Khan of Dhaka 48- Jaundice is disturb of which part of body Liver 49- Quaid Azam leaves congress due ton on- cooperative moment by Gandhi 50-in hepatitis which organ disturb? Liver 51- Nisab in the amount of gold? 87. 48 gram (But in paper there was not dot present b/w 87 and48) 52- Nisab in silver is? 612. 32 gram 53-produce which is equal to nisab? 948kg wheat or equal 54-if a person having millat1800kg whose prize is half among wheat who many rupees he pay zakat zero 5-who was Father of the French Revolution? Jean-Jacques Rousseau – 56-statue of freedom in new york is given by France 57- Wall street is a famous? Stock market in New York 58- Sunlight consists of coolers? a-1 b- 3 c-7 (Not confirm waiting for reply) 59-theory of relativity is presented by? Einstein 60- Cash crop is? Which not cultivated for own use 61-artificial cultivated area gives amount usher equal to 1/20 62- If a person obtained something from underground the amount of zakat applicable? 1/5 63-zakat among goat applicable on? 40 goats 64- Amount of zakat among gold silver and similar things . 5 % 65- A government company obtained 1 billion net profit tell who much rupees its gives as a zakat Zero 66-zakat ordinance promulgated on 20 June 1980 67-according to section17 tauluqa committee is equal to tehsil committee 68- dasman palace is residence ofameer kwait 69-procelain tower is present inchina 70- which muslim organization founded in 1962 71- crtography is the study of secret writing 72-founder of souct momemtRobert Baden-Powell 73- elysee palace is the residence offrench president 74- second largest population in afghanistan? tajik 75-worldwide spread disease is called? epidemic 6- zakat year start on according to hijra clender 77- zakat year end ? 30 shaban 78- governer appointe chief administer with the consult withfederal government 79- administerator general appointed bypresident 80- The magnitude of earthquake is measured with? Richter Scale 81- Who forwarded the Lahore(Pakistan) Resolution? A. K fazlul haq 82- East India Company came to India in the reign of: A)Shah Jahan B) Jahangir C) Aurangzeb D) Babar 83- The largest Muslim country according to area is? kazakistan 84- Zakat can be spent on:A)Travelers B) Slaves C) Masakin D)All of these 85- Zakat is exempted on:

