Master

Enclave communities such as Chinatown and little Italy best demonstrate
cultural pluralism
The supreme court ruled in Mayer v. State of Nebraska that
a state could not prohibit the teaching of any foreign language
Imagine that you are assigned to teach in a class with some students who come from different cultural backgrounds, and a few students who have been diagnosed as special-needs learners. Perhaps the most effective approach to teaching these diverse students would be
to invest time in individualizing instruction, since no single strategy will likely meet all these needs
in diverse classroom, teachers can sue generalizations about students from different cultural groups but should avoid stereotypes. Which of the fallowing is a stereotype?
Asian american students are highly competitive
Bilingual education in the US
bilingual education has gone though cycles of acceptance and rejection in the US, often response to wars and changes in immigration patterns
Bilingual maintenance programs emphasize
keeping up proficiency in the naive language while learning English
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When a teacher spends only a week of class time talking about important female inventors he is taking the ______ approach to multicultural education.
additive
Professor Hacker’s view on his parable about race
he considers white privilege so commonplace that most of us are no longer able to see it.
Which of the fallowing represents the thinking of a nefarious branch of deficit theory?
the genetic and IQ deficiencies of certain groups are the root cause of academic underachievement
Teachers in Colonial times
teacher education scarcely existed
most elementary teachers never attended a secondary school
often had no formal preparation for teaching
Normal School 1823
Established by Reverend Samuel Hall in concord, Vermont
a private school that provided elementary school graduates with formal training in teaching skills.
Normal schools 1839
2 yr institutions developed in the early 1800s to prepare prospective elementary teachers.
consisting of academic subjects as well as teaching methodology
Teaching contract from the 1920s
indicated several of the health priorities today (smoking, alcoholism) were concerns then, as well.
A Nation Prepared
abolished the undergraduate teaching major, offering master’s level degrees in teaching instead
Teach for America
best known alternative licensure program
National Board for Professional Teaching Standards
the goal of NBPTS is to award board certification to extraordinary teachers whose skills and knowledge indicate their high level of achievement.
Horace Mann
Established the first state supported normal school in Lexington, Massachusetts.
affective domain
Factor that contibutes to student’s individual leaning style, it includes attiudes, values, and emotions. These factors influence curiosity, the ability to tolerate and overcome frustration, a performance to lean in groups or individually and the willingness to take risks.
Locus of control
an aspect of the affective domain, learners who attribute success of failure to external factors.
cognitive domain
The different ways individuals perceive, organize, retain, and use information.
Intelligence Quotient
developed in the early twentieth century to measure a person’s innate intelligence with a score or 100 as normal, or average.
emotional intelligence quotient (EQ)
Described by Daniel Goleman,
EQ is being self-aware, “self-regulated”, aware of one’s own feelings and others around them, may be even more important than IQ.
exceptional learners
students who require special education and related services to reach their full potential. Categories of exceptionality include retarded, gifted, learning disabled, emotionally disturbed, and physically disabled.
Gardner, Howard
theory of multiple intelligences
How many multiple intelligences are there, according to Gardner?
at least 6 areas of intelligence in addition to mathematics and verbal intelligences (8 are mentioned in the book)
Name the multiple intelligences
logical-mathematical, linguistics, bodily,- kinesthetic, musical, spatial, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist
multiple intelligence logical/mathematical
skills related to mathematical manipulation, and discerning and solving logical problems(number/reasoning smart)
multiple intelligence linguistic
sensitivity to the meanings, sounds, and rhythms of the words, as well as to the function of language as a whole (word smart)
multiple intelligence bodily/ kinesthetic
ability to excel physically and to handle objects skilfully (body smart)
multiple intelligence musical
ability to produce pitch and rhythm, as well as to appreciate various forms of musical expression (music smart)
multiple intelligence spatial
ability to form a mental model of the spatial world and to maneuver and operate using that model (picture smart)
multiple intelligence interpersonal
abilities to analyze and respond to the motivations, moods, and desires of other people (people smart)
multiple intelligence intrapersonal
knowledge of ones’s feeling, needs, strengths, and weaknesses; ability to use this knowledge to guide behavior (self smart)
multiple intelligence naturalist
Ability to discriminate among living things, to classify plants, animals, and minerals; a sensitivity to the natural world. new concept (environment smart)
learning styles
diverse ways of learning, comprehending, and using information.
Three factors that contribute to student’s individual learning style
cognitive, (information processing), affective (attitudes), and physiological
giftedness
A term most frequently applied to those with exceptional intellectual ability. It may also refer to learners with outstanding ability in athletics, leadership, music, creativity, and so forth. Theres a great variance in the definitions and categorizations.Also know as individuals with an IQ of 130/160
Characteristics of giftedness
specific academic ability, leadership, visual and performing arts, general intellectual abilities, and creative thinking
research shows that gifted
suffer from feelings of isolation
locus of control
concept wherein learners attribute success or failure to external or internal factors.
external locus of control
The learner avoids responsibility for behavior, eg. “The teacher didn’t review the material well”
internal locus of control
students believes that hey control their fate and take responsibility for events
Smith, Sally L.
started a school with a curriculum for visual thinker and hands on learners. Arts based learning
Lab School of Washington
arts based
special education
programs and instruction for children with disabilities or gifted students who need special educational services to archive at their ability level.
Five Minds
disciplined, synthesizing, creative, respectful, and ethical minds
Six fundamental provisions included in IDEA
zero reject, nondiscriminatory education, appropriate education, least-restrictive environment, and procedural due process
procedural due process
the right of children with disabilities and their parents to be notified of schools actions and decisions; to challenge those decisions before an impartial tribunal, using counsel and expert witness; to examine the schools records on which a decisions is based; and to appeal whatever decisions is reached
zero reject
the principle that no child with disability mat be denied a free and appropriate public education
least restrictive environment is also known as
mainstreaming and inclusion
Single Sex Schools
boys continue to struggle and girls continue to be stereotyped into sexist behaviors and careers.Some believe that removing the other sex will help reduce the hormonal interference.boys and girls brains are hard-wired differently, genetic differences that require separate schools
Melting Pot
also known as assimilation, enculturation. Process in which the person acquires a culture
cultural pluralism
a recognition that some groups, voluntarily or involuntarily, have maintained their culture and their language.
bilingual education
the use of two languages for instruction
Meyer vs. State of Nebraska
1923- No person should teach any subject to any person in any language other than English.Which was found unconstitutional by the supreme court
Multicultural Reconstructionist Approach
1.expanding the curriculum to reflect america’s diversity, 2.using teaching strategies that are responsive to different learning styles, 3.ensuring and supporting multicultural competence of teachers, comfortable and knowledgeable working with students and families of different cultures; and 4. a commitment to social justice, efforts to work and teach toward local and global equity.
Deficit Theory
A theory that asserts that the values, language patterns and behaviors that children from certain racial and ethnic groups bring to school put them at an educational disadvantage
Stereotypes
absolute beliefs that all members of a group have a fixed set of characteristics
Generalizations
recognize that there are trends over large numbers of people
Assumptions and misconceptions about teaching diverse students
culturally responsive teaching is a new approach intended to meet the needs of poor, urban students of color. only teachers of color can actually be culturally responsive to students of color. culturally responsive teaching is little more than a collection of teaching ideas and practices to motivate students of color. culturally relevant teachers must master all the critical details of many cultures. culturally relevant teaching categorizes children, which feeds stereotypical thinking.
The different approaches to multicultural education
Gloria Ladson-Billings
developer of three promising culturally responsive principles for teaching not only African American children but others as well.
Ladson-Billings three principles
students must experience academic success, which leads to a stronger self-esteem. Esteem is built on solid academic accomplishment. Students should develop and maintain cultural competence, and the student’s home culture is an opportunity for learning. Students must develop critical consciousness and actively challenge social injustice.
Professor Hacker
considers white privilege to be so commonplace that most of us are no longer able to see it
“Lau remedies”
guidelines for school districts which specify that “language minority students should be taught academics in their primary language until they could effectively benefit from English language instructions.”
The Bilingual Education Act 1968
provided the federal financial incentives, using what some call “a carrot approach” to encourage schools to initiate bilingual education programs.
The English-only movement
people who worry that bilingual education threatens the status of English as the nation’s primary vehicle of communication They feel that English is a unifying national bond that preserves our common cultures. The also believe that the purpose of bilingual education should be to quickly teach English to ELL students.
four approaches to multicultural curriculum
contribution approach, additive approach, transformation approach and the social action approach.
contribution approach
focuses on heroes, holidays, and discrete cultural elements
additive approach
content, concepts, themes, and perspectives are added to the curriculum without changing it’s structure.
transformation approach
the structure of the curriculum is changed to enable students to view concepts, issues, events, and themes from perspectives of diverse ethnic and cultural groups.
social action approach
students make decisions on important issues and take action to help solve the problem
teacher centered philosophies
emphasize on the importance of transferring knowledge, information, and skills from the older(presumably wiser) generation to the younger one. it’s core is essentialism and perennialism
essentialism
strives to teach students the accumulated knowledge of our civilization through core courses in the traditional academic discipline
Perennialism
although very similar to essentialism. They organize their schools around books, ideas, and concepts and criticize essentialist for the vast amount of factual information they require students to absorb in hir push of cultural literacy.
informal education
children learn adult roles through observation, conversation, assisting, and imitating all while absorbing moral, intellectual, and vocational lessons.
socratic method
by repeatedly questioning, disproving, and testing the thoughts of his pupils, helping students reach deeper, clearer ideas.
Academy in Athens
founded by Plato whose belief was that these faculties interact to determine human behavior
Golden Mean
the notion that virtue lies in a middle ground between two extremes.Introduced by Aristotle
epistemology
examines the nature and the origin of human knowledge
political phylosophy
analyzes how past and present societies are arranged and governed and proposes ways to create better societies in the future.
aesthetics
probes the nature f beauty
scaffolding
questions, clues, or suggestions that help students in link prior knowledge to the new information.
ethics
the study of what is good or bad in human behavior, thoughts, and feelings.
praxis
the doctrine that when actions are based on sound theory and values, they can make a real difference in the world.
ethnocentrism
the tendency to view one’s own culture as superior to others
Which statement would most likely be made by a critic of schools’ efforts to transmit culture?
“When schools transmit culture, they tend to privilege certain groups and make other groups feel inferior.”
Alexis is a teacher who feels strongly about the importance of preparing students to live in a democracy. She feels that this objective is just as important as math or science, and she constantly pushes her colleagues to incorporate civic instruction into their courses, no matter the subject. Alexis’s ideas reflect
social democratic reconstructionism
Economic reconstructionists believe that
schools are tools of oppression
As an economic reconstructionist, Paulo Freire argued that
schools were tools of oppression and miseducation
When students, parents, and teachers were asked to rate school goals in a study,
vocational, personal, academic, and social and civic goals were all rated “very important.”
In schools where teachers do not have daily contact with one another and act independently of others in the school, this represents a failure of which “five-factor theory” concept?
a clear school mission
Studies on school size have determined that
smaller schools are more effective than larger schools because their students are more likely to pass their classes
The current reform efforts in education can be traced to
A Nation at Risk
The economist who argued that school competition and choice would improve the quality of public education was
Milton Friedman
Which of the following statements most reflects the beliefs of James Coleman?
When we look at private and parochial schools, we can see that they do a better job than public schools. So perhaps private schools are the way to fix education.”
Which of the following is a characteristic of charter schools?
Charter schools can be virtual
At a recent school board meeting, a group of parents spoke out on the issue of the poor quality of the district’s schools. They demanded the formation of charter schools that emphasized a rigorous, traditional curriculum and teacher-centered classrooms. These parents most closely resemble
zealots.
An early promoter of vouchers in education was
economist Milton Friedman
Which of the following was begun as a tool to desegregate schools?
magnet schools
How many states currently allow open enrollment within their school districts?
40 or more
There tend to be fewer virtual schools at the elementary levels, primarily because
virtual schooling can deprive children of interactions needed for them to develop socialization skills
The experiences that school districts had with the Edison Schools Inc.
did not have a visible effect on the privatization movement
Based on poll results, how have Americans’ opinion on the idea of charter schools changed in the past decade?
In the latter half of the decade, Americans have become significantly more favorable toward the idea of charter schools.
Jean and Stephen were concerned about the quality of education that their son, Galen, was receiving in the neighborhood school. They felt that the secular curriculum did not reflect their strong religious beliefs. As result, they chose to homeschool Galen for the rest of his educational career. The religiously-based motivation on the part of Galen’s parents to homeschool him is indicative of
ideologues
Elaine was homeschooled for most of her life before heading to college at a state university. Based on what is known regarding homeschooled students in college, Elaine will probably
be well-thought of by many of her professors because she is willing to take risks.
Baltimore middle school was recognized by the U.S. Department of Education as a green ribbon school. The school earned this distinction for
creating a healthy school climate, implementing suggestions from students and teachers to reduce energy consumption, and producing students who were environmentally literate.
According to the survey by the Education Sector, most teachers
support educational reform
Influential teacher organizations are cautiously supportive of a merit pay plan, providing certain provisions are met. Which of the following is NOT one of those provisions?
pay across the board for all teachers must be atleast 50 percent higher than current teacher salaries
Historically, who has the LEAST opportunity to give feedback in the school reform movement
students
In Life in Classrooms, Philip W. Jackson characterizes school life as
a passive process in which students do little more than sit and wait.
Research indicates that because of noninstructional demands (discipline problems, attendance, etc.) teachers lose what percentage of instructional time
between 25 percent and 50 percent Correct
Paula is an elementary school teacher who often feels more like the last thing in the world she gets to do is teach her students. She feels as though much of her day is taken up with determining who gets to speak, when to line up for lunch, how the class will work when broken into groups, and so forth. Based on these actions, Paula occupies the role of
gatekeeper
According to Jeannie Oakes, tracking persists in schools largely because
educators don’t really believe that they can change their students’ educational capabilities
According to Goodlad, which statement is true regarding the patterns of classroom interactions?
Students are typically restrained in a relatively small space, during a period in which much of the activity is about maintaining order.
For all of his schooling, Nicola has found himself in the lower level tracks. Despite this, he has studied hard and has done well in his classes. In his eighth-grade year, one of his teachers urged him to register for college preparatory courses in high school. Inspired by the idea that one of his teachers thought he could actually make it to college, Nicola and his parents met with his counselor. Based on the research by Ray Rist, what is the counselor most likely to tell them?
“You know, not everyone is cut out for college. The work is really hard and I am not sure that you are really prepared. I think you should stay in the courses that we have previously discussed.” Correct
If detracking is to be successful, schools must
provide careful planning and training for teachers to operate in a detracked environment.
During elementary school, there is
more communication between races than between sexes.
Which of the following statements would most likely be made by a critic of middle school education?
“Middle schools do not do a good job of providing stability for either parents or students.”
Which of the following best describes a characteristic of adolescent culture in school
preoccupation with physical attractiveness and peer popularity
Critics of middle school education argue they should be replaced by
K-8 schools.
When people remember their high school experiences, they are most likely to recall issues concerning the
social status system.
Regarding the friendships that they make, teens tend to
make friends from many groups, but not close friends.
Which of the following is true of today’s families in the U.S.?
Only two-thirds of children live in two-parent households.
Which of the following is true regarding working women?
Women and men still have not reached equality in pay.
Emily’s parents have just completed a divorce in which both parents will share custody. For Emily, which of the following statements is true?
Emily will probably go through a process that closely resembles mourning.
The most widespread form of substance abuse is
alcohol abuse.
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
African Americans have the highest suicide rate of all racial and ethnic groups.
Which of the following is a recommended teaching strategy found to be particularly appropriate for students living in poverty?
focus on language skills
Poor students frequently feel alienated from the school experience because
they feel disconnected from schools that reflect middle-class values.
Members of which demographic group are at the greatest risk for committing suicide
Native American males
In researching poverty, Shirley Brice Heath found that interactions between adults and children
are fewer in lower-class families, and more information-driven.
Which of the following ranked highest with girls in describing their peer culture in middle school
relational aggression
Bullying has been an accepted school tradition for so long because
teachers accept the common myths surrounding bullying
Mercedes, a young Hispanic female, is excited because she is about to celebrate her fifteenth birthday, the quincea-era,
which is considered to be a rite of passage into adulthood. Such celebrations are an important part of Mercedes’s
culture
Demographically, most of the poor in America are
white.
Attempts to organize Gay-Straight Alliances in schools have been aided by the
Federal Equal Access Act
In an essay she wrote in her sociology of education course, Eve argued that one of the reasons that minorities struggled academically while in schools was genetic deficiencies that made them incapable of learning at the same pace as non-minority students. Such thinking on Eve’s part is indicative of
deficit theory.
According to current statistics, racial segregation among groups in society has
increased
Marie is a middle-grades teacher in a large city. Marie believes that all children can learn, and she strives mightily to help her students achieve. Yet, every day in the teacher’s workroom she seems to get into arguments with colleagues who feel that it is a waste of time and effort to try to work with the students they teach, since “they’re just going to wind up dropping out and going to jail.” The attitudes of Marie’s colleagues are indicative of
expectation theory.
The “Lau Remedies” were important because they
required schools to take positive steps to eliminate language barriers to learning
Han is an elementary school student in a rural district. Han’s family arrived from Laos, and he speaks very little English. Although Han really wants to do well at school, he struggles, because the instruction is in English only and his teachers make no effort to modify instruction so that he can understand what is going on. Han’s experience most closely reflects
language submersion
By the year 2030, children of color will make up approximately what proportion of the school population?
about half
In diverse classrooms, teachers can use generalizations about students from different cultural groups but should avoid stereotypes. Which of the following is a stereotype?
Asian American students are highly competitive.
A major assumption of multicultural education is that
students should develop positive attitudes toward different cultures.
During the past decades, the College Board has worked to diversify its reading lists for its Advanced Placement Exams to reflect works by women, people of color, and writers from Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Such efforts on the part of the College Board reflect which approach to multicultural education?
transformation
Which of the following statements about stereotyping is NOT true?
Stereotypes are undermined by contradictory information.
When Carlos Ovando’s family first emigrated from Nicaragua, school was difficult for him because of his limited English proficiency and because he was not allowed to speak Spanish at school. His experience was most similar to that of
Kinney Lau, whose difficulty in school led to a landmark court case, Lau v. Nichols.
When a teacher spends only a week of class time talking about important female inventors, the teacher is taking the ________ approach to multicultural education.
additive
Israel Zangwill’s 1910 description of America as a “melting pot” best reflects the idea of
assimilation.
Culturally responsive teaching proponent Gloria Ladson-Billings would most likely support all of the following EXCEPT
using a single learning style in order to avoid student confusion.
Frequently, the ability of teachers to engage in LGBT issues in schools is influenced by
the attitudes and support their communities demonstrate for LGBT issues in schools.
When a state implements a law that mandates English-only instruction in schools, the state’s action represents which underlying philosophy of bilingual education?
cultural assimilation
In terms of deciding which approach to bilingual education is most effective, research has indicated that
there is no single approach that is most effective.
Nick is a high school teacher in a large city in the Southeast. Although he is white, he works well with the diverse students in his school, as well as with the parents in the community. One of the things students and parents appreciate about Nick is that he is comfortable in the community and he has taken the time to learn about his students and “where they come from.” In terms of multicultural education, Nick emphasizes
cultural competence.
Which of the following statements best reflects the findings of survey data regarding the state of race relations in America?
“Yeah, I think that I’ve got a much better attitude about race than my mom and dad and grandparents do.” Correct
Multicultural educators that follow the approach called “teaching the culturally different” primarily advocate
creating close links between school and home so that minority children can succeed academically.
One of the reasons that students in schools are more segregated today than at any time since the Civil Rights movement is
a lack of willingness on the part of the federal courts to enforce desegregation policies.
As a student in college, Luisa was shocked at some of the things she was learning in her Survey of American History course. Although she had studied American history before, her teachers had never mentioned many of the things she was learning for the first time from the professor. Luisa’s experiences would most closely reflect the effects of
null cirriculum
Educator Hilda Taba argued which of the following about the importance of a school curriculum?
Learning in school is different than learning in life because schools are more formally organized
Which of the following represents a way in which a teacher might informally influence curriculum?
Paula decides to change the order in which she is going to present literary genres in her high school English class
In recent times, the role of state governments in curricular decisions has
increased through testing and the implementation of state standards. Correct
The development of common core state standards that have been adopted in over 40 states reflects the influence on curriculum by
. education commissions and committees
Which of the following groups of states wield the most influence on textbook creation and adoption
Texas, California, North Carolina and Florida Correct
Which of the following factors has the greatest potential to undermine the influence of the major textbook adoption states in determining the instructional content of textbooks?
The arrival of digital publication technology will make it easier for states to adopt texts tailored to their needs
One of the primary reasons that No Child Left Behind was revamped is that
. there was a fear that most of the nation’s schools would be labeled as failing.
Research on the effectiveness of computers in education shows that
a. although a popular idea, the jury is still out on the effectiveness of computers in schools.
Which statement would most likely be made by a proponent of Common Core Standards?
“What is great about the Common Core Standards is that they allow exploration of content in-depth, just like other countries that are successful on international achievement tests. Perhaps the Common Core Standards will allow our students to become more competitive on these tests, too
Andrew is a student in the class Rebecca teaches. While Andrew is not in the lowest percentile of the class, he isn’t in the highest, either. In fact, Andrew could go either way in terms of passing or failing. Rebecca will spend
the most amount of time on him because he is a “bubble kid
Textbook adoption states
are common in the south
Advantages of the statewide textbook adoption process include all of the following benefits EXCEPT
more options for teachers at the local level
The phenomenon represented by the test-tampering scandal in Atlanta, Georgia, is most closely associated with
Cambells law
A textbook covers twentieth-century U.S. history without mentioning the continuing struggle for civil rights; and pictures throughout the text portray only harmonious race relations. This is an example of bias called
unreality
Which of the following is NOT a reason that standardized tests are popular?
They can accurately measure teacher performance
Lisa, Paul, and Jay were given an assignment at the end of their first unit in Spanish I. They were to prepare and act out a skit where they were to assume the roles of students visiting Argentina for Spring Break. They were to enter into a restaurant order a meal, and pay for the meal, all in Spanish. The students knew they were being evaluated on how they performed these tasks, so they took care to do a good job. This sort of task is an example of
authentic assessment.
According to survey information on the subject of teaching creationism, evolution, or intelligent design in schools, a large segment of the public feels that
students should be exposed to competing theories in schools
Which constitutional amendment is at the heart of the controversies surrounding intelligent design, creationism, and evolution
1’st amendment
Research indicates that the frequency of self-censorship
is virtually impossible to trace
A scientific “theory,” such as the theory of evolution, is
a thoroughly tested belief unlikely to change.
“Intelligent design”
credits an unnamed intelligence for aspects of nature unexplained by science
The main point of the “saber-tooth curriculum” is that
slavish devotion to the content of past times can result in a curriculum obsolete in the face of contemporary realities.
Which of the following comments is most likely to be made by an opponent of censorship
“I really feel that, while schools should protect children from blatantly inappropriate ideas, ‘inappropriate’ is a pretty subjective term.”
The next major trend in educational technology appears to be the implementation of
hybrid courses
New conceptualizations of intelligence view it as changeable and somewhat controllable. This idea of intelligence is referred to as
incremental theory
Jean is a student in your class. She is very aware of how she feels emotionally, and has a clear idea of her strengths and her limitations. She uses her sense of self as a key resource as she approaches her work in your class. Based on this description, you believe that Jean has
intrapersonal intelligence
A person who demonstrates strong existential intelligence (the intelligence Gardner is currently exploring) would have the ability to
formulate questions about life, death, and who we are.
A student who says, “I failed the test because the fire alarm went off in the middle of the test” appears to exhibit
an external locus of control
According to Gardner, if we are to develop students who are willing to face hard truths and value honest behavior, we have to develop the
ethical mind.
The idea that “reasoning and control” might combine in way that “enhances living” is most directly associated with the concept of
emotional intelligence
How might you characterize the changing understanding of intelligence?
We are broadening our understanding of intelligence beyond traditional language and mathematical-logical factors.
Psychologist Daniel Goleman argues that
the emotional intelligence quotient may be a better predictor of life success than the traditional intelligence quotient
Which of the following has NOT been given as a reason for single-sex schools
Girls’ science and math genes are developed in single-sex schools
People who are popular, are good leaders, and can make others feel comfortable and connected may be strong in which emotional intelligence dimension?
handling relationships
Which principle of special education implies that children have the right to an education involving accurate diagnosis of individual needs
IEP
Today, about ________ percent of the public school student population is identified as gifted.
6
The principle of the IDEA that states that no child with disabilities may be denied a free, appropriate education is
zero subject
The concepts in the IDEA that students should be assessed fairly by the use of tests that are free from cultural biases and are in the students’ native languages would be covered by which provision
non-discriminatory education
Which of the following is NOT currently one of the five elements of giftedness identified by the National Association for Gifted Children?
wisdom
Which of the following is true of students receiving special education
Boys are more likely to receive special educational services than girls
A teacher reading the work of Janet Hyde would most likely come to which of the following conclusions about the male and female students in his classes
I really need to consider what I should do to academically support my students who come from economically disadvantaged backgrounds
The case against segregating children with disabilities was made in part because of the findings of
the Brown v. Board of Education decision
Least-restrictive environment” refers to
integrating students with disabilities into classrooms with non-disabled students whenever possible
One of the reasons that teachers feel uncertain about educating special needs students is that they
do not feel that they have the resources to work with special needs students.
Procedural due process” refers to the
rights of children with disabilities and their parents to have access to and input on school decisions
After what major event did America experience its first shift toward humanist social attempts at better treatment and education of the disabled?
the Revolutionary War
For teachers involved in gifted education programs, one of the key tasks to accomplish is
helping the students learn critical life skills
Grace Fernald, Marianne Frostig and Heinz Werner are noted for pioneering
research into special education
Which of the following is NOT a significant part of the portfolio approach to assessment?
written tests on logical ability
Which of the following is generally considered a positive aspect of the teaching profession
the ability to influence the lives of young people
Which of the following statements is true regarding merit pay
Merit pay is popular among many reformers
Alice is a teacher who has just finished her fourth year of teaching. At the end of that year, Alice was informed that she would be granted tenure. From this point, Alice can expect
protection from arbitrary dismissal
In terms of professional status, many consider teaching to be
somewhere between a full profession and a semiprofession
Edward lives in Maryland during the colonial period. When it comes time to choose a trade, he decides he wishes to become a teacher. How would he prepare to teach children during this time in American history
He would receive virtually no formal training at all.
Normal schools were important because they
represented the earliest form of professional teacher education
Modern efforts at education reform can be traced back to the
1980s and the reports by The Holmes Group and the Carnegie Foundation
When Amanda decided to be a teacher in college, she found that her school had discontinued its undergraduate teaching major. In its place, Amanda did a fifth-year program that combined both bachelor and master’s level requirements. Interestingly, when Amanda went for her NBPTS certification as a teacher, the principles reflected in the NBPTS requirements reflected those she encountered in her teacher preparation in college. Amanda’s teacher preparation most closely reflected the ideas contained in
A Nation Prepared.
To demonstrate their expertise, teachers undergoing NBPTS certification must
demonstrate understanding of the most effective teaching methods
Elaine has been a fifth grade teacher since 1998. During this time she has become an adept observer of her students and how they learn. Elaine takes her experiences with her students and combines them with the theory she has learned to craft instruction that promotes curiosity, tolerance, honesty, respect for diversity, and appreciation for all cultures. Finally, Elaine makes a point of modeling these virtues for her students so that they master these ideas even more effectively. Elaine’s actions most closely reflect which of the NBPTS’s core propositions?
Teachers think systematically about their practice and learn from experience.
Paula is a high school music teacher who is known for her involvement and commitment to her students and to her school. She is constantly working with other teachers and administrators so that they can have the best instruction, curriculum, and staff development possible. She also reaches out through her music program to involve parents and the community to make sure that these groups are engaged with the school and feel like they have stake in what is going on there. Paula’s actions most closely reflect which of the NBPTS’s core propositions?
Teachers are members of learning communities
Regarding the issue of how to best prepare teachers, there is
no consensus on how to best prepare teachers
Unlike traditional teacher preparation programs, alternative teaching programs
focus on apprenticeships and on-the-job training
One of the recommendations for improving the Teach for America (TFA) program is to
increase classroom support for TFA participants as they teach
The idea for Teach for America (TFA) came from
an undergraduate thesis at Princeton
Pavel is a new teacher in an inner-city school in Boston. To prepare for teaching, Pavel first had to promise his school that he would stay for at least five years. Then, he spent his first year on the job observing and working with Dava Anderson, a master teacher who had been working with inner-city students her entire career. All the while, Pavel was taking coursework at Boston College to gain a theoretical understanding of teaching. Only during his second year was he allowed to teach students of his own, and then only under Dava’s careful supervision. Based on this description, Pavel is part of
teaching residency program
The goal of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards is to
assess and certify highly competent teachers
Only about 3% of teachers become board certified because
it is expensive and fewer than half of the states pay for their teachers to prepare for board certification.
Although U.S. middle school students may lag behind their Japanese counterparts in international algebra tests, the differences disappear on later tests due to the
greater effectiveness of U.S. university systems.
What is the evidence that U.S. students are actually doing quite well in their educational performance?
SAT reading and mathematics scores are at an all-time high.
Which of these is NOT a reason for the furor surrounding the quality of U.S. education
the idea that schools are underfunded and need more governmental support Correct
Compared to resumes, portfolios
take a more creative approach to highlighting a candidate’s skills
Horace Mann helped establish the first
state-supported normal school
________ was influential in creating the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards.
The Carnegie Forum
One of the reasons that urban legends about teaching are damaging to teachers is that
they are accepted as true by many policymakers

