MB2070 Final exam

establish working units, character analysis, character matrix, identify synapomorphies, construct tree
The steps in a typical cladistic analysis
working unit
The group of organisms that are different than other groups and can be looked at separately; a group with a particular unique trait(s)
polarization; ancestral/derived
what is a character analysis?
0-present; 1850-1960, 1960s
What are the years of the three phases of biogeography?
biogeography
the study of the geographical distributions of organisms, their habitats, and their historical and biological factors which produced them
endemism
native to and restricted to a particular geographic region
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Endemic center
a region with a high proportion of endemics
Taxon/taxa
a taxonomic group of any rank, classificatory rank; any group that is considered sufficiently distinct to be treated as a separate unit
species originates in a centre of origin of its own, it eventually migrates out of this area by dispersal, uses its own particular means of dispersal
The 3 rules of the dispersalist school of thought of historical biogeography
generalized tracks reflect a radically different Mesozoic geography, life and earth evolved together
2 main principles of the panbiogeography school of thought
doesn’t take into account phylogenetics or fossils
What are the weaknesses of the panbiogeography school of thought?
assumption free, relies on congruence
What are the advantages to the panbiogeography school of thought?
makes assumptions about how organisms move/disperse; assumes continents don’t move
What are the weaknesses of the dispersalist school of thought?
bullseye
the dispersalist theory forms what type of pattern?
panbiogeography, cladistics
What are the two aspects of the vicariance school of thought
area cladograms
the basic methodology of vicariance biogeography
includes time and confidence in group statuses, takes into account geologic events
What are the advantages to the vicariance school of thought in historical biogeography?
hard to test, patchy data
What are the disadvantages in the vicariance school of thought?
antitropicality
biogeographic pattern in which taxa occur on either side of the tropics, but not inside
congruence
antitropicality is a type of _______
introduction, removal, modification
Sea level changes can influence species by the ____, _____, ____ of species
diversification, decimation
the cone of increasing diversity includes two processes:
K/Pg
Modern reefs are a feature of post _____ seas
early diversification and subsequent stasis
Intervals in speciation are characterized by….
less seasonality, more carbonate, more oligotrophic, more extinctions
The isthmus of Panama led to…
division and decimation
Consequences of the Gondwana breakup, the CA current, the TTE, the EPB, Isthmus of Panama, and Pleistocene Glaciations
170-50 Ma
years of the gondwanan fragmentation
65 Ma
Year of the K/T boundary
30-25 Ma
years of the Circum Antartic Current
170-14 Ma
years of the shrinking Tethys
14 Ma
Year of the TTE
50+ Ma
years of the East Pacific Barrier
3.1 Ma
year of the Isthmus of Panama
5 Ma- 10,000 yr
year of the Pio-PLeistocene extinctions
5 Ma
year of the red sea geologic event
5 Ma
year of the Mediterranean salinity crisis
Miocene
the period of great reef taxa expansion
increase
Reefs increase/decrease speciation rates
increase
reefs increase/decrease resistance to extinction
accumulation, survival, origination, expansion
the order of the IAA hotspot hypotheses in forming the IAA hotspot (oldest to newest)
historical
type of biogeography that explains the origins of patterns in species diversity and the origins of patterns of biogeographic distributions
ecological
the type of biogeography that explains the maintenance of patterns in species diversity and the maintenance of distributional limits
ecological biogeography
term that defines the role of ecology in the maintenance of biogeographic distributions
can’t look at relationships among all species simultaneously, assumes independence
problems with univariate statistics
multivariate
statistical analysis technique that allows us to present data so we can identify sites that are similar and those that are dissimilar
dimensionality
multivariate techniques reduce _____
ordination; hypothesis testing
PCA is used for _____, not _______
dispersal
the passive or active movement of individuals away from their natal area (area of birth)
planktotrophic
indirect dispersal produces _____ larvae
small eggs, small larvae, high fecundity, long larval duration, long dispersal, high mortality, plankton feeding
results of indirect dispersal
lecithotrophic/brooded
direct dispersal produces_____ larvae
large eggs, large larvae, low fecundity, short larval duration, short dispersal, low mortality, non-feeding
results of direct dispersal
low and high
planktotrophic dispersal is more common in high/low latitudes, and lecithotrophic dispersal is more common in high/low latitudes
benign, favorable
seawater is good for small organisms because it’s ….