A)Sheep grazing fed free in pastures B) Fruits C) Vegetables D) All of them 86- Who was known as the Man of Destiny? nepolin bona part 87- Adam’s Peak is in? sri lanka 88- According to the Zakat Ordinance Zakat arrears are collected by? tehsildar 89- Red Cross/Crescent HQ is in? geneva 90-Brain Draintransfer of Skilled labors 91–light year complete direction in1 year 92–musician of antham isAhmed gulami chagla 93- first ushr receive ? 1982-83 rabi crop 94-DZ committe disolved if]member remain not pious 95- if a person failed to pay zakat what act can do? send a notice. 1) Which of the following rivers crosses the equator twice? ) Congo 2) Which is the longest river of America? b) Mississippi 3) Don is river of ? b) Russia 4) What is the length of khyber pass? c) 56 km 5) Longest glacier of the world is Lambert situated in Antarctica, what is it’slength? a) 320 Miles 6) Which of the following lake is most polluted lake in the world? d) Lake eire 7) Tugela water fall is present in? b) South Africa 8) Gota canal is the ship canal situated in ? c) Sweden 9) Kiel canal of Germany was opened in 1895 what is it’s length? c) 61. 3 miles 10) Erie canal is situated in ? c) USA 11) Houston and Delware canals are present in the country? b) France 2) Grand canal is oldest man made canal for shiping purpose situated in? b) China 13) Persian Gulf is located in? b) Arabian ocean 14) Sutherland waterfall is present in? a) New-Zealand 15) Hudson Bay is situated in? c) Northern Canada 16) Which is the largest gulf of the world? a) Gulf of Mexico 17) Which is the largest bay of the world? a) Hudson bay 18) Yosemite is a famous waterfall of ? a) USA 19) Strait of Bosporous connects? c) Black sea and sea of marmara 20) It separates Italy from Sicily? c) Messina 21) Strait of malacca separates? b) Malaysia and indonesia 22) Which of the following straits separate india From Sri Lanka? ) Palk 23) Which of the following straits separate Malaysia from Singapore? b) Johor 24) Budapest is the capital of Hungary situated on the bank of? c) River Danube 25) Sea of Marmara and Aegean sea are connected by the strait? c) Dardanelles 26) Cook strait separates south New-Zealand from? b) North New-Zealand 27) Paris is the capital of France situated on the bank of? a) Seine 28) English channel separates England from? b) France 29) Agra is very famous city of India due to Taj Mahal, it is situated on thebank of river? c) Jumna 30) Great victoria desert is present in ? c) Australia • Yome -Afra is called to Hajj day. Name of the place where the pilgrims go from Arafat: Muzdalfa. • First structure of Kaaba was built by Adam. • Ibrahim & Ismail rebuilt Kaaba 4500 years ago. • Yum -e-Nahar is called to the Day of Sacrifice. • Yum e Arafat is 9th Zul Hajj. • One khutba is recited during Hajj. • Al -Imarn is the surah in which Hajj is commanded. • Holy prophet sacrificed 63 camels during hajj. • Adam and Hazrat Hawa performed the first ever Hajj. • Running b/w Safa & Marwa seven t imes is called Sayee. • Most important step of Hajj after assuming Ahram is