When a philosophy is applied to the classroom, it influences all of the following EXCEPT:

A) the way the curriculum is organized.
B) the instructional strategies that are used.
C) the assessment and evaluation practices.
D) the funding available to the school from the state.

D)

Which of the following educational philosophies are teacher-centered?

A) existentialism and pragmatism
B) existentialism and idealism
C) idealism and realism
D) pragmatism and realism

C)

Which of the following educational philosophies are student-centered?

A) existentialism and pragmatism
B) existentialism and idealism
C) idealism and realism
D) pragmatism and realism

A)

Many politicians and members of the public insist that teachers should be held accountable for the academic success of their students. Those who hold this belief would accept which of the following educational theories?

A) constructivism
B) essentialism
C) humanism
D) progressivism

B)

Cary Snodgrass wrote an indignant letter to the editor of the local newspaper in which she criticized the educational system because a recent poll had shown that the majority of students could not pass a test of basic facts about the geography of the nation. Cary’s letter expresses the view of one who believes that schools should use an approach that is based on

A) behaviorism.
B) essentialism.
C) perennialism.
D) positivism.

B)

The Parent’s Council at Shallow Creek Elementary School has organized study groups who are discussing the series of books written by E.D. Hirsch Jr. that have titles, such as, What Your Third Grader Needs to Know. The council members efforts at establishing a back-to-the-basics curriculum at Shallow Creek are consistent with

A) constructivism.
B) perennialism.
C) behaviorism.
D) essentialism.

D)

Teachers who accept the essentialist theory of knowledge would agree that they must aid students in

A) developing sound habits of mind and respect for authority.
B) seeking everlasting truth.
C) acquiring a common core of information and skills.
D) acquiring facility in accessing the vast amounts of knowledge available on the world wide web.

C)

The role of an essentialist teacher is

A) guide and resource person.
B) facilitator.
C) dispenser of knowledge.
D) activist for social change.

C)

Classroom behaviorist theory is based on the beliefs of

A) B.F. Skinner.
B) John Dewey.
C) Theodore Sizer.
D) A.S. Neil.

A)

The concept of positive reinforcement is a central idea of

A) behaviorism.
B) essentialism.
C) perennialism.
D) progressivism.

A)

Behaviorist teachers believe that when they ignore undesirable behavior

A) it will spiral out of control in the classroom.
B) students will continue to behave in that manner.
C) the bad behavior will be extinguished.
D) they will encounter problems from previously well-behaved students.

C)

Marianne Merrill is a fourth grade teacher at Silver Creek Elementary School. When her students do well on a test she distributes marbles which they place in personal jars. When she ʺcatches them doing something goodʺ they also receive marbles. After the students have collected enough marbles, they may use them to purchase various small items such as candy or school supplies. Marianne tries to ignore students who disobey or act out because she believes that the lack of rewards will extinguish the undesirable actions. The system used by Marianne is based on

A) behaviorism.
B) essentialism.
C) perennialism.
D) positivism.

A)

Amy Therrian introduces each series of lessons with a set of educational objectives. One of the objectives was, ʺAll students will determine the specific gravity of an unknown liquid by using a hydrometer and a series of liquids of known specific gravities.ʺ At the end of the unit each student had to demonstrate that he or she had mastered the skill. Amy’s teaching strategy is consistent with

A) behaviorism.
B) essentialism.
C) perennialism.
D) positivism.

D)

Positivist teachers believe that student achievement is best assessed through

A) personal interviews.
B) authentic assessment.
C) objective bias-free tests.
D) essay questions.

C)

The teachers in the mathematics department at Westdale High School have decided to adopt a standardized teaching strategy that they feel will best suit the majority of their students. Each unit will begin with clear, precise expectations of what the students should know and be able to do. The teachers will explain the new concept that is to be covered. They will demonstrate how to solve problems using the concept on a Smartboard. Several students will then go to the board and repeat the approach using additional examples. The students will then begin working on their homework problems while the teachers walk around the room checking for understanding and offering assistance. The students will then complete ten to twenty additional homework problems using the concepts discussed in class. This approach to teaching uses a strategy known as

A) direct instruction.
B) critical thinking.
C) the scientific method.
D) problem solving.

A)

Student-centered educational philosophies agree that

A) teachers need to establish rules and then explain their rationale to the students.
B) the best learning occurs in an environment where the teacher is an active learner also.
C) teachers must center their efforts on transmitting knowledge.
D) tangible rewards given to students inspire them to learn more.

B)

The educational theory that places emphasis on how to think as opposed to what to think is

A) behaviorism.
B) essentialism.
C) progressivism.
D) reconstructionism.

C)

Back-to-the-basics advocates accuse those who have adopted progressivism of

A) promoting changes in society.
B) emphasizing specific disciplines.
C) undermining democratic principles.
D) stressing process at the expense of specific content.

B)

During his teacher education program, Anwar Raja has come to the conclusion that progressivism is the philosophy with which he most closely identifies. When he begins to teach, Anwar will do all of the following EXCEPT:

A) emphasize teaching students how to think, rather than what to think.
B) favor the scientific method of teaching and learning.
C) encourage novel solutions rather than a single right answer.
D) urge his students to become involved in projects to correct social injustices.

D)

Teachers who accept the humanist educational philosophy of accept all of the following EXCEPT:

A) enhancement of the innate goodness of the individual.
B) adherence to standards developed by experts.
C) rejection of group-oriented educational activities.
D) seeking ways to enhance individual development.

B)

One day while discussing current events, the students in Marcus Robinsons class indicated a concern about the depletion of the aquifers in the western states. Several of them were quite upset about the ramifications of a decline in freshwater supplies. When they heard about the Sparkle Fresh Water Company building a new pumping station to extract water that can be bottled and sold, they were enraged. As a humanist teacher, Marcus would most likely

A) join in expressing his opinion that they should become involved in a public condemnation of Sparkle Fresh.
B) organize a letter writing campaign to local media outlets.
C) ask the students what they think should be done and then support whatever action they choose.
D) point out to the students that they will likely run up against a bureaucracy that will ignore studentsʹ views.