area, location (heterogeneity)
marine latitudinal patterns of biogeography are maintained mainly by…
area, location, productivity
terrestrial latitudinal patterns of biogeography are maintained mainly by…
metapopulations
collections of neighborhoods connected through dispersal or migration
colonization/extinction of local populations, evolutionary divergence (genetic drift, local adaptations)
processes of metapopulations
ecological neighborhoods, metapopulations, macroevolution
3 scales of ecological patterns
speciation, extinction
processes of macroevolution
can cause differential speciation/extinction
role of species interactions in macroevolution
growth, fecunity, mortality
processes of ecological neighborhoods
can’t visualize data, need to extract the important information about the sites, need to know which species were responsible for the similarities/differences
the problems with multivariate techniques
ordination
mapping or visualizing data with PCA
variance
PCA identifies ______
independent
In PCA, the different axes data are completely______
dispersal strategy, food resource maximization, predation avoidance, maximizes changes of finding suitable habitat, non-adaptive consequences of historical development
What are the theories for the benefits of a dispersive larval stage?
decreased dispersal, greater genetic subdivision of populations, more speciation, more extinction, adaptation to more local conditions
What are the theories for the benefits of a non-dispersive larval stage?
traditional competition, history and climate, productivity, spatial heterogeneity, predation, environmental stability and harshness, lottery, intermediate disturbance, latitude-area, Rapoport’s rule, mid-domain effect, available habitat
theories to explain the latitudinal gradients in species diversity
restrict/expand distributions, change abundance patterns, impose selection pressures
the roles of species interactions in metapopulation processes
balanoids outcompete chthamaloids/coronuloids, competition reduces other barnacles’ abundances where balanoids occur, balanoids restrict ecological distribution of potential competitors, balanoid diversification causing evolutionary decline in their competitors
the 4 components of the competitive displacement hypothesis for Acorn Barnacles
species richness, endemics, habitat/species loss (biodiversity)
hotspot indicators
large benthic foraminifera, corals, fishes
the fossilized organisms that show hopping hotspots
Tethys
the first tropical hotspot
dried up and formed mountains in its place (Himalayas)
how did the Tethys disappear?
ecosystem stability, functional redundancy, response diversity, resilience
What are the roles of biodiversity?
genetic similarity across wide expanses; assumed larvae were like coconuts
evidence and problems for the open (larval dispersal) population model
endemics and genetic differences between populations in an open system
evidence and for the closed (self-recruitment) population model
hydrological factors, ocean currents, geology (Himalayas)
barriers to dispersal
habitat, thermal limits (environmental), population limitation
possible barriers to establishment
Traditional Competition
The biodiversity model claiming that competition is more intense in the tropics, so tropical species fill more narrow niches (more species per resource)
History & Climate
The biodiversity model claiming that the tropics are more favorable because there are fewer climatic disasters
Productivity
The biodiversity model claiming that the tropics have higher productivity (due to precipitation)
Spatial Heterogeneity
The biodiversity model claiming that the tropics is more spatially complex t, so it has more habitats to accommodate for more species
Predation
The biodiversity model claiming that predation is higher in the tropics, which reduces competition and prevents exclusion
Environmental Stability & Harshness
The biodiversity model claiming that the tropics are less physiologically stressful than temperate/polar regions
Lottery
The biodiversity model claiming that no single species has a competitive edge over another, and this unpredictability maintains local diversity
Intermediate Disturbance
The biodiversity model claiming that the tropics typically have intermediate disturbances, which temperate/polar regions have high/many and low/few disturbances
Latitude-Area
The biodiversity model claiming that the tropics have a larger total area, which allows for larger populations and lower extinction rates. The number of species per unit area is the same though
Rapoport’s Rule
The biodiversity model claiming that tropical species have more narrow latitudinal ranges, so the tropics is made up of many small ranges rather than a few large ranges
Mid-Domain Effect
The biodiversity model claiming that the center (equator) of a region (Earth) will statistically have the most species
Available Habitat
The biodiversity model claiming that the tropics have higher habitat availability
apomorphies
derived character states
plesiomorphies
ancestral character states
Symplesiomorphies, autapomorphies
Types of character states that are non-informative in a cladistic analysis
Synapomorphies
Type of character state that is informative in a cladistic analysis
homologous
structural resemblance and a common ancestor
homoplasy
structural resemblance but no common ancestor
Principle of Parsimony
the principle used to construct cladograms
reversal
the loss or reappearance of ancestral characters