Wuquf. • Waqoof -e-Arfah is the Rukn-e-Azam of Hajj With the performance of Rami on the 10th Zil -Hajj, the most of the bindings of Hajj on thepilgrim are released. • Three uprigh t stones are called Jamarat. • After Waquf the most important step is Tawaf. • In Hajj there are three obligations (Farz). • Umrah can be performed at any time throughout the year except 9th to 11th Zil -Hajj. • Hujjaj stat at Mina for one day, the second d ay at Arafat and the final day, encampment is donefor a night at Muzdalfah, it is called Wuquf. • Who said that Hajj is greatest of all worships:Imam Malik. • How many undesirable acts of Ihraam are there: six. How many permitted acts of Ihraam are ther e:Four. • Prohibitions and restructions of Ihram are 8. • The first and the foremost Farz of Hajj and Umrah is Ihram. • The first and inner most circle around Ka‘ba is Masjid -e-Haram. • The second circle around Kaba is Makkah Mukaramah. • The third circle around Kaba is Haram. • Who firsly fixed boundaries of Haram, the third circle around Kaaba: Adam. • The fourth cirle around Kaba is Mowaqeet. • The place where no one can advance without putting on Ihram is Mowaqeet. • Two thousand years before the creation of Adam, Kaba was constructed. • Angels built Kaba firstly in the universe. During the Noah‘s time Kaaba disappeared due to flood. • The gate which is the best for the pilgrims to enter in Kaba is Bab -e-Salam. • Hajr -e-Aswad means black stone. • Actual color of Hajr-e-Aswad was white. • The small piece of land b/wk Rukn -e-Islam and Rukn-e-Yamani is called Hateem. • The place where offering prayer is just like offering prayer inside Kaba is Hateem. • There are five types of Tawaf. • Hajji go to Al -Multazim after completing the seven rounds. • Al -Multazim means the place of holding. • The portion of the wall of Kaba which is b/w its door and Hajr  -e-Aswad is called al-Multazim. Sayee is commenced from Safa and ends at Marwa. • After performing Say‘ ee Hujjaj go to Mina. • Muzdalfa is a plain. • Muzdalfa is located b/w Mina & Arafat. • Muzdalfa is located six miles from Makkah. • From Mina Muzdalfa is three miles away. • Muzdalfa is called Sacred Monument in Quran. • At Muzdalfa Maghrib & Isha prayers are offered together. • Pebbles are collected from Muzdalfa. • Jamarat which is nearest to Makkah is called Jamarat -ul-Uqba. • Smallest Jamarat is Jamarat -al-Sughra. • Rami is held at Mina. • Talbiah is stopped after Rami. • Afrad, Qar‘ran and Tamatae are he types of Hajj. • Dhulhulaifah is the Meeqat for the people of Pakistan. • Dhulhulaifah is a point six mile from Madina. islamic history month wise outlines Muharram-ul-Haram 1st – Start of new Islamic year2nd – Arrival of Imam Hussain(a. s. ) in Karbala – (61 A. H. )7th – Access to water was blocked from the camp of Imam Hussain(a. s. ) – the 3rd Holy Imam – (61 A. H. )10th – Ashoora – Martyrdom of Imam Hussain(a. s. ) and his companions – (61 A. H. )11th – Prophet Mohammad(sawaw)‘s family was shackled a nd taken away as prisoners 12th – Soyem of the martyrs of Karbala 16th –