C)

Schools with individualized education are based on

A) constructivism.
B) humanism.
C) progressivism.
D) behaviorism.

B)

During the first week of the new school year, Emilia Gomez conducted a series of class meetings. She asked the students to think individually of possible rules for the classroom. Then she placed them into groups of four to share their ideas and choose and justify the five rules they thought were the most important. Each group presented its list to the entire class. After a whole-class discussion, the students developed the list of rules to be adopted for the school year. The approach used by Emilia is consistent with

A) constructivism.
B) humanism.
C) progressivism.
D) behaviorism.

A)

According to the constructivist theory of education

A) students develop personalized understandings.
B) teachers transmit knowledge and concepts to students.
C) parents implant knowledge into their children.
D) children possess knowledge at birth but they are unaware of it until it is drawn out through discussion.

A)

Constructivist teachers use strategies to encourage all of the following EXCEPT:

A) critical thinking.
B) understanding of big ideas.
C) mastery of factual information.
D) connecting new concepts to existing ideas.

C)

Boris Lembovski is a physics teacher at Centennial High School. He asks the students to think about and share with a partner experiences they have had with sports, such as baseball, softball, soccer, hockey, pool, bowling, or football, that involve collisions between objects or people. After demonstrating how an air table works, he asks them to predict what will happen when different types of collisions occur and finally to test their predictions with the equipment set up around the lab. In his lesson, Boris is using strategies based on

A) constructivism.
B) humanism.
C) progressivism.
D) essentialism.

A)

Owen Walls, as the principal of Elmgrove Elementary School, is responsible for assessing the degree of success of the new teachers on staff. Owen accepts the view that most principals hold with regard to the easiest way to determine how well a new teacher is doing. Therefore, he will look to see how

A) flexible they are.
B) many educational theories they can recall and explain.
C) well they know the content of the courses they teach.
D) well they are able to organize their classrooms.

D)

You are visiting a school in the week before classes are to begin. Most of the teachers have already set up their rooms for the students who will soon arrive. You look through the open doorway into one room and notice that there are open areas, with small groups of chairs arranged around tables in a number of separate areas. Off to one side there is an area with two computers and in a corner there is a circular rug with a small, but colorful and attractive collection of books. From your observation, you are able to predict that the teacher in that room perceives learners to be

A) passive.
B) active.
C) neutral.
D) obedient.

B)

You are planning for your first year as a fourth grade teacher. As you think about the units that you will be teaching, you should include all of the following in your plans EXCEPT:

A) linking all lessons to the textbook.
B) suggestions for teaching the lessons.
C) types of materials to be used.
D) specific plans for evaluation.

A)

Teachers who believe that they should develop students who are divergent thinkers will design tests that look for

A) a single right answer.
B) evidence that students have memorized strategies.
C) creative solutions.
D) a frequently replicated method.

C)

Teachers who believe that they should develop students who are convergent thinkers will design tests that look for

A) creative solutions.
B) a single right answer.
C) multiple answers.
D) signs of unique ideas.

B)

Atsko Kobasigawa wants to encourage her students to be motivated to learn. Since this is her goal she should seek to do all of the following EXCEPT:

A) encourage internal desires to learn.
B) relate her teaching to student needs.
C) encourage active participation in the learning process.
D) institute a creative system of rewards.

D)

A teacher-dominant orientation results in all of the following situations EXCEPT:

A) student interests drive the curriculum design.
B) there is a set of rules and regulations.
C) provision of clear directions.
D) control lies in the hands of the teacher.

A)

When Clinton and Aylissa began to argue over who should take the class guinea pig home for the holidays, Ms. Nesterenko waited patiently for the issue to be resolved. This incident shows that Ms. Nesterenko is a teacher who holds which of the following views?

A) interactionist
B) interventionist
C) noninteractionist
D) noninterventionist

D)

Miko has developed the habit of smacking other students on the back of the head when he goes to the pencil sharpener or wastebasket. Dale Shea, his teacher, speaks quietly to him and arranges an after school meeting to investigate possible solutions to Mike’s misbehavior. This approach indicates that Dale is a teacher who holds which of the following views?

A) interactionist
B) interventionist
C) noninteractionist
D) noninterventionist

A)

Teachers who follow William Glaser’s Choice Theory will do all of the following EXCEPT:

A) consider the reasons why students misbehave.
B) seek the assistance of counselors.
C) contact and discuss the situation with parents.
D) accept responsibility for studentsʹ misbehavior.

D)

An integral part of Glaser’s Choice Theory is to

A) impose consequences determined beforehand.
B) have students design a plan of their own to correct misbehavior.
C) have students choose a plan from a list supplied by the teacher.
D) lead students to a forced-choice decision between two alternative solutions.

B)

The Assertive Discipline plan includes all of the following EXCEPT:

A) compulsory rules for students.
B) rewards for obeying rules.
C) consequences for failure to follow rules.
D) taking time to determine why rules are broken

D)

Conflict resolution strategies involve

A) enlisting parents to help solve problems.
B) establishing rules to handle potential problems.
C) teaching students to recognize and constructively solve problems.
D) developing relationships with the principal so he or she can immediately respond to problems.

C)

Teachers who have expectations for student behavior in the classroom are more likely to be successful if they

A) empower their students to act appropriately.
B) model the behavior themselves.
C) provide a vision of what things should be.
D) explain their rationale completely.

B)

The gulf between students from different socioeconomic backgrounds in a school district is often exemplified by all of the following, EXCEPT:

A) the availability of federal grants for special programs.
B) the percentage of students taking advanced placement courses.
C) the percentage of students with special education modifications.
D) the placement of more experienced, fully-qualified teachers in a school.

A)

One’s philosophical and political perspectives determine how one views the roles of schools. In the United States, all of the following are considered viable goals for schools by some individuals EXCEPT:

A) schools should support democratic equality.
B) schools should support social efficiency.
C) schools should support social mobility.
D) schools should support finding one’s natural place in society.

D)

Those holding liberal democratic and capitalist views have different opinions about the roles of schools. Which of the following statements correctly describes these views?

A) Democracy calls for private rights while capitalism calls for public rights.
B) Democracy calls for a liberal education while capitalism calls for preparation for work.
C) Democracy calls for preparation for work while capitalism calls for a liberal education.
D) Democracy allows for inequalities while capitalism demands equality.

B)

Saying the Pledge of Allegiance in class is an example of which purpose of school?

A) cultural transmission
B) academic competence
C) citizenship
D) nationalism

C)

Civics and government courses generally focus on encouraging

A) connections with civic and religious groups.
B) the structure of the U.S. political system and its heritage.
C) a feeling of trust in political figures.
D) the desire to give, assist others through volunteering.

B)

The most effective way to engage students in the democratic process is to

A) model civic behavior through a meaningful student government.
B) provide a single, comprehensive civics course that covers all aspects of democratic government.
C) invite the mayor, councillors, state, and federal representatives to a “Democracy Expo.”
D) encourage students to work on political campaigns at election time.

A)

The biggest problem with preparing students for a specific trade in a vocational program is

A) employers would rather have students with strong generic skills.
B) it is a financial burden on the school system that employers ought to bear.
C) in today’s world the specific skills will be obsolete within a few years.
D) employers are in the best position to teach skills they require.

A)

Low levels of achievement on international standardized tests lead to all of the following reactions in the United States, EXCEPT:

A) There should be an increased concentration on the “basics.”
B) There should be a reduction in the time spent on life-skills.
C) The school day should be lengthened to allow more time for essential studies.
D) The funding provided for education needs to be increased greatly to improve instruction.

D)

In the 21st century, the greatest challenge facing those involved in vocational education is

A) finding ways to provide students with an ever increasing volume of knowledge.
B) helping students to develop the precise skills for their life’s work.
C) preparing students so they can adjust to change and adapt to new possibilities.
D) assisting students to function as “cogs in the wheels” of business and industry.

C)

Lower scores for students from the United States on international achievement tests like TIMSS and PISA, cause outcries from critics that include all of the following demands, EXCEPT:

A) an emphasis on preparing students to live in a global economy.
B) a back-to-the- basics approach for all students.
C) increased time spent on mathematical concepts and skills.
D) relying on phonics-based strategies for teaching reading.

A)

Nelson McKelvie is a fourth grade teacher who wants to promote positive interaction among the diverse students in his class. He knows that one of the most effective ways to do so would be to

A) have them form self-selected groups to study and complete assignments.
B) form cooperative learning groups that he carefully selects.
C) arrange for a class Scrabble competition.
D) put on a class play at a school-wide assembly.

B)

To eliminate confusion about the common culture of the United States among students newly arrived from a different background, the school must carefully

A) align the formal and hidden curricula to reinforce national values and rules.
B) immerse the newcomers in the common culture as soon as they enroll.
C) provide a crash course on what it means to live in the United States.
D) encourage students to retain their native culture rather than learning the common culture too quickly.

A)

Transmission of culture is considered to be a role of the school system of any nation. However, there are some portions of society in the United States today who object to transmission of many of the aspects of culture for one reason or another. All of the following are objected to by a segment of the population, EXCEPT:

A) the promotion of a multicultural curriculum.
B) discussion of society’s values.
C) the promotion of our democratic form of government.
D) emphasis on individualism and competition.

D)

Culture can best be described as possessing aspects of all of the following, EXCEPT:

A) shared.
B) constant.
C) dynamic.
D) learned.

B)

Blerina is a recent immigrant from Albania. Ms. Carstairs has been asking her some questions about her family. The information file she has received indicates that Blerina has a sister and so Ms. Carstairs is surprised when Blerina shakes her head from side to side in answer to the question, Do you have any sisters or brothers? Later Ms. Carstairs discovers that side-to-side head shaking in Albania means, Yes, while up and-down head shaking means, No – exactly the opposite of what she understands them to mean. This type of confusion is a result of a difference in

A) cultural verbal cues.
B) cultural nonverbal cues.
C) limited English proficiencies.
D) communication blocks.

B)

Pedro Gomez is a recent immigrant from Mexico. He is taking driver training from Mr. Jones. As Pedro heads west on the interstate, Mr. Jones says, Be careful as you go around the next bend because there is construction and traffic may begin backing up. Pedro, taking Mr. Jones at his word begins to panic fearing that he will see cars reversing towards him. This type of confusion is a result of a difference in

A) cultural verbal cues.
B) cultural nonverbal cues.
C) limited English proficiency.
D) communication blocks.

A)

A teacher may do all of the following to help prevent miscommunications based on cultural cues EXCEPT:

A) recognize that these miscommunications are based on cultural differences.
B) teach the communication patterns of the common culture.
C) teach students when to use common communication patterns.
D) insist that students stop using their own cultural cues.

D)

Cajun culture includes the use of French language and phrases that have continued to be spoken by the original people who moved as Acadians from Nova Scotia to Louisiana after the fall of New France. Because of the nature of culture and how it is maintained and transmitted, which of the following best describes modern Cajun culture and its relationship to culture in France and Canada?

A) Cajun and Parisian language and culture are so alike they are virtually interchangeable.
B) Cajun and Acadian cultures in Canada are interchangeable because of origins but differ from that of France.
C) Cajun culture today has no apparent connection to its roots in France and Canada.
D) All three cultures are distinct because they each are dynamic and have evolved in different directions.

B)

The Common Culture of the United States is derived from that of

A) white, middle-class Catholics from Western Europe.
B) white, middle-class Protestants from Western Europe.
C) black, middle-class Protestants from Africa.
D) middle-class Hispanics from Mexico and Central America.

B)

The Common Culture has been defined historically by

A) a consensus of all residents of the area.
B) legislation and regulations of governments.
C) those in power in the area.
D) decisions of courts of law.

C)

The Civil Rights struggles of the 1960s and 1970s are examples that illustrate that in the United States

A) there has long been a consensus on what the common culture should look like.
B) that those in power will not voluntarily share it with those who have different values.
C) that the majority has the right to set the pattern for everyone in society.
D) that beliefs, attitudes, and values are universally held.

C)

Helga Brenders knows that she can learn more about the cultural identities of her students in all of the following ways, EXCEPT:

A) volunteering to sponsor the chess team at the school.
B) taking a course in ethnic studies.
C) participating in a cultural fair sponsored by an ethnic club.
D) organizing a multicultural club at her school.

A)

A school with a pluralistic approach will

A) emphasize the common culture’s heritage to help foster a feeling of belonging.
B) build on similarities and minimize differences among students.
C) value cultural differences and integrate them into the curriculum.
D) encourage children to concentrate on learning about and celebrate their individual heritages.

C)

The Pleasant Valley School District is planning to build a third high school. Many of the students from the two existing schools will have to move to the new school. The district has established a committee to help the student body of the new Stony Creek High School to develop a sense of belonging and community. They know that all of the following are signs and emblems that will build a school culture, EXCEPT:

A) a school song.
B) colors for team uniforms.
C) cheers.
D) assimilation.

D)

Which of the following is an example of a school tradition?

A) emphasis on individual needs.
B) high school marching band.
C) community bonds.
D) Carnegie units.

B)

You are acting as a consultant to a group of parents who wish to set up a charter school for their children. Since some of them are unsure of the requirements for such a school, you have been asked to present an introductory session. You should include all the following as requirements, EXCEPT:

A) The group must find a state agency or local school board that will agree to sponsor the school.
B) The group must agree to a contract that describes how the school will operate in exchange for public funds.
C) The group must agree that it will be accountable for student learning.
D) The group must agree to meet all district and state regulations.

D)

Which of the following would object the most strongly to a proposal to institute a voucher system that would include access to private and religious schools?

A) conservative politicians.
B) teacher unions.
C) ethnic minorities.
D) the state Department of Education.

D)

Over the past thirty years, the net migration of families and individuals has involved movement

A) from the west coast to the east coast.
B) from the Southwest to the Northeast.
C) from the South and West to the Northeast and Midwest.
D) from the Northeast and Midwest to the South and West.

D)

Katrina is a student at a Montessori School. She began school at age two and a half and will soon be turning seven. Which of the following statements describes her education so far?

A) She is proud of the straight A’s she has earned.
B) She has had the same teacher during the whole time she has been there.
C) Her days have been organized into short, Sesame-Street-type, segments.
D) She has not misbehaved because of the strict discipline system in place.

B)

The overall poverty rate is highest among those living in

A) rural areas.
B) outer suburbs.
C) inner suburbs.
D) cities.

D)

Increasing numbers of urban and suburban dwellers are re-establishing themselves in rural communities from which they commute to employment in cities. Which of the following tends to be true about the values of the newcomers when compared to the values of the natives of the rural communities?

A) They have similar values.
B) They are more conservative.
C) They have different expectations of schools..
D) They are content to accept what is in place.

C)

A higher level of achievement on tests and a higher percentage of students attending college is found in

A) rural areas.
B) suburbs.
C) cities.
D) inner cities.

B)

Those living in large urban areas have all of the following advantages, EXCEPT:

A) unusually rich resources, such as museums, libraries, and theaters.
B) an extremely diverse population.
C) a wide range of affordable housing.
D) a variety of magnet schools serving different interests.

C)

One-half of the population of the world lives in

A) rural areas.
B) suburbs.
C) medium-sized cities.
D) mega-cities.

D)

The schools throughout a city, such as New York City, can best be described as

A) uniform in quality and condition.
B) employing the same philosophy of education.
C) looking different and serving students differently.
D) sharing resources and funding equally.

C)

Parents who are in the upper middle class more frequently tend to do all of the following, EXCEPT:

A) volunteer to help in school breakfast programs.
B) talk with their children’s teachers..
C) intervene so that their children have the best teachers..
D) encourage their children to complete school work..

A)

The mayors of cities, such as Washington D.C. and New York City, have taken control of the management of the public school systems with the stated aim of

A) reducing taxes and budgets.
B) reforming schools and improving student learning.
C) improving the curriculum.
D) ensure that children are treated more equitably.

B)

As a result of the criticisms of those associated with educational reform, teachers who have been identified as ineffective are being replaced by energetic, intelligent, and enthusiastic teachers with backgrounds that have emphasized

A) educational philosophies and developmental theories.
B) a wide variety of teaching strategies to assist diverse learners.
C) academic content in one or more subject areas.
D) a concern for the welfare and well-being of all students.

C)

Research on effective schools shows that they possess all of the following characteristics, EXCEPT:

A) they have strong ties to teacher unions.
B) they are standards-based.
C) they use performance-based assessments.
D) they encourage problem-solving and critical thinking.

A)

To be awarded “Blue Ribbon” status by the federal government as a high performing school, students in the school must operate at which percentile on the state tests?

A) 95th
B) 90th
C) 85th
D) 80th

B)

The factor with the greatest impact on the publicity surrounding the performance gaps among different groups in society is:

A) pressure from state legislators.
B) criticisms by education reformers.
C) disaggregation of scores mandated by NCLB..
D) pressure resulting from freedom of information laws.

B)

Income, occupation, and educational attainment are criteria that constitute

A) culture.
B) socioeconomic status.
C) capital.
D) pluralism.

B)

What characteristic of society places individuals at different levels of the social structure based upon wealth, income, occupation, and education?

A) socioeconomic status
B) social composition
C) social power
D) social stratification

D)

How are characteristics such as levels and rank within the social class structure classified?

A) social stratification
B) social composition
C) stereotypes
D) social power

A)

The class that represents 46 percent of the employed population is the

A) middle class.
B) upper class.
C) working class.
D) underclass.

C)

Families whose income ranges from $45,000 to $88,000 make up the

A) working class.
B) lower class.
C) middle class.
D) upper class.

C)

The term Asian American refers to the classification of a population known as

A) cultural.
B) microcultural.
C) panethnic membership.
D) social stratification.

C)

The identification of membership in a group based on the national origin (that is, a specific country or area of the world) of one’s ancestors, a shared culture, and a sense of common destiny is called

A) cultural identity.
B) ethnicity.
C) social stratification.
D) ethnocentrism.

B)

Ethnic group members share all of the following EXCEPT:

A) a common religion.
B) a common history.
C) a common language.
D) common traditions.

A)

Viktor and Olga, who recently immigrated to the United States, want their children to remain connected to their ethnic origins. They can do so by all of the following EXCEPT:

A) participating in ethnic clubs or events.
B) practicing traditions of the country of origin.
C) helping other new arrivals to become assimilated.
D) being actively engaged in promoting the civil rights of their group.

C)

What is the officially recognized sign language with a complex grammar and a well -regulated syntax?

A) Institutional Sign Language
B) American Sign Language
C) Universal Sign Language
D) Spoken Sign Language

B)

Tyrell would like to work in the preparation of media for educational uses. If he plans to be a narrator, he would be wise to develop skills in

A) inner city dialects.
B) standard English.
C) maintaining his regional dialect.
D) multidialect pronunciations.

B)

At what age have children learned their gender and begun to exhibit stereotypical behavior?

A) two years old
B) three to four years old
C) five to six years old
D) eight to nine years old

C)

All of the following are unaffected by a person’s gender EXCEPT:

A) mathematical aptitude.
B) science aptitude.
C) verbal abilities.
D) income from employment.

D)

Which statement best reflects the economic status of women in the United States?

A) They have made considerable economic progress and generally are paid as much as men for comparable jobs.
B) They generally do not enjoy equal job status and earn considerably less than men for comparable jobs.
C) They enjoy economic equity with men but this is not reflected in the media.
D) They enjoy economic and social equity with men but this success is being compromised by the lack of interest in women’s movements.

B)

When Kaitlyn is interviewed for a teaching position in a working-class school she is asked why many of the boys in the school have developed patterns of resistance to school and its authority figures. Her best answer would be:

A) They perceive that schooling is feminine, emphasizing mental rather than manual work.
B) It is a genetic trait that schools cannot overcome.
C) They think that aggressiveness toward the faculty will make them more attractive to girls.
D) Boys will be boys.

A)

Title IX programs are intended to

A) prevent discrimination so that females and males have equal educational opportunities.
B) provide intellectually challenged students with equal opportunities.
C) require school boards to make school buildings accessible to the physically challenged.
D) provide girls with the same sports teams as boys.

A)

The Rocky Hill School District has been accused of not complying with the provisions of Title IX with respect to their sports programs. The lawyer for the school district has informed the school board members of the three points, upheld by courts in the past, that they must apply. The test includes all of the following points EXCEPT:

A) the percentage of female and male athletes must be substantially proportionate to the percentage of females and male students enrolled in the district.
B) if the percentages of female and male athletes is not proportionate to the percentage of female and male students, the district must fully and effectively meet the interests and abilities of female students.
C) the school district must provide opportunities for all females and males to participate in the same sports.
D) the school district must have a history of expanding opportunities for underrepresented females to participate in sports

C)

Sexual orientation in a child is established by

A) infancy.
B) early childhood.
C) middle childhood.
D) young adulthood.

B)

Some educators make a determination as to whether or not a child with special needs will be able to enter the diploma-bound program by the end of kindergarten. Such a decision can

A) help these students achieve by lowering the pressure on them.
B) lead to lowered academic expectations for those students who can perform at high levels when provided with appropriate accommodations for their disability.
C) help the students by providing more opportunities for accommodations for their disability.
D) benefit students by grouping them in segregated facilities with others having similar disabilities.

B)

Sally Houston has reduced mobility because she is confined to a wheel chair. She has a college degree and is certified as a laboratory technologist. She has applied for many positions and the personnel directors who have interviewed her are extremely impressed with her knowledge and skills. However, she has been told by most of them, ʺWe would like to hire you but we are unable to because…ʺ

A) of a lack of accommodations in the workplace.
B) our health care carrier won’t allow it.
C) workman’s compensation will not apply.
D) legislation prevents us from hiring you.

A)

Inclusion is most effective when all of the following are part of the plan EXCEPT:

A) the classroom teacher also acts as a specialist dealing with the exceptionality.
B) a team of specialists develops an individualized educational plan (IEP) for each student.
C) a teacher’s aide works with students with exceptionalities.
D) the classroom teacher collaborates with a team of specialists providing specific services.

A)

The architects for Glendale Middle School are meeting with the administration of the school district to provide for accommodations for the school’s inclusion plan. They will need to consider all of the following EXCEPT:

A) washrooms that are handicap accessible.
B) ramps or elevators.
C) desks to accommodate wheelchairs.
D) an inviting room exclusively for students with exceptionalities.

D)

Religious beliefs generally guide students and their families in all of the following areas, EXCEPT:

A) agreement on the essential core of a belief system.
B) the values and lifestyles of families.
C) the socialization of children and young people.
D) guidance on moral and ethical issues.

D)

The most common religion in the United States is

A) Catholicism
B) Jewish
C) Muslim
D) Protestantism

D)

The foundations of multicultural education include all of the following, EXCEPT:

A) diversity.
B) social justice.
C) homogeneity.
D) equality.

C)

Bunmi Sodade knows that she will promote multiculturalism among her students if she

A) sets aside a week during Black History month to discuss the contributions of African Americans.
B) holds an ethnic food festival when students can bring in their native foods to share.
C) displays posters that highlight major contributions by women to science.
D) integrates principles of diversity, social justice, and equality throughout her curriculum.

D)

Rheena is preparing a presentation for a unit on multiculturalism for one of the classes in her teacher education program. Which of the following strategies has been the most effective in bringing the cultures of diverse students into the classroom?

A) allow them to go to the library to find books about their culture
B) study their culture one month a year
C) invite a speaker from the same cultural background to the classroom
D) use examples from their cultures and experiences as subjects are taught

D)

Jeremy Chase wishes to demonstrate to the diverse students in his class that he has a respect for their cultural backgrounds. He has contacted Vern Mahadeo, the school district’s Multicultural Consultant. Since he ha s spent a great deal of time studying how to work with diverse students, Vern would recommend all of the following EXCEPT:

A) Teachers should be able to help students see the relationship between the subject matter and the world in which they live.
B) Students should be able to see themselves in the representations used by teachers.
C) Teachers should be able to provide instruction that allows students to access the knowledge based on the studentsʹ way of thinking.
D) Teachers should strive to find the best scientifically-proven teaching strategy and use it for all their students.

D)

If you were part of a committee to help develop an awareness of other cultural groups at a teacher’s college in an area that was very homogeneous, you would be likely to recommend all of the following approaches EXCEPT:

A) encourage collaboration with other schools with similar populations.
B) provide courses in ethnic and women’s studies.
C) require students to read and respond to books by female authors and authors of color.
D) require participation in institutions and activities of diverse communities.

A)

Teachers who believe that all students can learn, who place students at the center of teaching, and who try to build on their cultural backgrounds and experiences, will develop meaningful learning experiences when they engage in

A) culturally relevant teaching.
B) diversity teaching.
C) equity education.
D) social justice learning.

A)

Which of the following is an important consideration for teachers who still face fairly homogeneous populations?

A) They need to make certain that the dominant culture is ingrained in all their students.
B) They need to work harder to bring different perspectives to presentations and discussions.
C) They can spend more time on a traditional curriculum and less on discussing diversity.
D) They need to concentrate on preparing their students for the specific jobs available in the community.

B)

The Supreme Court case that declared separate-but-equal education for black and white students illegal was

A) Plessy v. Ferguson
B) Brown v. Board of Education
C) the Dred Scott case
D) Clarke v. Baltimore Public Schools

B)

Multiculturalists believe that

A) the promotion of diversity will divide the nation.
B) English-only policies will encourage assimilation.
C) the recognition and promotion of diversity will strengthen the nation.
D) immigration policies need to be more restrictive.

C)

Tamika would like to provide an environment that would permit all student participants to have voice. She realizes that such a move could be risky and she must be prepared for all of the following possibilities EXCEPT:

A) The students may express anger and be confrontational.
B) The students may test the limits of the type of language that can be used.
C) The students might feel that they have nothing to contribute and will remain silent.
D) Her patience may be tested as she and the students figure out how to listen and contribute to the listening process.

C)

Which of the following is particularly important in affirming student voices?

A) respect for differences that exist in the classroom
B) teachers need to be prepared with the right answers to all questions
C) teacher monologues to make sure that the stage is properly set for each discussion
D) a reliance on oral communication rather than writing and artistic expression

A)

Which of the following is an example of a social injustice?

A) The best teachers are in the schools with the most academically challenged students.
B) The number of minority students in special education classes is proportionate to the school population.
C) All students are given an equal opportunity to learn.
D) A high school in a low-income area does not have the funds to offer an advanced placement class.

D)

Most attempts to provide equal educational opportunities have provided which of the following?

A) compensatory programs to help overcome gaps
B) equal access to gifted and talented programs
C) increased numbers of spaces in advanced placement programs
D) a completely level playing field for all students

A)

Which of the following is a policy that would ensure that all students, regardless of cultural background and family circumstances, would be provided access to a similar educational opportunities?

A) equality in education
B) equal educational opportunity
C) dominant educational opportunity
D) no educational opportunity

B)

Manuel Ortega wants to help his students to achieve at the highest levels possible. He knows that to be successful, he will have to employ all of the following strategies EXCEPT:

A) All students should be provided with equal opportunities to learn.
B) His methods should demonstrate that he believes all students should be expected to learn at a high level.
C) Those students not performing well will become intellectual challenges for him.
D) Students not achieving well should be moved to other classes where they will have better opportunities.

D)

David Orchinsky believes that teaching for social justice is an integral part of his job. He knows that to reach his goal he must address all of the following in his program, EXCEPT:

A) help his students to have hop for a more equitable and socially just society.
B) join with his students in confronting injustice and removing impediments to equality.
C) assist the shopkeepers in the neighbourhood to advertise their merchandise.
D) take on community projects, such as assisting elderly and underprivileged residents clean up their property.