Change of direction of qibla from Bait-al-maqdas to Kaaba – (2 A. H. )17th – Attack of Abraha‘s army on Khana -e-Kaaba (1 Aamul Feel)25th – Martyrdom of Imam Ali Zain-al-Abideen(a. s. ) – the 4th Holy Imam – (95 A. H. ) Safar-ul-Muzaffar 1st – Battle of Siffin – (36-37 A. H. )3rd – Birth of Imam Mohammad Baqir(a. s. ) – the 5th Holy Imam – (57 A. H. ) [Disputed date]6th, 8th or 13th – Martyrdom of Hazrat Sakina bint-al-Hussain(a. s. ) – (61 A. H. ) 7th – Birth of Imam Moosa al-Kazim(a. s. ) – the 7th Holy Imam – (128 A. H. ) 7th – Martyrdom of Imam Hasan(a. s. ) – the 2nd Holy Imam – (50 A. H. ) [Disputed date] 7th – Martyrdom of Imam Ali ibn-e-Moosa ar-Riza(a. s. ) – the 8th Holy Imam – (203 A. H. )19th – Abraha attacked Khana-e-Kaaba – (1 Aamul Feel)20th – Arbaeen of martyrs of Karbala 28th – Wisal of Prophet Muhammad(sawaw) – (11 A. H. )28th – Martyrdom of Imam Hasan(a. s. ) – the 2nd Holy Imam – (50 A. H. )29th – Martyrdom of Imam Ali ibn-e-Moosa ar-Riza(a. s. ) – the 8th Holy Imam – (203 A. H. ) [Disputed date] Rabi-al-Awwal 1st – Hijrat-e-Madina – Start of Islamic Hijri calendar4th – Death of Hazrat Fatima Masooma-e-Qum(a. s. ) – (201 A. H. ) [Disputed date]8th – Martyrdom of Imam Hasan Askari(a. s. ) – he 11th Holy Imam – (260 A. H. ) 8th – Beginning of Ghaibat-e-Sughra of Imam Mohammad Mehdi(atfs) – the 12th Holy Imam(a. s. )9th – Eid-e-Zahra(s. a. )10th – Death of Hazrat Abdul Mutallib(a. s. ) – grand father of Prophet Muhammad(sawaw) 10th – Marriage of Prophet Muhammad(sawaw) and Hazrat Khadija(s. a. )15th – Building of Masjid-e-Quba – the first Masjid in Islam – (1 A. H. )17th – Birth of Prophet Muhammad(sawaw) – (53 years before Hijra) 17th – Birth of Imam Jafer Sadiq(a. s. ) – the 6th Holy Imam – (82 A. H. )25th – Death of Hazrat Abu Talib(a. s. ) Rabi-us-Sani 8th or 10th – Birth of Imam Hasan Askari(a. . ) – the 11th Holy Imam – (232 A. H. )10th – Death of Hazrat Fatima Masooma-e-Qum(a. s. ) – (201 A. H. ) [Disputed date] Jamadi-al-Awwal 5th – Birth of Hazrat Zainab bint-e-Ali(a. s. ) – (5 A. H. )13th – Death of Hazrat Fatima Zahra(s. a. ) – (11 A. H. )15th – Birth of Imam Ali Zain-al-Abideen(a. s. ) – the 4th Holy Imam – (38 A. H. ) [Disputed date] 17th – Battle of Jamal – (36 A. H. ) Jamadi-us-Sani 10th – Battle of Mauta and martyrdom of Hazra Jafer Tayyar(a. s. ) – (3 A. H. )13th – Death of Hazrat Umm-ul-Baneen – Mother of Hazrat Abbas(a. s. ) 20th – Birth of Hazrat Fatima Zahra(s. a. ) Rajab-ul-Murrajjab st – Birth of Imam Mohammad Baqir(a. s. ) – the 5th Holy Imam – (57 A. H. )2nd or 5th – Birth of Imam Ali Naqi al-Hadi(a. s. ) – the 10th Holy Imam – (214 A. H. )3rd – Martyrdom of Imam Ali Naqi al-Hadi(a. s. ) – the 10th Holy Imam – (254 A. H. ) 10th – Birth of Imam Mohammad Taqi al-Jawwad(a. s. ) – the 9th Holy Imam – (195 A. H. )12th – Death of Hazrat Abbas ibn-e-Abdul Muttalib(a. s. ) – uncle of Prophet Mohammad(sawaw)13th – Birth of Imam Ali(a. s. ) – the 1st Holy Imam – (30 Aamul Feel) 13th, 14th, 15th – Ayyam-e-Bayd – the bright days15th – Death of Hazrat Zainab bin-e-Ali(a. s. ) – (62 A. H. )20th Birth of Hazrat Sakina bint-al-Hussain(a. s. ) – (57 A. H. ) 24th – Battle of Khaibar – (7 A. H. )25th – Martyrdom of Imam Moosa-e-Kazim(a. s. ) – the 7th Holy Imam – (183 A. H. )26th – Death of Hazrat Abu Talib(a. s. ) [Disputed date] 27th – Event of Mairaj – Ascension of Prophet Muhammad(sawaw) towards heavens28th – Start of journey of Imam Hussain(a. s. ) towards Karbala – (60 A. H. )29th – Battle of Tabooq – (9 A. H. ) Shabaan-ul-Moazzam 1st – Birth of Hazrat Zainab bint-e-Ali(a. s. ) – (5 A. H. ) 3rd – Birth of Imam Hussain(a. s. ) – the 3rd Holy Imam – (4 A. H. )4th – Birth of Hazrat Abbas(a. s. – (26 A. H. )5th – Birth of Imam Ali Zain-al-Abideen(a. s. ) – the 4th Holy Imam – (38 A. H. ) 7th – Birth of Hazrat Qasim ibn-e-Hasan(a. s. ) – (48 A. H. )8th – Beginning of Ghaibat-e-Sughra of Imam Mohammad Mehdi(atfs) – the 12th Holy Imam – (260A. H. ) 11th – Birth of Hazrat Ali Akbar(a. s. ) – (44 A. H. )13th, 14th, 15th – Ayyam-e-Bayd – the bright days14th – Evening – Aamal of Neema-e-Shabaan 15th – Birth of Imam Mohammad Mehdi(atfs) – the 12th Holy Imam – (255 A. H. ) 238. The commandment for observing Fast has been stipulated in the Surah……  Al-Baqara239. What is atonement for breaking the Fast?