C)
Which of the following statements best describes beginning teachers’ beliefs about their teaching ability?
Beginning teachers are confident about their teaching ability when they begin, but their confidence decreases when they encounter the realities of classroom life.
Which of the following statements best describes beginning teachers’ expectations about their abilities to help children learn?
Beginning teachers expect their confidence in their abilities to help children learn to increase as they gain experience.
Which of the following statements best describes beginning teachers’ beliefs about how they will learn to be effective teachers?
Beginning teachers believe that they will learn most of what they need to know about becoming an effective teacher when they get into full-time experiences in classrooms.
Of the following, which is the most accurate description of beginning teachers’ beliefs about what makes a teacher effective?
The most effective teachers are those able to most clearly explain the content they teach to their students.
Which of the following statements best describes the importance of knowledge of content (such as knowledge of history) in being an effective teacher?
Knowledge of content is one of the essential kinds of knowledge that effective teachers possess.
Which of the following statements best describes the number of new teachers who leave the profession by the end of their second year of teaching?
About a fourth of new teachers leave the profession by their second year.
Which of the following statements best describes the number of new teachers who leave the profession within their first five years?
About four of 10 new teachers leave the profession within the first five years.
The “process by which a state evaluates the credentials of prospective teachers to ensure that they meet the state’s professional standards” is best described as:
teacher licensure.
A shorter route to teaching for those who already possess a bachelor’s degree best describes which of the following?
Alternative licensure
Which of the following percentages best describes the number of new teachers who enter the profession through alternative licensure?
25%
The attitudes, values, customs, and behavior that characterize a social group is best described as:
culture.
A person’s ancestry and the way individuals identify themselves with the nation from which they or their ancestors came is best described as:
ethnicity.
Pedro is a boy living in a small Mexican village. Every day he rises early, for he must walk the two miles to his school. He has breakfast of beans and bread made from ground corn, leaves the house and begins his trek. He likes the walk for he can wave to his papa toiling daily in the cornfields that provide the food and income for the family. When Pedro comes home from school he often plays soccer with his friends in the village, and after dinner his mother usually plays songs on a guitar while papa sings. The activities Pedro is involved in, such as playing soccer and listening to his mother and father play and sing best illustrate which of the following?
his culture
Rafael, a recent immigrant from Mallorca, an island in the Mediterranean off the coast of Spain, is very proud of his Spanish heritage. He usually speaks Spanish at home and loves evenings and weekends where he basks in the laid back, relaxed lifestyle and lack of concern about time that are characteristic of the way he grew up. However, he never misses school, turns in all his assignments, and is always on time for school and his classes. Rafael’s Spanish heritage and identification with Mallorca best describes his:
ethnicity
Which of the following statements illustrates the relationship between culture and ethnicity?
ethnicity is a part of culture.
Which of the following is not a component of ethnicity?
socioeconomic status
According to research, which of the following is the most likely perception of cultural minorities who are alienated from school?
They feel like they are neither welcome nor do they belong in school.
Of the following, the most effective strategy for helping reduce or eliminate the effects of resistance cultures is to:
expose students to role models that have succeeded while retaining the characteristics of the minority culture.
Researchers have attempted to understand the high success rates of Southeast Asian students who have been in the United States a relatively short period of time. Of the following, which is the most accurate description of the researchers’ findings?
The researchers found that the families of these children placed heavy emphasis on the importance of education and hard work.
Ann Henderson states to her 2nd graders, “All right everyone, let’s put our math papers away now.” Don, a white student, puts his math materials away, while Daron, an African American student, does not. If the students’ are typical of behavioral patterns for white and African American students, according to research, which of the following is the most likely explanation?
Daron is more likely to “misread” Mrs. Henderson’s directive, not interpreting it as a command than is Don.
“An organization with established structures and rules designed to promote certain goals” best describes a:
social institution.
Of the following, which is a social institution?
A city government
From the perspective of meeting learning goals for students, which of the following is the most accurate definition of schools?
Social institutions designed to promote students’ growth and development
“An administrative unit within a geographical area given the responsibility for education within its borders” is best described as a:
school district
Individual schools in a county are part of larger organizational frameworks called:
districts
The person(s) given the ultimate responsibility for a school’s operation is/are the:
principal
The people responsible for the day-to-day operation of schools are the:
administrators.
Support staff best describes which of the following?
media center specialist
Of the following, leaders’ decisions about organizing schools (such as organizing middle schools into grades 6, 7, and 8) are most commonly based on:
the developmental characteristics of students and economics (such as the cost of schools).
9 “What teachers teach and what students (hopefully) learn,” best describes:
the school’s curriculum.
With respect to education, which of the following best describes the significance of the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution?
It assigned legal responsibility for the education of its citizens to the fifty states.
Which of the following statements best describes the similarities and differences in states’ approaches to governing education?
In spite of their differences in geography, economy, and politics, each of the fifty states has a surprisingly similar organizational structure.
A geographical area given the legal responsibility for education within its borders is best described as a:
school district
Which of the following is given the responsibility for determining the curriculum that will be taught at an individual school?
The local school district in which the curriculum is taught
According to research, which is the most accurate assessment of for-profit (designed to make money for the people managing the school) charter schools?
The educational experiences they provide for students are generally inferior to the experiences students have in public schools.
Of the following, what is the best description of a local school board?
Groups of elected lay citizens responsible for setting school district policy
Which of the following is not a function of local school boards?
Specifying teaching techniques that increase student achievement
Which of the following best describes vouchers?
Financial support that parents can use to purchase educational services at schools other than the ones their children are attending
Which of the following best describes state tax credit plans?
Tax credits parents receive for money they’ve spent on private school tuition
“The ultimate form of school choice” is best described as which of the following?
home schooling
Of the following, what is the best definition of a professional?
A person able to make decisions in ill-defined situations
Of the following, which best describes laws that regulate the rights and responsibilities of teachers?
They are purposely written in general terms so they can be applied to a variety of specific situations.
Of the following, which best describes an important limitation of laws that regulate the rights and responsibilities of teachers?
The laws are written in response to problems in the past, so they don’t necessarily apply to situations that exist today.
Which of the following is the best definition of ethics?
Principles used to decide whether or not acts are right or wrong
Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between teachers’ legal responsibilities and their ethical responsibilities?
Legal responsibilities describe what teachers must do (such as protecting students’ safety), whereas ethical responsibilities describe what teachers should do (such as objectively presenting both sides of a controversial issue).
Which of the following statements best describes codes of ethics in different professions?
All professions have codes of ethics that are designed to guide practitioners and protect clients.
As a new teacher, you realize that both your legal rights and responsibilities and codes of ethics are limited because they provide only general guidelines for your professional practice. Of the following, what is the most effective and practical process you can use to accommodate the general nature of laws and ethics?
Know as many of the laws that apply to education as possible and keep your code of ethics handy as a reference.
You have signed a contract to teach in a local school district, and later you decide that you want to take another job in a different state. Which of the following best describes your legal obligations?
You are legally bound by the contract, and in many states you could lose your license for breaking the contract.
Which of the following best describes your legal obligations to perform non-teaching duties (such as sponsor a debate club or coach an athletic team) as part of your teaching job?
You are legally obligated to perform non-teaching duties specified by your local district’s policies if the duties are connected to your teaching assignment (such as a science teacher being required to be a science club sponsor
A first-year teacher in your school is not being offered a contract for her second year because the school enrollments have gone down, and the teaching staff is being reduced. Which of the following best describes the teacher’s legal rights?
In some states a hearing will be required, but in most states the teacher can be dismissed without a hearing.
Which of the following statements best describes curriculum?
Learning goals and the reasons the goals have been selected
Which of the following best describes instruction?
The ways teachers help students reach learning goals
Which of the following best describes the explicit curriculum?
What students learn that is found in their textbooks
Which of the following best describes the implicit curriculum?
What students learn as communicated by the way teachers interact with them
Whenever Calvin Green’s students are unable to answer in question and answer sessions, he prompts them until they can give an acceptable answer. “I want them to learn that being uncertain is all a part of the learning process,” Calvin explains. Learning that “being uncertain is all part of the learning process,” best illustrates the:
implicit curriculum
If you make decisions about using textbooks based on research examining their effective use, which of the following is your best decision?
You should cover some of the topics in detail, de-emphasize or eliminate others, and add topics you feel are important.
Which of the following is the best description of censorship?
The process of not allowing the use of certain books or ideas in the school curriculum
Which of the following is the most accurate description of the character education versus moral education debate?
Both agree that education in morality is needed, but they differ in what they believe the goals and methods of instruction should be.
Of the following, which statement best describes the way professional organizations (such as the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics) influence curriculum?
Professional organizations publish standards which students are expected to meet.
Reading, writing, and math are the most strongly emphasized areas of the curriculum in elementary schools. Of the following, which is the most likely reason for this emphasis?
Reading, writing, and math are the areas in which students are most commonly tested.
Which of the following best describes a productive learning environment?
A classroom environment that is orderly and focuses on learning.
Three of the following statements are reasons why effective classroom management is so important. Which one is not a reason?
Policymakers’ concerns about the achievement of minority students
Of the following, which is typically beginning teachers’ greatest concern?
Their ability to manage their classrooms
Which of the following is not an outcome of effective management?
Greater obedience and conformity
The description: “Actions teachers take to create an environment that supports and facilitates both academic and social-emotional learning,” best describes:
classroom management
Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between classroom management and effective instruction?
Classroom management and effective instruction are interdependent; it is virtually impossible to effectively teach in a chaotic classroom, and orderly classrooms are virtually impossible if instruction is ineffective.
Which of the following statements best describes the difference between classroom procedures and classroom rules?
Classroom procedures describe routines to be followed, whereas classroom rules describe standards for acceptable behavior.
Research indicates that classroom management is most effective when interventions are as brief and unobtrusive as possible. Based on this research, which is the least intrusive intervention for a minor infraction, such as a student briefly whispering to another student?
Use an indirect cue, such a moving near the student.
In the case of a serious management problem, such as two students fighting, which of the following should be your immediate reaction?
Stop the fight, if possible.
Without any announcement from the teacher, students come into class, take their seats, take out their workbooks, and begin working exercises written on the chalkboard. The aspect of classroom management illustrated in this description is best described as:
effective use of classroom procedures.
According to professional surveys, which of the following are the two most important reasons people give for choosing to teach?
Working with young people and contributing to society
You’re a third grade teacher. Of the following, the best example of an extrinsic reward is likely to be:
receiving a salary supplement for being the grade chairperson in your school for third grade.
Which of the following best describes teacher work schedules?
They’re extrinsic rewards in teaching.
Teachers often work with 25 or 30 or more students. Which aspect of classroom complexity does this best illustrate
multidimensional
Of the following, which is the most important teacher role?
creating productive learning environments
Which of the following is the best label for the description: “A developing aspect of teaching characterized by a specialized body of knowledge, emphasis on decision making and reflection, autonomy, and ethical standards for conduct?”
professionalism
An understanding of instruction and management that transcends individual topics or subject matter areas is best described as:
general pedagogical knowledge.
Problem solving in ill-defined situations based on professional knowledge is best described as demonstrating:
knowledge of the profession
“Suggested changes in teaching and teacher preparation intended to increase the amount students learn” are best described as:
reforms
Which of the following is best described by the definition, “A provision of No Child Left Behind that requires students to show demonstrated progress in statewide tests toward meeting state standards?”
Adequate yearly progress
In America, at this point in history, the institution primarily responsible for meeting the needs of young people and helping them adapt to the world is the:
family
The “traditional” American family-a father who is the primary breadwinner, a mother who stays at home, and two school-aged children now makes up what percentage of the households in the United States?
less than 10%
Families headed by married couples now make up about what percent of all households in the United States?
slightly more than 65%
Of the following, which percentage best describes the number of students you will have who come from single-parent families?
30%
Which of the following statements best describes the implications for teachers of the changing American family?
Parents spend more time working away from home than parents have spent in the past, so teachers will need to be more flexible in reaching out to families.
Of the following, which best describes the income defined by the federal government as the poverty line for a family of four?
Approximately $20,000 in family income per year.
When researchers and leaders express concern for children’s safety, lack of supervision, excessive amounts of time watching television, and lack of support for school work, they are most likely describing which of the following?
latchkey children
Of the following, which statement most accurately describes the characteristics of students most likely to use alcohol and other drugs?
Low achievers are more likely than high achievers to use alcohol and other drugs, because drug use is associated with other risk factors, such as low SES and family instability.
Which of the following best describes people with low incomes who continually struggle with economic problems?
underclass
Which of the following statements best describes the lower socioeconomic class in the United States?
The lower SES class makes up about 20% of the U. S. population, and the percentage is increasing.
Of the following, what is the best definition of development?
The changes that occur in students as a result of maturation and experience.
Of the following, which is the best definition of cognitive development?
Changes in learners’ ability to consider the world from others’ perspectives
A first-grade teacher demonstrates that air takes up space by pushing an inverted drink cup into a fish bowl of water. The students see that the cup doesn’t fill with water. Natalie explains that water doesn’t go into the cup because “the cup is tipped over.” Euchica says, “My dad and I were in the swimming pool, and when he tipped the cup, some air got out and water got in, but if he didn’t tip the cup, no water could get in.” Which of the following conclusions is most valid?
Euchica is more “developed” than Natalie, because she made a conclusion based on her background experience.
Of the following, which best describes how teachers influence students’ cognitive development?
Teachers most strongly influence cognitive development with the kinds of experiences they provide for students.
Students’ changing conceptions of right and wrong best describes which of the following?
moral development
The statement, “the ability to learn, to deal with abstractions, and to solve problems,” most closely relates to a description of:
intelligence
Using Gardner’s theory of intelligence, in which of the following dimensions would sales people be most likely to score highly?
interpersonal intelligence
Which of the following would be Gardner’s primary criticism of existing intelligence tests?
They ignore certain important dimensions.
We have all met people who seem to be very adept at getting along with other people, even though our perception is that they are only modestly “bright.” Which of the following provides the most valid explanation for this phenomenon?
Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences suggests that the eight different intelligences are relatively independent.
According to Piaget, the stage of moral development in which individuals view rules as fixed and permanent and enforced by authority figures is defined as:
external morality
Which of the following is the best definition of effective teaching?
Teaching that maximizes learning for all students
Which of the following is the best description of motivation?
The energizing force behind student learning
Of the following, extrinsic motivation is best described as:
motivation to complete a task to receive some incentive.
Which of the following is the best description of intrinsic motivation?
Motivation to engage in an activity for its own sake
Which of the following is not true of motivated students?
They learn content almost effortlessly.
Of the following, which is the best definition of assessment?
The process teachers use to gather information and make decisions about students’ learning progress
Which of the following best describes essential teaching skills?
The abilities that all teachers, including those in their first year of teaching, should have in order to help students learn
Which of the following is the best description of a self-fulfilling prophecy?
.The phenomenon that occurs when students adjust their efforts to meet teacher expectations
Research suggests that ideally wait-time should be approximately:
between 3 and 5 seconds.
Melinda wants to help her students understand the concept of velocity. She provides a large number of toy cars and small ramps and scales, stopwatches and rulers for her students so that they can work to find patterns. Melinda then questions the students as a group and they come to a description of the patterns that emerged. Of the following, the Melinda’s approach could best be described as:
guided discovery.
The process teachers use to gather information and make decisions about their students’ learning and development is best described as:
classroom assessment
Of the following, which is the best explanation for why classroom assessment is so important?
It helps teachers determine how much each student has learned.
Assessment instruments given to large samples of students under uniform conditions and scored according to uniform procedures are best described as:
standardized tests
The process of continually gathering incidental information about learning progress as teachers interact with their students, and making decisions based on that information, is best described as:
informal assessment
Giving a test or quiz for the purpose of gathering information and providing feedback, but not for assigning grades is called:
formative assessment
Being certain that your measurements are consistent with your goals most strongly affects which of the following?
The validity of your assessment
Historically, assessment has been used at the end of a unit or course of study to determine the amount that students have learned. More recent conceptions view assessment as a process designed to support and increase student learning. Which of the following best describes the comparison between the historical view and the more recent conception?
The historical view describes assessment of learning, and the more recent conception describes assessment for learning.
Standardized assessments that states and districts use to determine whether students will advances from one grade to another, graduate from high school, or have access to specific fields of study best describe which of the following?
high-stakes tests
Of the following, in which content areas are high-stakes tests most commonly administered?
reading and math
Jeremy, a fourth grader responds to an assessment, which is given once a year. His performance will determine whether or not he is promoted to the 5th grade. Of the following, which is the best description of the assessment Jeremy is taking?
It is a high-stakes test.
According to professional surveys, which of the following are the two most important reasons people give for choosing to teach?
Working with young people and contributing to society
Which of the following is closest to the average yearly teacher salary in the United States?
$50,000
Understanding the social, historical, philosophical, organizational, and legal aspects of teaching, together with the ability and inclination to continue to learn, is best described as:
knowledge of the profession
Jana Juarez illustrates dominant and recessive genes by playing two radios simultaneously. The students can hear one but not the other. As Jana questions the students, she reminds them that both radios are playing, but the sound of one drowns out the other.
pedagogical content knowledge.
Kevin is a very difficult student. In spite of using every technique you know, you have difficulty in preventing him from disrupting your class. In response to describing your frustration with him, Jack, one of your colleagues says, “I hate doing it, but sometimes we have no choice. You simply have to put him down. I had him last year, and embarrassing him was the only thing that worked. You may have to go that far.” Of the following, what is the best assessment of Jack’s suggestion?
His suggestion is not consistent with teachers’ professional code of ethics, since the code says that a teacher “shall not intentionally expose the student to embarrassment.”
We best describe teachers who are “thoughtful, analytical, and even self-critical about their teaching” as:
reflective.
Which of the following best describes the diversity across our country?
Diversity is increasing in every state in the nation.
“Focusing curriculum and instruction on predetermined criteria” best describes:
standards-based education
Which of the following is the best description of the No Child Left Behind Act?
It is an accountability reform sponsored by the federal government.

When a philosophy is applied to the classroom, it influences all of the following EXCEPT:

A) the way the curriculum is organized.
B) the instructional strategies that are used.
C) the assessment and evaluation practices.
D) the funding available to the school from the state.

D)

Which of the following educational philosophies are teacher-centered?

A) existentialism and pragmatism
B) existentialism and idealism
C) idealism and realism
D) pragmatism and realism

C)

Which of the following educational philosophies are student-centered?

A) existentialism and pragmatism
B) existentialism and idealism
C) idealism and realism
D) pragmatism and realism

A)

Many politicians and members of the public insist that teachers should be held accountable for the academic success of their students. Those who hold this belief would accept which of the following educational theories?

A) constructivism
B) essentialism
C) humanism
D) progressivism

B)

Cary Snodgrass wrote an indignant letter to the editor of the local newspaper in which she criticized the educational system because a recent poll had shown that the majority of students could not pass a test of basic facts about the geography of the nation. Cary’s letter expresses the view of one who believes that schools should use an approach that is based on

A) behaviorism.
B) essentialism.
C) perennialism.
D) positivism.

B)

The Parent’s Council at Shallow Creek Elementary School has organized study groups who are discussing the series of books written by E.D. Hirsch Jr. that have titles, such as, What Your Third Grader Needs to Know. The council members efforts at establishing a back-to-the-basics curriculum at Shallow Creek are consistent with

A) constructivism.
B) perennialism.
C) behaviorism.
D) essentialism.

D)

Teachers who accept the essentialist theory of knowledge would agree that they must aid students in

A) developing sound habits of mind and respect for authority.
B) seeking everlasting truth.
C) acquiring a common core of information and skills.
D) acquiring facility in accessing the vast amounts of knowledge available on the world wide web.

C)

The role of an essentialist teacher is

A) guide and resource person.
B) facilitator.
C) dispenser of knowledge.
D) activist for social change.

C)

Classroom behaviorist theory is based on the beliefs of

A) B.F. Skinner.
B) John Dewey.
C) Theodore Sizer.
D) A.S. Neil.

A)

The concept of positive reinforcement is a central idea of

A) behaviorism.
B) essentialism.
C) perennialism.
D) progressivism.

A)

Behaviorist teachers believe that when they ignore undesirable behavior

A) it will spiral out of control in the classroom.
B) students will continue to behave in that manner.
C) the bad behavior will be extinguished.
D) they will encounter problems from previously well-behaved students.

C)

Marianne Merrill is a fourth grade teacher at Silver Creek Elementary School. When her students do well on a test she distributes marbles which they place in personal jars. When she ʺcatches them doing something goodʺ they also receive marbles. After the students have collected enough marbles, they may use them to purchase various small items such as candy or school supplies. Marianne tries to ignore students who disobey or act out because she believes that the lack of rewards will extinguish the undesirable actions. The system used by Marianne is based on

A) behaviorism.
B) essentialism.
C) perennialism.
D) positivism.

A)

Amy Therrian introduces each series of lessons with a set of educational objectives. One of the objectives was, ʺAll students will determine the specific gravity of an unknown liquid by using a hydrometer and a series of liquids of known specific gravities.ʺ At the end of the unit each student had to demonstrate that he or she had mastered the skill. Amy’s teaching strategy is consistent with

A) behaviorism.
B) essentialism.
C) perennialism.
D) positivism.

D)

Positivist teachers believe that student achievement is best assessed through

A) personal interviews.
B) authentic assessment.
C) objective bias-free tests.
D) essay questions.

C)

The teachers in the mathematics department at Westdale High School have decided to adopt a standardized teaching strategy that they feel will best suit the majority of their students. Each unit will begin with clear, precise expectations of what the students should know and be able to do. The teachers will explain the new concept that is to be covered. They will demonstrate how to solve problems using the concept on a Smartboard. Several students will then go to the board and repeat the approach using additional examples. The students will then begin working on their homework problems while the teachers walk around the room checking for understanding and offering assistance. The students will then complete ten to twenty additional homework problems using the concepts discussed in class. This approach to teaching uses a strategy known as

A) direct instruction.
B) critical thinking.
C) the scientific method.
D) problem solving.

A)

Student-centered educational philosophies agree that

A) teachers need to establish rules and then explain their rationale to the students.
B) the best learning occurs in an environment where the teacher is an active learner also.
C) teachers must center their efforts on transmitting knowledge.
D) tangible rewards given to students inspire them to learn more.

B)

The educational theory that places emphasis on how to think as opposed to what to think is

A) behaviorism.
B) essentialism.
C) progressivism.
D) reconstructionism.

C)

Back-to-the-basics advocates accuse those who have adopted progressivism of

A) promoting changes in society.
B) emphasizing specific disciplines.
C) undermining democratic principles.
D) stressing process at the expense of specific content.

B)

During his teacher education program, Anwar Raja has come to the conclusion that progressivism is the philosophy with which he most closely identifies. When he begins to teach, Anwar will do all of the following EXCEPT:

A) emphasize teaching students how to think, rather than what to think.
B) favor the scientific method of teaching and learning.
C) encourage novel solutions rather than a single right answer.
D) urge his students to become involved in projects to correct social injustices.

D)

Teachers who accept the humanist educational philosophy of accept all of the following EXCEPT:

A) enhancement of the innate goodness of the individual.
B) adherence to standards developed by experts.
C) rejection of group-oriented educational activities.
D) seeking ways to enhance individual development.

B)

One day while discussing current events, the students in Marcus Robinsons class indicated a concern about the depletion of the aquifers in the western states. Several of them were quite upset about the ramifications of a decline in freshwater supplies. When they heard about the Sparkle Fresh Water Company building a new pumping station to extract water that can be bottled and sold, they were enraged. As a humanist teacher, Marcus would most likely

A) join in expressing his opinion that they should become involved in a public condemnation of Sparkle Fresh.
B) organize a letter writing campaign to local media outlets.
C) ask the students what they think should be done and then support whatever action they choose.
D) point out to the students that they will likely run up against a bureaucracy that will ignore studentsʹ views.

C)

Schools with individualized education are based on

A) constructivism.
B) humanism.
C) progressivism.
D) behaviorism.

B)

During the first week of the new school year, Emilia Gomez conducted a series of class meetings. She asked the students to think individually of possible rules for the classroom. Then she placed them into groups of four to share their ideas and choose and justify the five rules they thought were the most important. Each group presented its list to the entire class. After a whole-class discussion, the students developed the list of rules to be adopted for the school year. The approach used by Emilia is consistent with

A) constructivism.
B) humanism.
C) progressivism.
D) behaviorism.

A)

According to the constructivist theory of education

A) students develop personalized understandings.
B) teachers transmit knowledge and concepts to students.
C) parents implant knowledge into their children.
D) children possess knowledge at birth but they are unaware of it until it is drawn out through discussion.

A)

Constructivist teachers use strategies to encourage all of the following EXCEPT:

A) critical thinking.
B) understanding of big ideas.
C) mastery of factual information.
D) connecting new concepts to existing ideas.

C)

Boris Lembovski is a physics teacher at Centennial High School. He asks the students to think about and share with a partner experiences they have had with sports, such as baseball, softball, soccer, hockey, pool, bowling, or football, that involve collisions between objects or people. After demonstrating how an air table works, he asks them to predict what will happen when different types of collisions occur and finally to test their predictions with the equipment set up around the lab. In his lesson, Boris is using strategies based on

A) constructivism.
B) humanism.
C) progressivism.
D) essentialism.