To feed 60 people240. It is a door through which fast observing people would enter paradise. Bab-ul-Riyan241. Which important night falls in Ramzan? Lailat-ul-Qadr242. How many days are forbidden for fasting throughout the year? 5243. In which month virtues flourish and evil is suppressed? Ramzan244. What is the meaning of Aitekaf? Seclusion245. Aitekaf during the month of Ramzan is. Wajib246. Which Rukn-e-Islam is called as shield? Fasting247. Which is the Third fundamental pillar of Islam? Fasting248. When Siyyam of Ramzan was ordered? 2 A. H 249. Tarawih is a prayer of Ramzan. It means……. To stand250.

Which important Ghazwa was fought in the very first Ramzan? Badr251. Who arranged Namaz-e-Tarawih in the leadership of Imam? Hazrat Umar (R. A) 252. Literally meaning of Hajj is…… The will of visit 254. Hajj was made obligatory in………… 9 A. H253. Yome- Afra is called………… Hajj Day 254. The Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) performed……Hajj in his life. One 255. Hajj is a pilgrimage of…………… Holy Kabba256. When did the Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) offer Hajj? 10 A. H 257. There are……….. types of Hajj. Three258. In which Surah Hajj has been commanded? Al-Baqara259. How many camels the Holy Prophet (PBUH) scarified? 63260. Shoot means

One tawaf of Kabba 261. The day of sacrifice during Hajj is called…….. Yum-e-Nehr262. The rite of offering sacrifice is performed atMina 263. Jamarat on 10th, 11th, 12th and 13th of the Zil Hajj is performed in………. Mina264. Which two prayers are offered together at Muzdalifa on the 9th Zil-ul-Hajj? Maghrib-Isha 265. The number of Khutbas during the Hajj is……….. One266. The first Hajj was performed byHazrat Adam (A. S), Hazrat Hawa (A. S)267. Who built the first structure of the holy Kabba? Hazrat Adam (A. S)268. What is the fundamental pillar of Islam which requires both physical and financialsacrifices? Hajj269.

Literally Jihad meansTo strive hard 270. Jihad was ordained on Muslims through a Quranic verse in……(A. H)  2nd271. The battle was forbidden i n Arabs in the month of………… Muharram272. The word Jihad is derived from the wordJuhada 273. The meaning of Jihad fi Sbil Allah is……….. Fighting in the way of Allah274. What is the meaning of Qital? Fighting275. How many encounters took place between the Muslims and non-Muslims during the lifeof the Holy Prophet (PBUH)? 82276. What is the meaning of Rukn? Support277. What is the plural f Rukn? Arkan278. What is said to Namaz in Arabic? Salat279. What are the meanings of Salat?

Rehmat, Barkat280. When Namaz was ordered? On 27th Rajab 10th Hijri on the occasion of Mehraj281. What is the difference between Kufr and Islam? Namaz282. Name the five NamazFajar, Zuhar, Asar, Maghrib, Isha 283. Describe the Farz Rakaats of each NamazFajar 2, Zuhar 4, Asar 4, Maghrib 3, Isha 4284. What are the Farz of Namaz (Salat)? Qayyam, Rakoo, Sajda285. Which kind of worship is liked by Allah? Namaz286. When Wazoo was ordered? 5 Hijra287. When Azan was started? 1 Hijra288. When Tayammum was ordered? 5 Hijra289. Namaz-Ba-Jamaat is how much better than individual Namaz? 27 times290. In which timings the Namaz is prohibited?

Sun rising, suns setting, sun at the mid291. When first azan was read in Kabba? 9 Hijri, on the occasion of conquest of Makah292. Which Namaz Allah likes among Nafli Namaz? Namaz-e-Tahajat293. What the Namaz-e-Jumma and Eids create in Muslims? Collectiveness (Gathering)294. When is Namaz-e-Kasoof read? At the time of Solar eclipse295. When Namaz-e-Kauf is read? When no rains296. How many Takbeers are in Namaz-e-Janaza? Four297. When the order for Tahweel-e-Qibla was made? 2 Hijri298. When first Namaz of Eid-ul-Fitr was read? 1st Shawal, 2 Hijri 1. On Judgement Day, what will be asked first? Namaz2.

How many times word Zakat is used in Makki Surahs? 22 times3. What is the rate of usher for canal irrigated Zameen? 5 per cent or 1/54. Who are not entitled to get Zakat? Parents, Husband, wife and children5. What is the 4th Rukn (pillar) of Islam? Roza (fasting)6. How many Arkan Roza has? Three, to restrict eating, drinking and sexual intercourse7. What are the objectives of Roza? Taqwa, Zabti-Nafas, Shukar8. What we say to 1st Ashra of Ramzan catacomb of fractures and discharge at the lowest point around the reservoir and the Indus River. Damming the Indus has already caused a number of environmental problems that have not yetaddressed.

Silt deposited in the proposed Kalabagh dam would further curtail the water storagecapacity of Manchar Lake and other lakes and of wetlands like Haleji Lake. President General Musharraf and other leaders, such as Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz, have  promised ? iron -clad’ constitutional guarantees to ensure that Sindh gets its fair share of water. However, these assurances mean little to most Sindhis, who point out that even the earlier 1991Indus Water-Sharing Accord, which is a document already guaranteed by the constitutional body, the Council of Common Interests, has been violated, and that Punjab has ? tolen” their water. The objection to Kalabagh in Sindh is widespread. Even political parties of Sindh that are in thecentral cabinet and are supported by General Musharraf, such as the MQM, have stronglydenounced the dam. NWFP viewpointThe NWFP has two main objections to the dam. While the reservoir will be in the NWFP, the dam’s electricity-generating turbines will be justacross the provincial border in Punjab. Therefore, Punjab would get royalties from the centralgovernment in Islamabad for generating electricity. Contrary to this, however, Punjab has agreednot to accept any royalties from the Kalabagh Dam.

The fact that the NWFP will suffer theadverse consequences of the reservoir but not get royalties is seen as unfair. Concerns that large areas of Nowshera district would be submerged by the dam and even widerareas would suffer from waterlogging and salinity as has occurred with the Tarbela Dam. Balochistan viewpointThe dam does not directly affect the Baloch as such. Rather, most nationalist Baloch Sardars seesthe dam as another instance of Punjab lording it over the smaller provinces. By opposing the damthey are signaling their disaffection with being the poorest province and most neglected of all indevelopment.

In reality Balochistan can only get more water and its due share after theconstruction of Kalabagh dam and Kachhi canal. The Common Man’s ViewpointMajority of people of Pakistan are against the construction Kalabagh dam, as its construction canprove a danger to sustain the unification of provinces under the name ‘Pakistan’. The only peoplewho want the construction of Kalabagh dam can be classified into two groups: The first is thehigh ranked officers of Pakistan army, who will be granted farmlands to be irrigated by Kalabaghdam after the retirements (in fact these are the most powerful supporters of dam).

The secondgroup is the political leaders of Punjab; since the issue has turned out be a war between Sindh andPunjab, so by favouring the construction of Dam, Punjabi politicians can maintain their vote-bank. The only reason why President Pervaiz Musharaf favours Kalabhgh dam is because he needs the support of Punjab to sustain his dictatorship in the country. All the ? oppressed’ provinces (Sindh, NWFP and Balochistan) of the country has already expressed a huge concernover the construction of dam, specially in Sindh where every single street has observed the protestagainst the dam.

The people of these oppressed provinces do not believe in any guarantee from ? Punjabiz’ Pakistani government as it has already do ne many decisions against theconstitution/treaties, for example, the regulation of water in Chashma-Jehlem link canal. AnalysisMost independent analysts believe that the foremost problem with the proposed dam at Kalabaghis one of a trust deficit between the Punjab on one side and the other three provinces on the other. The noted columnist, Ayaz Amir suggested that the people of Punjab should redefine theirassumptions about the rest of Pakistan and distribution of resources.

A layman of Punjab does notunderstand why the rest of Pakistan does not trust Punjab. The answer, according to Amir, lies inthe frequent coups staged by the Pakistan Army (which is overwhelmingly Punjabi in itscomposition), as well as the Army’s extra-constitutional intervention and influence in publicsector and civil institutions of the country in general and Sindh in particular. Now no province isready to trust the Punjab. All Pakistanis agree that Pakistan faces a severe water shortage, and that some form of watermanagement must be implemented soon.