A)

Owen Walls, as the principal of Elmgrove Elementary School, is responsible for assessing the degree of success of the new teachers on staff. Owen accepts the view that most principals hold with regard to the easiest way to determine how well a new teacher is doing. Therefore, he will look to see how

A) flexible they are.
B) many educational theories they can recall and explain.
C) well they know the content of the courses they teach.
D) well they are able to organize their classrooms.

D)

You are visiting a school in the week before classes are to begin. Most of the teachers have already set up their rooms for the students who will soon arrive. You look through the open doorway into one room and notice that there are open areas, with small groups of chairs arranged around tables in a number of separate areas. Off to one side there is an area with two computers and in a corner there is a circular rug with a small, but colorful and attractive collection of books. From your observation, you are able to predict that the teacher in that room perceives learners to be

A) passive.
B) active.
C) neutral.
D) obedient.

B)

You are planning for your first year as a fourth grade teacher. As you think about the units that you will be teaching, you should include all of the following in your plans EXCEPT:

A) linking all lessons to the textbook.
B) suggestions for teaching the lessons.
C) types of materials to be used.
D) specific plans for evaluation.

A)

Teachers who believe that they should develop students who are divergent thinkers will design tests that look for

A) a single right answer.
B) evidence that students have memorized strategies.
C) creative solutions.
D) a frequently replicated method.

C)

Teachers who believe that they should develop students who are convergent thinkers will design tests that look for

A) creative solutions.
B) a single right answer.
C) multiple answers.
D) signs of unique ideas.

B)

Atsko Kobasigawa wants to encourage her students to be motivated to learn. Since this is her goal she should seek to do all of the following EXCEPT:

A) encourage internal desires to learn.
B) relate her teaching to student needs.
C) encourage active participation in the learning process.
D) institute a creative system of rewards.

D)

A teacher-dominant orientation results in all of the following situations EXCEPT:

A) student interests drive the curriculum design.
B) there is a set of rules and regulations.
C) provision of clear directions.
D) control lies in the hands of the teacher.

A)

When Clinton and Aylissa began to argue over who should take the class guinea pig home for the holidays, Ms. Nesterenko waited patiently for the issue to be resolved. This incident shows that Ms. Nesterenko is a teacher who holds which of the following views?

A) interactionist
B) interventionist
C) noninteractionist
D) noninterventionist

D)

Miko has developed the habit of smacking other students on the back of the head when he goes to the pencil sharpener or wastebasket. Dale Shea, his teacher, speaks quietly to him and arranges an after school meeting to investigate possible solutions to Mike’s misbehavior. This approach indicates that Dale is a teacher who holds which of the following views?

A) interactionist
B) interventionist
C) noninteractionist
D) noninterventionist

A)

Teachers who follow William Glaser’s Choice Theory will do all of the following EXCEPT:

A) consider the reasons why students misbehave.
B) seek the assistance of counselors.
C) contact and discuss the situation with parents.
D) accept responsibility for studentsʹ misbehavior.

D)

An integral part of Glaser’s Choice Theory is to

A) impose consequences determined beforehand.
B) have students design a plan of their own to correct misbehavior.
C) have students choose a plan from a list supplied by the teacher.
D) lead students to a forced-choice decision between two alternative solutions.

B)

The Assertive Discipline plan includes all of the following EXCEPT:

A) compulsory rules for students.
B) rewards for obeying rules.
C) consequences for failure to follow rules.
D) taking time to determine why rules are broken

D)

Conflict resolution strategies involve

A) enlisting parents to help solve problems.
B) establishing rules to handle potential problems.
C) teaching students to recognize and constructively solve problems.
D) developing relationships with the principal so he or she can immediately respond to problems.

C)

Teachers who have expectations for student behavior in the classroom are more likely to be successful if they

A) empower their students to act appropriately.
B) model the behavior themselves.
C) provide a vision of what things should be.
D) explain their rationale completely.

B)

The gulf between students from different socioeconomic backgrounds in a school district is often exemplified by all of the following, EXCEPT:

A) the availability of federal grants for special programs.
B) the percentage of students taking advanced placement courses.
C) the percentage of students with special education modifications.
D) the placement of more experienced, fully-qualified teachers in a school.

A)

One’s philosophical and political perspectives determine how one views the roles of schools. In the United States, all of the following are considered viable goals for schools by some individuals EXCEPT:

A) schools should support democratic equality.
B) schools should support social efficiency.
C) schools should support social mobility.
D) schools should support finding one’s natural place in society.

D)

Those holding liberal democratic and capitalist views have different opinions about the roles of schools. Which of the following statements correctly describes these views?

A) Democracy calls for private rights while capitalism calls for public rights.
B) Democracy calls for a liberal education while capitalism calls for preparation for work.
C) Democracy calls for preparation for work while capitalism calls for a liberal education.
D) Democracy allows for inequalities while capitalism demands equality.

B)

Saying the Pledge of Allegiance in class is an example of which purpose of school?

A) cultural transmission
B) academic competence
C) citizenship
D) nationalism

C)

Civics and government courses generally focus on encouraging

A) connections with civic and religious groups.
B) the structure of the U.S. political system and its heritage.
C) a feeling of trust in political figures.
D) the desire to give, assist others through volunteering.

B)

The most effective way to engage students in the democratic process is to

A) model civic behavior through a meaningful student government.
B) provide a single, comprehensive civics course that covers all aspects of democratic government.
C) invite the mayor, councillors, state, and federal representatives to a “Democracy Expo.”
D) encourage students to work on political campaigns at election time.

A)

The biggest problem with preparing students for a specific trade in a vocational program is

A) employers would rather have students with strong generic skills.
B) it is a financial burden on the school system that employers ought to bear.
C) in today’s world the specific skills will be obsolete within a few years.
D) employers are in the best position to teach skills they require.

A)

Low levels of achievement on international standardized tests lead to all of the following reactions in the United States, EXCEPT:

A) There should be an increased concentration on the “basics.”
B) There should be a reduction in the time spent on life-skills.
C) The school day should be lengthened to allow more time for essential studies.
D) The funding provided for education needs to be increased greatly to improve instruction.

D)

In the 21st century, the greatest challenge facing those involved in vocational education is

A) finding ways to provide students with an ever increasing volume of knowledge.
B) helping students to develop the precise skills for their life’s work.
C) preparing students so they can adjust to change and adapt to new possibilities.
D) assisting students to function as “cogs in the wheels” of business and industry.

C)

Lower scores for students from the United States on international achievement tests like TIMSS and PISA, cause outcries from critics that include all of the following demands, EXCEPT:

A) an emphasis on preparing students to live in a global economy.
B) a back-to-the- basics approach for all students.
C) increased time spent on mathematical concepts and skills.
D) relying on phonics-based strategies for teaching reading.

A)

Nelson McKelvie is a fourth grade teacher who wants to promote positive interaction among the diverse students in his class. He knows that one of the most effective ways to do so would be to

A) have them form self-selected groups to study and complete assignments.
B) form cooperative learning groups that he carefully selects.
C) arrange for a class Scrabble competition.
D) put on a class play at a school-wide assembly.

B)

To eliminate confusion about the common culture of the United States among students newly arrived from a different background, the school must carefully

A) align the formal and hidden curricula to reinforce national values and rules.
B) immerse the newcomers in the common culture as soon as they enroll.
C) provide a crash course on what it means to live in the United States.
D) encourage students to retain their native culture rather than learning the common culture too quickly.

A)

Transmission of culture is considered to be a role of the school system of any nation. However, there are some portions of society in the United States today who object to transmission of many of the aspects of culture for one reason or another. All of the following are objected to by a segment of the population, EXCEPT:

A) the promotion of a multicultural curriculum.
B) discussion of society’s values.
C) the promotion of our democratic form of government.
D) emphasis on individualism and competition.

D)

Culture can best be described as possessing aspects of all of the following, EXCEPT:

A) shared.
B) constant.
C) dynamic.
D) learned.

B)

Blerina is a recent immigrant from Albania. Ms. Carstairs has been asking her some questions about her family. The information file she has received indicates that Blerina has a sister and so Ms. Carstairs is surprised when Blerina shakes her head from side to side in answer to the question, Do you have any sisters or brothers? Later Ms. Carstairs discovers that side-to-side head shaking in Albania means, Yes, while up and-down head shaking means, No – exactly the opposite of what she understands them to mean. This type of confusion is a result of a difference in

A) cultural verbal cues.
B) cultural nonverbal cues.
C) limited English proficiencies.
D) communication blocks.

B)

Pedro Gomez is a recent immigrant from Mexico. He is taking driver training from Mr. Jones. As Pedro heads west on the interstate, Mr. Jones says, Be careful as you go around the next bend because there is construction and traffic may begin backing up. Pedro, taking Mr. Jones at his word begins to panic fearing that he will see cars reversing towards him. This type of confusion is a result of a difference in

A) cultural verbal cues.
B) cultural nonverbal cues.
C) limited English proficiency.
D) communication blocks.

A)

A teacher may do all of the following to help prevent miscommunications based on cultural cues EXCEPT:

A) recognize that these miscommunications are based on cultural differences.
B) teach the communication patterns of the common culture.
C) teach students when to use common communication patterns.
D) insist that students stop using their own cultural cues.

D)

Cajun culture includes the use of French language and phrases that have continued to be spoken by the original people who moved as Acadians from Nova Scotia to Louisiana after the fall of New France. Because of the nature of culture and how it is maintained and transmitted, which of the following best describes modern Cajun culture and its relationship to culture in France and Canada?

A) Cajun and Parisian language and culture are so alike they are virtually interchangeable.
B) Cajun and Acadian cultures in Canada are interchangeable because of origins but differ from that of France.
C) Cajun culture today has no apparent connection to its roots in France and Canada.
D) All three cultures are distinct because they each are dynamic and have evolved in different directions.

B)

The Common Culture of the United States is derived from that of

A) white, middle-class Catholics from Western Europe.
B) white, middle-class Protestants from Western Europe.
C) black, middle-class Protestants from Africa.
D) middle-class Hispanics from Mexico and Central America.

B)

The Common Culture has been defined historically by

A) a consensus of all residents of the area.
B) legislation and regulations of governments.
C) those in power in the area.
D) decisions of courts of law.

C)

The Civil Rights struggles of the 1960s and 1970s are examples that illustrate that in the United States

A) there has long been a consensus on what the common culture should look like.
B) that those in power will not voluntarily share it with those who have different values.
C) that the majority has the right to set the pattern for everyone in society.
D) that beliefs, attitudes, and values are universally held.

C)

Helga Brenders knows that she can learn more about the cultural identities of her students in all of the following ways, EXCEPT:

A) volunteering to sponsor the chess team at the school.
B) taking a course in ethnic studies.
C) participating in a cultural fair sponsored by an ethnic club.
D) organizing a multicultural club at her school.

A)

A school with a pluralistic approach will

A) emphasize the common culture’s heritage to help foster a feeling of belonging.
B) build on similarities and minimize differences among students.
C) value cultural differences and integrate them into the curriculum.
D) encourage children to concentrate on learning about and celebrate their individual heritages.

C)

The Pleasant Valley School District is planning to build a third high school. Many of the students from the two existing schools will have to move to the new school. The district has established a committee to help the student body of the new Stony Creek High School to develop a sense of belonging and community. They know that all of the following are signs and emblems that will build a school culture, EXCEPT:

A) a school song.
B) colors for team uniforms.
C) cheers.
D) assimilation.

D)

Which of the following is an example of a school tradition?

A) emphasis on individual needs.
B) high school marching band.
C) community bonds.
D) Carnegie units.

B)

You are acting as a consultant to a group of parents who wish to set up a charter school for their children. Since some of them are unsure of the requirements for such a school, you have been asked to present an introductory session. You should include all the following as requirements, EXCEPT:

A) The group must find a state agency or local school board that will agree to sponsor the school.
B) The group must agree to a contract that describes how the school will operate in exchange for public funds.
C) The group must agree that it will be accountable for student learning.
D) The group must agree to meet all district and state regulations.

D)

Which of the following would object the most strongly to a proposal to institute a voucher system that would include access to private and religious schools?

A) conservative politicians.
B) teacher unions.
C) ethnic minorities.
D) the state Department of Education.

D)

Over the past thirty years, the net migration of families and individuals has involved movement

A) from the west coast to the east coast.
B) from the Southwest to the Northeast.
C) from the South and West to the Northeast and Midwest.
D) from the Northeast and Midwest to the South and West.

D)

Katrina is a student at a Montessori School. She began school at age two and a half and will soon be turning seven. Which of the following statements describes her education so far?

A) She is proud of the straight A’s she has earned.
B) She has had the same teacher during the whole time she has been there.
C) Her days have been organized into short, Sesame-Street-type, segments.
D) She has not misbehaved because of the strict discipline system in place.

B)

The overall poverty rate is highest among those living in

A) rural areas.
B) outer suburbs.
C) inner suburbs.
D) cities.

D)

Increasing numbers of urban and suburban dwellers are re-establishing themselves in rural communities from which they commute to employment in cities. Which of the following tends to be true about the values of the newcomers when compared to the values of the natives of the rural communities?

A) They have similar values.
B) They are more conservative.
C) They have different expectations of schools..
D) They are content to accept what is in place.

C)

A higher level of achievement on tests and a higher percentage of students attending college is found in

A) rural areas.
B) suburbs.
C) cities.
D) inner cities.

B)

Those living in large urban areas have all of the following advantages, EXCEPT:

A) unusually rich resources, such as museums, libraries, and theaters.
B) an extremely diverse population.
C) a wide range of affordable housing.
D) a variety of magnet schools serving different interests.

C)

One-half of the population of the world lives in

A) rural areas.
B) suburbs.
C) medium-sized cities.
D) mega-cities.

D)

The schools throughout a city, such as New York City, can best be described as

A) uniform in quality and condition.
B) employing the same philosophy of education.
C) looking different and serving students differently.
D) sharing resources and funding equally.

C)

Parents who are in the upper middle class more frequently tend to do all of the following, EXCEPT:

A) volunteer to help in school breakfast programs.
B) talk with their children’s teachers..
C) intervene so that their children have the best teachers..
D) encourage their children to complete school work..

A)

The mayors of cities, such as Washington D.C. and New York City, have taken control of the management of the public school systems with the stated aim of

A) reducing taxes and budgets.
B) reforming schools and improving student learning.
C) improving the curriculum.
D) ensure that children are treated more equitably.

B)

As a result of the criticisms of those associated with educational reform, teachers who have been identified as ineffective are being replaced by energetic, intelligent, and enthusiastic teachers with backgrounds that have emphasized

A) educational philosophies and developmental theories.
B) a wide variety of teaching strategies to assist diverse learners.
C) academic content in one or more subject areas.
D) a concern for the welfare and well-being of all students.

C)

Research on effective schools shows that they possess all of the following characteristics, EXCEPT:

A) they have strong ties to teacher unions.
B) they are standards-based.
C) they use performance-based assessments.
D) they encourage problem-solving and critical thinking.

A)

To be awarded “Blue Ribbon” status by the federal government as a high performing school, students in the school must operate at which percentile on the state tests?

A) 95th
B) 90th
C) 85th
D) 80th

B)

The factor with the greatest impact on the publicity surrounding the performance gaps among different groups in society is:

A) pressure from state legislators.
B) criticisms by education reformers.
C) disaggregation of scores mandated by NCLB..
D) pressure resulting from freedom of information laws.

B)

Income, occupation, and educational attainment are criteria that constitute

A) culture.
B) socioeconomic status.
C) capital.
D) pluralism.

B)

What characteristic of society places individuals at different levels of the social structure based upon wealth, income, occupation, and education?

A) socioeconomic status
B) social composition
C) social power
D) social stratification

D)

How are characteristics such as levels and rank within the social class structure classified?

A) social stratification
B) social composition
C) stereotypes
D) social power

A)

The class that represents 46 percent of the employed population is the

A) middle class.
B) upper class.
C) working class.
D) underclass.

C)

Families whose income ranges from $45,000 to $88,000 make up the

A) working class.
B) lower class.
C) middle class.
D) upper class.

C)

The term Asian American refers to the classification of a population known as

A) cultural.
B) microcultural.
C) panethnic membership.
D) social stratification.

C)

The identification of membership in a group based on the national origin (that is, a specific country or area of the world) of one’s ancestors, a shared culture, and a sense of common destiny is called

A) cultural identity.
B) ethnicity.
C) social stratification.
D) ethnocentrism.

B)

Ethnic group members share all of the following EXCEPT:

A) a common religion.
B) a common history.
C) a common language.
D) common traditions.

A)

Viktor and Olga, who recently immigrated to the United States, want their children to remain connected to their ethnic origins. They can do so by all of the following EXCEPT:

A) participating in ethnic clubs or events.
B) practicing traditions of the country of origin.
C) helping other new arrivals to become assimilated.
D) being actively engaged in promoting the civil rights of their group.

C)

What is the officially recognized sign language with a complex grammar and a well -regulated syntax?

A) Institutional Sign Language
B) American Sign Language
C) Universal Sign Language
D) Spoken Sign Language

B)

Tyrell would like to work in the preparation of media for educational uses. If he plans to be a narrator, he would be wise to develop skills in

A) inner city dialects.
B) standard English.
C) maintaining his regional dialect.
D) multidialect pronunciations.

B)

At what age have children learned their gender and begun to exhibit stereotypical behavior?

A) two years old
B) three to four years old
C) five to six years old
D) eight to nine years old

C)

All of the following are unaffected by a person’s gender EXCEPT:

A) mathematical aptitude.
B) science aptitude.
C) verbal abilities.
D) income from employment.

D)

Which statement best reflects the economic status of women in the United States?

A) They have made considerable economic progress and generally are paid as much as men for comparable jobs.
B) They generally do not enjoy equal job status and earn considerably less than men for comparable jobs.
C) They enjoy economic equity with men but this is not reflected in the media.
D) They enjoy economic and social equity with men but this success is being compromised by the lack of interest in women’s movements.

B)

When Kaitlyn is interviewed for a teaching position in a working-class school she is asked why many of the boys in the school have developed patterns of resistance to school and its authority figures. Her best answer would be:

A) They perceive that schooling is feminine, emphasizing mental rather than manual work.
B) It is a genetic trait that schools cannot overcome.
C) They think that aggressiveness toward the faculty will make them more attractive to girls.
D) Boys will be boys.

A)

Title IX programs are intended to

A) prevent discrimination so that females and males have equal educational opportunities.
B) provide intellectually challenged students with equal opportunities.
C) require school boards to make school buildings accessible to the physically challenged.
D) provide girls with the same sports teams as boys.

A)

The Rocky Hill School District has been accused of not complying with the provisions of Title IX with respect to their sports programs. The lawyer for the school district has informed the school board members of the three points, upheld by courts in the past, that they must apply. The test includes all of the following points EXCEPT:

A) the percentage of female and male athletes must be substantially proportionate to the percentage of females and male students enrolled in the district.
B) if the percentages of female and male athletes is not proportionate to the percentage of female and male students, the district must fully and effectively meet the interests and abilities of female students.
C) the school district must provide opportunities for all females and males to participate in the same sports.
D) the school district must have a history of expanding opportunities for underrepresented females to participate in sports

C)

Sexual orientation in a child is established by

A) infancy.
B) early childhood.
C) middle childhood.
D) young adulthood.

B)

Some educators make a determination as to whether or not a child with special needs will be able to enter the diploma-bound program by the end of kindergarten. Such a decision can

A) help these students achieve by lowering the pressure on them.
B) lead to lowered academic expectations for those students who can perform at high levels when provided with appropriate accommodations for their disability.
C) help the students by providing more opportunities for accommodations for their disability.
D) benefit students by grouping them in segregated facilities with others having similar disabilities.

B)

Sally Houston has reduced mobility because she is confined to a wheel chair. She has a college degree and is certified as a laboratory technologist. She has applied for many positions and the personnel directors who have interviewed her are extremely impressed with her knowledge and skills. However, she has been told by most of them, ʺWe would like to hire you but we are unable to because…ʺ

A) of a lack of accommodations in the workplace.
B) our health care carrier won’t allow it.
C) workman’s compensation will not apply.
D) legislation prevents us from hiring you.

A)

Inclusion is most effective when all of the following are part of the plan EXCEPT:

A) the classroom teacher also acts as a specialist dealing with the exceptionality.
B) a team of specialists develops an individualized educational plan (IEP) for each student.
C) a teacher’s aide works with students with exceptionalities.
D) the classroom teacher collaborates with a team of specialists providing specific services.

A)

The architects for Glendale Middle School are meeting with the administration of the school district to provide for accommodations for the school’s inclusion plan. They will need to consider all of the following EXCEPT:

A) washrooms that are handicap accessible.
B) ramps or elevators.
C) desks to accommodate wheelchairs.
D) an inviting room exclusively for students with exceptionalities.

D)

Religious beliefs generally guide students and their families in all of the following areas, EXCEPT:

A) agreement on the essential core of a belief system.
B) the values and lifestyles of families.
C) the socialization of children and young people.
D) guidance on moral and ethical issues.

D)

The most common religion in the United States is

A) Catholicism
B) Jewish
C) Muslim
D) Protestantism

D)

The foundations of multicultural education include all of the following, EXCEPT:

A) diversity.
B) social justice.
C) homogeneity.
D) equality.

C)

Bunmi Sodade knows that she will promote multiculturalism among her students if she

A) sets aside a week during Black History month to discuss the contributions of African Americans.
B) holds an ethnic food festival when students can bring in their native foods to share.
C) displays posters that highlight major contributions by women to science.
D) integrates principles of diversity, social justice, and equality throughout her curriculum.

D)

Rheena is preparing a presentation for a unit on multiculturalism for one of the classes in her teacher education program. Which of the following strategies has been the most effective in bringing the cultures of diverse students into the classroom?

A) allow them to go to the library to find books about their culture
B) study their culture one month a year
C) invite a speaker from the same cultural background to the classroom
D) use examples from their cultures and experiences as subjects are taught

D)

Jeremy Chase wishes to demonstrate to the diverse students in his class that he has a respect for their cultural backgrounds. He has contacted Vern Mahadeo, the school district’s Multicultural Consultant. Since he ha s spent a great deal of time studying how to work with diverse students, Vern would recommend all of the following EXCEPT:

A) Teachers should be able to help students see the relationship between the subject matter and the world in which they live.
B) Students should be able to see themselves in the representations used by teachers.
C) Teachers should be able to provide instruction that allows students to access the knowledge based on the studentsʹ way of thinking.
D) Teachers should strive to find the best scientifically-proven teaching strategy and use it for all their students.

D)

If you were part of a committee to help develop an awareness of other cultural groups at a teacher’s college in an area that was very homogeneous, you would be likely to recommend all of the following approaches EXCEPT:

A) encourage collaboration with other schools with similar populations.
B) provide courses in ethnic and women’s studies.
C) require students to read and respond to books by female authors and authors of color.
D) require participation in institutions and activities of diverse communities.

A)

Teachers who believe that all students can learn, who place students at the center of teaching, and who try to build on their cultural backgrounds and experiences, will develop meaningful learning experiences when they engage in

A) culturally relevant teaching.
B) diversity teaching.
C) equity education.
D) social justice learning.

A)

Which of the following is an important consideration for teachers who still face fairly homogeneous populations?

A) They need to make certain that the dominant culture is ingrained in all their students.
B) They need to work harder to bring different perspectives to presentations and discussions.
C) They can spend more time on a traditional curriculum and less on discussing diversity.
D) They need to concentrate on preparing their students for the specific jobs available in the community.

B)

The Supreme Court case that declared separate-but-equal education for black and white students illegal was

A) Plessy v. Ferguson
B) Brown v. Board of Education
C) the Dred Scott case
D) Clarke v. Baltimore Public Schools

B)

Multiculturalists believe that

A) the promotion of diversity will divide the nation.
B) English-only policies will encourage assimilation.
C) the recognition and promotion of diversity will strengthen the nation.
D) immigration policies need to be more restrictive.

C)

Tamika would like to provide an environment that would permit all student participants to have voice. She realizes that such a move could be risky and she must be prepared for all of the following possibilities EXCEPT:

A) The students may express anger and be confrontational.
B) The students may test the limits of the type of language that can be used.
C) The students might feel that they have nothing to contribute and will remain silent.
D) Her patience may be tested as she and the students figure out how to listen and contribute to the listening process.

C)

Which of the following is particularly important in affirming student voices?

A) respect for differences that exist in the classroom
B) teachers need to be prepared with the right answers to all questions
C) teacher monologues to make sure that the stage is properly set for each discussion
D) a reliance on oral communication rather than writing and artistic expression

A)

Which of the following is an example of a social injustice?

A) The best teachers are in the schools with the most academically challenged students.
B) The number of minority students in special education classes is proportionate to the school population.
C) All students are given an equal opportunity to learn.
D) A high school in a low-income area does not have the funds to offer an advanced placement class.

D)

Most attempts to provide equal educational opportunities have provided which of the following?

A) compensatory programs to help overcome gaps
B) equal access to gifted and talented programs
C) increased numbers of spaces in advanced placement programs
D) a completely level playing field for all students

A)

Which of the following is a policy that would ensure that all students, regardless of cultural background and family circumstances, would be provided access to a similar educational opportunities?

A) equality in education
B) equal educational opportunity
C) dominant educational opportunity
D) no educational opportunity

B)

Manuel Ortega wants to help his students to achieve at the highest levels possible. He knows that to be successful, he will have to employ all of the following strategies EXCEPT:

A) All students should be provided with equal opportunities to learn.
B) His methods should demonstrate that he believes all students should be expected to learn at a high level.
C) Those students not performing well will become intellectual challenges for him.
D) Students not achieving well should be moved to other classes where they will have better opportunities.

D)

David Orchinsky believes that teaching for social justice is an integral part of his job. He knows that to reach his goal he must address all of the following in his program, EXCEPT:

A) help his students to have hop for a more equitable and socially just society.
B) join with his students in confronting injustice and removing impediments to equality.
C) assist the shopkeepers in the neighbourhood to advertise their merchandise.
D) take on community projects, such as assisting elderly and underprivileged residents clean up their property.