Many point out that even if work on Kalabagh were tostart tomorrow, it would still take at least eight years to complete and commission such a largedam. In the meantime, the water situation would continue to worsen. Smaller dams, barrages, andcanals must be built before that, and water conservation techniques introduced. The WAPDA for years repeatedly changed its statistics on the dam, to the point where no-one inPakistan now believes any of its figures. Government of Pakistan formed a technical committee,headed by A.

N. G. Abbasi, to study the technical merits of the Kalabagh dam vis-a-vis the othertwo. The four-volume technical report concluded that Bhasha or Katzarah dam should be builtbefore Kalabagh, further complicating matters. To make matters even more complex, the reportalso stated that Kalabagh and Bhasha Dams could be considered feasible. The abrupt way in which President General Musharraf announced the decision to build the dam,simply overruling the objections of the smaller states, has sharply polarised public opinion.

In Punjab the view is one of ?… its high time! ” while in the other states, especially Sindh, the reactionhas been one of ?… over my dead body!?. The fact that the General literally dragged so controversial an issue off the backburner and thrustit into national centre stage without considering the predictable reactions from the smallerprovinces has left many aghast. Much has been said in the press, and the issue is still far frombeing resolved. KAROONJHAR DAMKaroonjhar Dam is a dam in Tharparkar, Sindh, Pakistan.

MANGLA DAMAs per the Indus Waters Treaty signed in 1960, India gained rights for the Ravi, Sutlej and Beasrivers, while Pakistan, in addition to waters of above three rivers in her area and some monetarycompensation, got rights to develop the Jhelum, Chenab and Indus river basins. Until 1967, theentire irrigation system of Pakistan was fully dependent on unregulated flows of the Indus and itsmajor tributaries. The agricultural yield was very low for a number of reasons, the most importantbeing a lack of water during critical growing periods.

This problem stemmed from the seasonalvariations in the river flow and the absence of storage reservoirs to conserve the vast amounts of surplus water during periods of high river discharge. The Mangla Dam was the first development project undertaken to reduce this shortcoming andstrengthen the irrigation system. The dam was damaged partially during an Indian Air Forcebombing in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 when the hydel project was hit by the bombs. The Mangla Dam projectThe Mangla Dam, the twelfth largest dam and third largest earth-filled dam in the world, is only115 km southeast of Rawalpindi.

One has to turn left from Dina Town and the dam on riverJhelum is about 14 km to the east. It was constructed in 1967 across the Jhelum River, about 100miles southeast of the federal capital, Islamabad. The main structures of the dam include 4embankment dams, 2 spillways, 5 power-cum-irrigation tunnels and a power station. The main dam is 10,300 feet long and 454 feet high (above core trench) with a reservoir of 97. 7square miles. Since its first impounding in 1967, sedimentation has occurred to the extent of 1. 13MAF, and the present gross storage capacity has declined to 4. 5 MAF from the actual design of 5. 88 MAF. The live capacity has declined to 4. 58 MAF from 5. 34 MAF. This implies a reductionof 19. 22% in the capacity of the dam. The project was designed primarily to increase the amount of water that could be used forirrigation from the flow of the Jhelum and its tributaries. Its secondary function was to generateelectrical power from the irrigation releases at the artificial head of the reservoir. The project wasnot designed as a flood control structure, although some benefit in this respect also arises from itsuse for irrigation and water supply.

In the centre of the dam there is a Gakkhar Fort from where one can have a panoramic view of thelake. MIRANI DAMMirani Dam is located in Gwadar District, Balochistan, Pakistan. Mirani Dam multipurposeproject, is located on Dasht River, about 30 miles west of Turbat in Makran Division of Balochistan, it envisages provision of dependable irrigation supplies for the development ref irrigated agriculture on the two banks of the river. The project have been completed in November2006 and inaugurated by president Pervaiz of Pakistan.

SHAKIDOR DAMThe Shakidor (Shadi Kor) dam is located near Pasni, in the Balochistan province of south westPakistan, 1,900 km (1,180 miles) from Islamabad and has a length of about 148 meters (485 feet). It was built in 2003, at a cost of 45 million rupees (758,853 dollars), to provide irrigation water tothe nearby farms. On February 10, 2005, the dam burst under the pressure of a weeks’ worth of rain, killing at least70 villagers and dragging their bodies to the Arabian Sea. The Pakistani military was sent intoemergency Search and Rescue operations, saving 1,200 people but still having to account for over400 missing.

SUKKAR BARRAGEThe Sukkur barrage is a barrage across the Indus river near the city of Sukkur, Pakistan. It wasbuilt during the British Raj from 1923 to 1932 as the Lloyd Barrage to help alleviate faminescaused by lack of rain. The barrage enables water to flow through what was originally a 6166-mile long network of canals, feeding the largest irrigation system in the world, with more than 5million acres (20,000 km? ) of irrigated land. The retaining wall has sixty-six spans, each 60 feet wide; each span has a gate which weighs 50tons.

TARBELA DAMTarbela Dam (or the National Dam), the world’s largest earth-filled dam on one of the world’smost important rivers – the Indus-, is 103 km from Rawalpindi near Haripur District. It is a majorsource of Pakistan’s total hydroelectric capacity. Tarbela Dam is part of the Indus Basin Project,which resulted from a water treaty signed in 1960 between India and Pakistan, guaranteeingPakistan water supplies independent of upstream control by India. Construction began in 1968,and was completed in 1976 at a cost of Rs. 18. 5 billion. Over 15,000 Pakistani and 800 foreignworkers and engineers worked during its construction.

It is the biggest hydel power station inPakistan having a capacity of generating 3,478 MW of electricity. The dam has a volume of 138,600,000 cubic yards (106,000,000 m? ). With a reservoir capacity of 11,098,000 acre-feet(13. 69 km? ), the dam is 469 feet (143 m) high and 8,997 feet (2,743 m) wide at its crest whiletotal area of the lake is 260 sq. km. It helps to maintain the flow of the Indus during seasonalfluctuations. A new, smaller hydroelectric power project has been developed downstream known as the GhaziBarotha Hydel Power Project.

It is solely for generating electricity and has a water channel withthe highest flow in the world. While the dam has fulfilled its purpose in storing water for agricultural use in Pakistan, there havebeen environmental consequences to the Indus river delta. Reductions of seasonal flooding andreduced water flows to the delta have decreased mangrove stands and the abundance of some fishspecies. Permits are required for visiting the Dam. Please contact Public Relations Officer (PRO), Waterand Power Development Authority (WAPDA), Tarbela (Tel: 051-568941-2).

A No-ObjectionCertificate (NOC) from the Ministry of Interior (Shaheed-e-Millat Sectt. ), Islamabad is alsorequired for foreign visitors. DIAMER-BHASHA DAMDiamer-Bhasha Dam is the name of a dam that has been planned in the Northern Areas of Pakistan on the River Indus. It is located about 314 km upstream of Tarbela Dam and about 165km downstream of Gilgit. The dam is expected to create a large reservoir with a gross capacity of 7. 3 million-acre feet (9 km? ) submerging large tracts of land in the Diamer district. The dam issupposed to have a power generation capacity of 3. 60 megawatts and is expected to considerableease up the skewed hydro to thermal power generation ratio in Pakistan. It is expected that thedetailed drawings of the dam would be completed by March 2008, immediately after whichconstruction work shall begin. TANDA DAM (RAMSAR SITE)Tanda Dam is lcated in Kohat District, North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan. The sitecomprises a small water storage area in semi-arid hills in the catchments of the Kohat Toi River. Although most of the shoreline is steep, stony and devoid of aquatic vegetation, at the west endthere are some areas of gently shelving muddy shores with a small amount of emergent

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