C)
Teach for America
provides college graduates who do not have teacher education backgrounds the opportunity to teach.
Which of the following organizations offers a national, advanced certification to teachers that is good for ten years?
National Board of Professional Teaching Standards
Approximately how many states require a national teacher examination as a test of teacher competency before granting initial certification?
thirty
The largest, most visible, and most powerful teachers’ organizations are the National Education Association and the
The American Federation of Teachers.
Teacher shortages exist in the nation’s large cities for all of the following reasons except:
the pay is less than what rural or suburban teachers earn.
The combination of teachers adding intellectual value to their organization, being decision makers, needing to have specialized knowledge, and are required to fulfill licensure requirements make teaching
a professional career.
The Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium Standards (INTASC)
is an organization which provides beginning teacher standards.
Which of the following criticisms has been leveled at teacher unions?
Teacher unions shield their members from scrutiny.
What term is used to describe the negotiation of the professional rights and responsibilities of teachers as a group?
collective bargaining
The five steps of reflective teaching are perceiving, valuing, knowing, acting, and
evaluating.
If we never experience discrimination, we may find it difficult to understand why others feel offended or discriminated against.
True
Domestic violence is the primary cause of homelessness for women with children in the United States.
True
Hiring practices which look at each applicant based upon skills and qualifications rather than judging applicants by their sex, skin color, or able-bodiedness are designed to prevent
discrimination
All of the following are true of children who live in shelters or on the street EXCEPT:
The usually live with a parent
Resilient students exhibit all of the following characteristics EXCEPT:
ability to be self-effacing.
The Sexual Harassment Taskforce of the American Association of University Women (AAUW) recommends that teachers assist students who are potential victims of bullying and harassment by doing all of the following EXCEPT:
Teach them to aggressively stand up for themselves.
Statistics show that only 70% of students receive regular standards -based diplomas at the same time as the class with which they began high school.
True
Students who drop out of high school today generally do so for all of the following reasons, EXCEPT:
They have easy access to stable employment.
Today’s young people face all of the following challenges EXCEPT:
more relaxed standards from educational authorities.
The process through which prejudice and discriminatory attitudes are passed from parents to their children is
socialization
In the early 20th century, all of the following events occurred in the nation’s schools except:
organized campaigns by Catholics against Protestants.
Governmental efforts to educate Native Americans to the values and customs of the Anglo-European culture were administered through which of the following organizations?
Bureau of Indian Affairs
The Ford Foundation began programs intended to
teach democratic values.
Head Start was a program launched by which president?
Lyndon Johnson
The Dawes Act of 1887
undermined tribal authority.
What was guaranteed by Title IX of the Education Amendments Act, passed in 1972?
gender equity in any education program or activity receiving federal funding
The Womens Educational Equity Act (WEEA) of 1974
attacked discrimination based on sex in education.
The 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution instituted which of the following practices?
both A and C
An example of the black codes of conduct, established after the Civil War, would be
both A and B
Which of the following ideas was promoted by Thomas Jefferson in reference to Native Americans?
assimilation
Before the Civil War, the South Carolina legislature made educating slaves
a misdemeanor.
How did people of the middle Atlantic colonies differ from those of the Southern colonies?
Mid-Atlantic colonists were more religiously diverse than settlers in the south.
Which of the following statements demonstrates Calvinist thinking?
Children are evil by nature.
What was the purpose of the American lyceum?
Promote education for all outside the classroom.
In the early southern colonies , parents taught their children at home because
they were isolated from others; there were no communities and no schools.
Slaves learned to read and write in all of the following ways except:
slaves went to school along with the children of the plantation owners.
The Northeast shaped the character of the nation because of
industrialization and urbanization.
Friedrich Froebel is credited with establishing
the first kindergarten.
A majority of colonists, particularly in the South, believed that the Scriptures were the key to self-determination and understanding God’s will, thus, the purpose of education was to help
save souls
higher than in the past
In the United States today, the average age for beginning a family is
maintain high expectations for the child
When children do not live with both parents, educators should
They usually live with a parent
All of the following are true of children who live in shelters or on the street EXCEPT:
School districts can easily obtain court orders to prevent them from enrolling
Even though the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act eliminated residency requirements for students, homeless children are faced with all of the following problems EXCEPT:
their parents
About half of kindergarten through fifth grade students have their after school supervision provided by
a feeling of security
More and more students are joining gangs. This is so because both males and females feel that they can find all of the following, EXCEPT:
more relaxed standards from educational authorities
Today’s young people face all of the following challenges EXCEPT:
More of them finish high school and enrol in post-secondary education than ever before
Which of the following statements refers to the majority of U.S. teenagers today?
They are mature enough to have the benefits of adulthood
Adults look on teenagers in all of the following ways EXCEPT:
They appear bright and alert and attempt to attract attention
Abused children and youths may exhibit all of the following EXCEPT:
20%
Harassment escalates to physical assault for the following percentage of LGBT students in schools:
asserting oneself more to show confidence
All of the following actions are typical responses on the part of those experiencing harassment by peers or teachers at school, EXCEPT:
Teach them to aggresively stand up for themselves
The Sexual Harassment Taskforce of the American Association of University Women (AAUW) recommends that teachers assist students who are potential victims of bullying and harassment by doing all of the following EXCEPT:
Boys connect sex with loving, enduring relationships
The members of the Valleydale High School physical and health education staff are planning the curriculum for the Human Sexuality class. They have examined the literature and found that today’s youth have all of the following beliefs about sexuality EXCEPT:
60%
Current statistics show that the number of teenage mothers who graduate from high school or obtain their GED is about
not always supported by families and communities
The Vallydale High School physical and health education staff have found that research says that school sex and health education clinics are helpful. They also have found that such clinics are
alcohol
Lisa Siimes is a high school counselor who feels that it is essential that she remain aware of the statistics regarding the use of addictive substances among high school seniors. When a teacher tells her that Brandon has been coming to class in what seems to be an impaired state, she is aware that statistics indicate that he has most likely been using
lack of technology
A 2008 poll of the Public’s Attitudes Toward Public Schools ranked all of the following problems ahead of drug use EXCEPT:
White Americans
Which of the following ethnic groups is most likely to use illegal drugs?
40%
What is the approximate percentage of sixteen and seventeen-year-old high school students who work during the school year?
a high percentage of 17-year-olds work after school
Carlos Orentes is a music teacher at Rolling Meadows High School, which is located in a middle- to high-income suburb. He is trying to organize a concert by the local symphony orchestra at the school on a weekday evening so that all of his seventeen-year old students can attend. He is having a great deal of difficulty scheduling the event because
higher budget allocations
Children in low-income families suffer disproportionately from limited access to all of the following EXCEPT:
affliating with one’s gender and racial and ethnic groups
As students develop a sense of ʺself,ʺ they also develop a sense of ʺothers.ʺ The construction of ʺothersʺ involves all of the following EXCEPT:
socialization
The process through which prejudice and discriminatory attitudes are passed from parents to their children is
pay employees from other ethnic groups less than employees from their own ethnic group
Prejudice against other ethnic groups is transformed into discrimination when individuals
prejudice
Some children develop preconceived negative attitudes against members of groups who are different from them in some way. These patterns, which they may learn from their families, cause them to practice
discrimination
Hiring practices which look at each applicant based upon skills and qualifications rather than judging applicants by their sex, skin color, or able-bodiedness are designed to prevent
differences in power and advantage
Roger Whittington was raised in an affluent, white, Protestant family and attended a private college preparatory school in the northeast. Roger is likely to have more difficulty than most Americans in acknowledging the existence of
sexism
What is the conscious or unconscious belief that men are superior to women?
ableism
As Bill Pearson, the Personnel Manager of Elite Office Services opens the door to the next applicant for a job, he is momentarily taken aback when he sees Rianne in her wheelchair. Bill struggles with the preconceived notion that she is not up to the job even though he has not yet asked her a single question. The preconceived notions that he has are most likely due to
normal
Tayshan is deaf. Although he has been given the chance to undergo surgery to provide a measure of hearing, he prefers not to undergo the operation. Activists for the hearing impaired would encourage Tayshan to consider his condition
They have easy access to stable employment
Students who drop out of high school today generally do so for all of the following reasons, EXCEPT:
statistically are not considered to be high school graduates
Talented students, who take off a year from high school to spend time traveling with their family, and then obtain their GED later than the peers with whom they started high school
Asian Americans
The ethnic group with the highest graduation rate in the United States consists of
ninth
Pierre Lappan is a counsellor at Pinewoods High School whose specific focus is to work with students who are most likely to drop out of school. Statistics show that the majority of students that Pierre will be working with are currently enrolled in which grade?
cross-check the facts included for accuracy
Lindsay Sutherland is a history teacher at Green River High School. She has noticed that many of her students rely heavily on Wikipedia articles for documentation in papers they write. Because of the design and nature of Wikipedia, Lindsay recognizes that she needs to take time to work with her students to
ability to be self-effacing
Resilient students exhibit all of the following characteristics EXCEPT:
can be viewed by anyone with access to the internet
If teachers encourage students to develop and use blogs or social networking programs, they should also be very careful to make certain that students understand that their postings
more time to plan
The major advantages of teachers using computer technology to plan lessons includes providing them with all of the following EXCEPT:
highly qualified teachers returning from exchange programs
Selena Tarquin is the principal of an inner-city elementary school located in an impoverished neighbourhood. She has several openings for teachers and optimistically looks at the small pile of resumes received today. Compared to schools in better neighborhoods, Selena is most likely to find that the most of the applications she has received come from all of the following, EXCEPT:
local school board
The governmental unit empowered by state law to administer the school system of a local community is called the
state legislation
The legal authority for operating local school systems is given to local boards of education through
the state
Legally, the primary responsibility for education belongs to
hired by the local board of education
In most states, superintendents of local school districts are
line
A person who is supervised by another person has a type of organizational relationship known as
intermediate units
Which of the following serves as a liaison between the state department of education and local school districts?
hiring and firing of school personnel
All of the following are roles performed by an intermediate unit of school organization, EXCEPT:
is the chief executive officer of the school board
In most states, the school superintendent
the noise makes it difficult for students to focus on their work
One of the shortcomings of the open-space design of school architecture is that
there is little opportunity for teachers to communicate with one another
Critics of the self-contained egg-crate concept of traditional school architecture contend that
Additional assistant principals should be appointed to help the principal
The Millhaven School District has hired a management consultant to study its organizational structure and recommend improvements to provide the most effective supervisory structure at Central High School, which has an enrollment of 2,000 students. Which of the following suggestions would be most beneficial in bringing the school more in line with accepted practices in other effective organizations?
principal
In law, the final authority at the school site is the
the science department head
Nino Pizzuti is a new teacher in the science department at 35th Street High School. John Brown, one of the veteran teachers in the same department, is frequently late and unprepared for his classes. He has been in the habit of removing teaching resources from the cart Nino uses to assemble the materials required for next day’s classes. Even though Nino has discussed the issue several times with John, the problem continues. Nino considers who he should speak to in seeking help to resolve the situation. Normal protocol suggests that the next person he should talk to is
increased parental participation in decision-making
Recently the role of the principal has been expanded to include
school-based management
Allowing individual schools within a school district to be involved in decision-making on issues such as budgeting, personnel selection, and curriculum design is called
less abountability for decisions that prove to be unwelcome
Juan Hernandez is the principal of Rio Hondo High School. He is conducting a series of in-service sessions to acquaint his staff with the district’s new empowerment policy. He has divided the teachers into groups to discuss the significance of various advantages to the system. His list of advantages should include all of the following EXCEPT:
increase the number of students that can be handled annually
One major practical advantages for a school district that organizes one or more of its schools on a year-round schedule is to
advisory and regulatory
What type of power do state boards of education have?
regulatory powers
The State Department of Education activity that involves making sure school buses are safe is due to its
state courts and the attorney general
The legality of any interpretation of state law that governs education is determined by the
individual members of the state legislature
The Education Committee of the National Widget Workers Union has decided that it would like to try and influence the state curriculum because it believes students are not receiving appropriate education in the benefits of trade unions. Due to the legal structure of the educational system, the committee would have the best chance of success if it were to focus its efforts on
property tax
What has historically been the primary source of local revenue for schools?
it provides steady, regular income
What is the main advantage of using property tax for school funding?
it tends to discourage rehabilitation and up keep
A major limitation of property tax is
when property taxes are the major source of income for education all communities benefit equally
The Red River School District is in a rural part of your state. There are few jobs available in the district because the only major employer has closed its antiquated plant in order to move to an area where wages are lower and materials cheaper. You are part of a local group that is concerned that the amount of money available for education in the district is the lowest in the state. You are aware that the courts in many states have ordered a reorganization of school funding to respond to similar situations. In arguing for a different funding system, your group will be able to use all of the following arguments to support your position EXCEPT:
the students in both districts would benefit equally if their districts accepted the offer
The Central City School District has a large enrollment of students but has little potential for greater funding because of the low socioeconomic status of the community. The suburban Rolling Hills School District is in a much more affluent area. There are many large homes and prosperous businesses in the community. A convenience store chain has come forward with a proposal to form a business partnership with one of the school districts. The company will install vending machines for fruit drinks and healthy snack foods and will provide a percentage of the profits to the district to help fund the schools. When you consider the potential benefits to the students, all of the following statements are true about this situation EXCEPT:
financing of public schools is unjust and in total chaos
Providing equitable educational opportunities for all students within a state is one of the challenges of education today. You are reading some of the ʺLetters to the Editorʺ in a major newspaper that people have written in response to an article on educational funding. Which of the following statements corresponds to the opinions that have been expressed by court decisions on funding in most states?
the dollar value of basic educational opprtunities desired in a state
What is a foundation level?
equity for taxpayers and equality of opportunity for students
What does the foundation concept imply?
sets foundation levels far below actual per-pupil costs
State foundation programs are designed to provide more equitable funding to all districts within a state. Even though such a system is in place, some districts might still ʺbe more equal than others.ʺ This situation is most likely to occur when the state
the use of grants tied to various mandates
The most effective tool the U.S. Department of Education has for influencing education is through
children of employees of federal defense contractors
The federal government operates school systems directly for all of the following students EXCEPT:
been expanded
The Elementary Secondary Education Act (ESEA) was first passed by Congress during the presidency of Lyndon Johnson in 1965. The bill has been reauthorized every three or four years since. Each time it has been passed, the scope of the bill has
those in gifted programs
No Child Left Behind requires all schools to produce students who are ʺproficientʺ in their performance on standardized achievement tests by the 2013-2014 school year. The schools must disaggregate the scores of students in all of the following subgroups EXCEPT:
the disaggregated scores of adequate yearly progress for all groups within the school population
No Child Left Behind identifies schools in need of improvement through
restructure, which includes reopening as a charter school
Schools labeled as low performing or failing schools for five consecutive years under No Child Left Behind, must
proof of the scores attained by the teacher on required state or Praxis certification tests
In response to No Child Left Behind, Ling Chang, the principal of Thistledale Middle School, knows he must collect data to be distributed on request to parents about the members of his teaching staff. He will satisfy the requirements by having a database prepared that contains all of the following information EXCEPT:
can effectively talk and negotiate with all parties
People who wish to be politically successful in an educational setting have the best chance of success if they
concentrating on developing the best strategies to use in his own classroom
Grayson Donald is a young teacher interested in becoming an administrator. He will most likely increase his chances of promotion if he engages in all of the following activities, EXCEPT:
the increasing scores of U.S. students on international standardized tests
The pressure for teacher accountability comes from all of the following EXCEPT:
Tenth amendment
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people is part of the
makes education the legal responsibility of each state
The Tenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution
First amendment
Freedom of speech, religion, and press and the right to petition is ensured by the
guarantees the right of due process of law for teachers
The Fourteenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution
Fourteenth amendment
No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law is part of the
by providing equal protection of rights for all citizens
In what way does the Fourteenth Amendment apply to education?
does the act require adherence to a particular faith
All of the following are questions from the Lemon Test, EXCEPT:
the child benefit theory
The provision of benefits to children in parochial schools without benefit to the school or to a religious establishment is known as
he grants the request since the Bible Club is already meeting in the school
A few students from a local mosque attend the public high school in Walnut Grove. They ask David McIntyre, principal of Walnut Grove High, to allow them to use a classroom on Friday during lunch period so they can pray together according to Muslim law. They point out that a Bible Club, organized and led by students, meets once a week at the school. Mr. McIntyre fears that granting the request could create tension in a school with a population of students from different faiths, but he is aware of judicial decisions made in similar cases. Legally, what action should Mr. McIntyre take?
teachers may teach about the Bible as an aspect of the history of literature
Jody Fischer, an English teacher at Crestwood Middle School has given her students an assignment that involves reading and comparing the language in Ecclesiastes Chapter 12 as it appears in the King James Version and The Good News for Modern Man translations of the Bible. A number of parents have complained to the principal about “the blatant introduction of religion” into a public school program. They demand that the principal order Jody to withdraw the assignment. Which of the following statements reflects the judicial decisions that have been made regarding the use of the Bible in public schools?
de facto segregation
Segregation that does not result from laws or school policy is called
Plessy v. Ferguson
The court decision that struck down the separate but equal doctrine of 1896 was:
the area is under no obligation to try and correct a situation due to changing demographic patterns
Metropolis is a large city surrounded by a number of suburbs. During the 1960s the school districts in the area were under court order to provide a racially balanced population in the schools. The plan was successful and the districts were released from the court order. Recently, a large number of families from a politically unstable area have moved into several adjacent neighborhoods. As a result, some schools have become segregated once again. What would past Supreme Court decisions suggest should be done in this case?
race or national origin
The Civil Rights Act states that no person may be excluded from participation due to
reverse discrimination
When a majority or an individual of a majority has not been accorded certain rights because of preferential treatment provided to a minority, that act is called
gender
Title IX states that no person may be excluded from participation in school activities on the basis of
prevent discrimination so that girls and boys have equal opportunities
Title IX programs are intended to
making grants to states and school districts
The Individuals With Disabilities Act (IDEA) assists children with disabilities by
the Americans with Disabilities Act
AIDS is considered a disability under the umbrella of
property interests
Most court cases related to teachers evolve from either liberty interests or
to make sure there are competent teachers in the classroom
The primary purpose of teacher certification is:
board of education
The authority to employ teachers typically lies with the
the district’s dress code
You are about to sign your first teacher contract with a public school district. All of the following items should be covered in the contract, EXCEPT:
She cannot be dismissed for participating in the weekend forum
On the last day of school prior to the Winter Break, Shu-Shen, a first-year teacher, received a letter in her mailbox that informed her she was being dismissed from her position because she had been a participant in a weekend civil rights forum. Which of the following statements is true about a non-tenured teacher such as Shu-Shen?
federal legislation
All of the following provides teachers with the right to have a voice in employee/employer relations, EXCEPT:
the teacher’s firing is upheld while the professor’s firing is overturned
A high school history teacher and a college professor jointly sponsor a student forum at which they provide proof that some races are genetically inferior to others. Both are fired by their respective institutions. Both file lawsuits to demand their reinstatement. Which of the following court judgments is most likely based on the legal system?
it is not generally recognized for elementary and secondary teachers
What is the legal status of academic freedom for teachers?
as long as the statements they make are true
Mr. Micelli, a teacher at Southdale High School, is upset with a Board of Education decision that requires all teachers to sign a petition disagreeing with the city’s plans for the public park across the street from the school. Mr. Micelli writes a letter to the local newspaper in which he states that the school board has no right to make such a demand. He knows that the U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that teachers can legally and publicly criticize policies of the Board of Education for their school district
prohibiting non-custodial parents access to records
All of the following are requirements of FERPA, EXCEPT:
tort
An act or omission of an act that violates the private rights of an individual is called a:
she should ask Anastasia for written permission to disclose the records
One of the voice mail messages for homeroom teacher Juanita Garcia was a request from a prestigious local boutique. The owner was considering hiring 18 year-old Anastasia, who was in Juanita’s class, and wanted to confirm whether Anastasia had really won all of the awards she listed in her resume while attending the school. How should Juanita respond to the request?
cannot generally be proven
The current status of cases concerning educational malpractice indicates that it
rule that a reasonable teacher would be able to foresee that the candles were dangerous
Marianna Stankovic looked around her 4th grade classroom to see that everything was in order for the Halloween party. She carefully lit several candles that sat on a table near her desk. When the bell rang, her excited students rushed into the room and before Marianna could tell them to slow down, Marko bumped into the table and ignited his costume. He was badly burned and his parents filed a lawsuit claiming negligence on the part of the teacher. In such a case, the court would likely
Maria has a right to free public education even though she is homeless
Maria is a student at Orange Grove Middle School. She is from a single -parent family and her mother suddenly lost her job when the company she worked for went bankrupt. As a result, Maria and her mother were no longer able to pay the rent and were forced to live in an old car that Maria’s father had left when he passed away. When the school counselor discovered that Maria was homeless, he informed her that she would have to withdraw from Orange Grove. Which of the following statements reflects the situation as outlined in federal legislation?
the school’s right to act as a parent substitute
What is in loco parentis?
following procedures for protecting individual rights
Due process means
the school may discipline Karl for using obscene and derogatory language in a student assembly
Karl is running for president of the student body at Pineridge High School. One of his opponents is a very popular student named Deshawn. Karl’s election assembly speech was filled with derogatory and obscene language directed at his rival. He concluded his speech by unfurling a banner that said, Don’t vote for Deshawn. He’s Gay! When the principal suspended Karl, his father threatened a lawsuit alleging that his son was being denied freedom of expression. Which of the following reflects the opinion of the U.S. Supreme Court on this issue?
state constitution
The U.S. Supreme Court ruled on and resolved the issue of corporal punishment. It established that corporal punishment may be authorized by the
Title IX prohibits the exclusion of the student from regular classes and also prohibits exclusion from extra-curricular activities
In the Hollywood film, Music of the Heart, a pregnant student is told by the school counselor that she cannot be part of the school choir and must withdraw from the school. Instead she is required to enroll in a program for mothers-to-be at an alternative school. Which of the following reflects the legality of the issue?
provides funds for states which implement a program of action
What is the main function of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act?
search the lockers of students
The courts have used the doctrine of in loco parentis to uphold the right of school personnel to
the way in which the search is conducted
The two standards applied to the search of a student’s person are reasonable suspicion and
Brown v. Board of Education as a legal decision effectively ended
“natural” segregation.
Which Supreme Court decision found that involuntary busing was a legitimate means of achieving school integration?
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education
By accepting federal financial assistance, state agencies and local school districts agree to comply with
federal laws.
In accordance with the Copyright Law of 1978, teachers are allowed to
make single copies of material for their own use and research.
Which of the following is designed to protect the privacy of student records?
the Buckley Amendment
The Fourth Amendment is primarily focused on
privacy and security rights.
The Supreme Court has ruled that corporal punishment in public schools
does not constitute cruel and unusual punishment.
Gaining the right to permanent employment after serving a successful probationary period as a teacher is known as
tenure.
Teachers and schools are in loco parentis. This legal phrase means that the state must act
in the place of parents.
Teachers are required by federal law to
report all suspected cases of child abuse.
Approximately how many states require a national teacher examination as a test of teacher competency before granting initial certification?
thirty.
Teacher shortages exist in the nation’s large cities for all of the following reasons except:
the pay is less than what rural or suburban teachers earn.
The largest, most visible, and most powerful teachers’ organizations are the National Education Association and the
The American Federation of Teachers.
Which of the following organizations offers a national, advanced certification to teachers that is good for ten years?
National Board of Professional Teaching Standards
The Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium Standards (INTASC)
is an organization which provides beginning teacher standards.
The five steps of reflective teaching are perceiving, valuing, knowing, acting, and
evaluating.
Teach for America
provides college graduates who do not have teacher education backgrounds the opportunity to teach.
What term is used to describe the negotiation of the professional rights and responsibilities of teachers as a group?
collective bargaining
Which of the following criticisms has been leveled at teacher unions?
Teacher unions shield their members from scrutiny.
The combination of teachers adding intellectual value to their organization, being decision makers, needing to have specialized knowledge, and are required to fulfill licensure requirements make teaching
a professional career.
higher than in the past
In the United States today, the average age for beginning a family is
maintain high expectations for the child
When children do not live with both parents, educators should
They usually live with a parent
All of the following are true of children who live in shelters or on the street EXCEPT:
School districts can easily obtain court orders to prevent them from enrolling
Even though the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act eliminated residency requirements for students, homeless children are faced with all of the following problems EXCEPT:
their parents
About half of kindergarten through fifth grade students have their after school supervision provided by
a feeling of security
More and more students are joining gangs. This is so because both males and females feel that they can find all of the following, EXCEPT:
more relaxed standards from educational authorities
Today’s young people face all of the following challenges EXCEPT:
More of them finish high school and enrol in post-secondary education than ever before
Which of the following statements refers to the majority of U.S. teenagers today?
They are mature enough to have the benefits of adulthood
Adults look on teenagers in all of the following ways EXCEPT:
They appear bright and alert and attempt to attract attention
Abused children and youths may exhibit all of the following EXCEPT:
20%
Harassment escalates to physical assault for the following percentage of LGBT students in schools:
asserting oneself more to show confidence
All of the following actions are typical responses on the part of those experiencing harassment by peers or teachers at school, EXCEPT:
Teach them to aggresively stand up for themselves
The Sexual Harassment Taskforce of the American Association of University Women (AAUW) recommends that teachers assist students who are potential victims of bullying and harassment by doing all of the following EXCEPT:
Boys connect sex with loving, enduring relationships
The members of the Valleydale High School physical and health education staff are planning the curriculum for the Human Sexuality class. They have examined the literature and found that today’s youth have all of the following beliefs about sexuality EXCEPT:
60%
Current statistics show that the number of teenage mothers who graduate from high school or obtain their GED is about
not always supported by families and communities
The Vallydale High School physical and health education staff have found that research says that school sex and health education clinics are helpful. They also have found that such clinics are
alcohol
Lisa Siimes is a high school counselor who feels that it is essential that she remain aware of the statistics regarding the use of addictive substances among high school seniors. When a teacher tells her that Brandon has been coming to class in what seems to be an impaired state, she is aware that statistics indicate that he has most likely been using
lack of technology
A 2008 poll of the Public’s Attitudes Toward Public Schools ranked all of the following problems ahead of drug use EXCEPT:
White Americans
Which of the following ethnic groups is most likely to use illegal drugs?
40%
What is the approximate percentage of sixteen and seventeen-year-old high school students who work during the school year?
a high percentage of 17-year-olds work after school
Carlos Orentes is a music teacher at Rolling Meadows High School, which is located in a middle- to high-income suburb. He is trying to organize a concert by the local symphony orchestra at the school on a weekday evening so that all of his seventeen-year old students can attend. He is having a great deal of difficulty scheduling the event because
higher budget allocations
Children in low-income families suffer disproportionately from limited access to all of the following EXCEPT:
affliating with one’s gender and racial and ethnic groups
As students develop a sense of ʺself,ʺ they also develop a sense of ʺothers.ʺ The construction of ʺothersʺ involves all of the following EXCEPT:
socialization
The process through which prejudice and discriminatory attitudes are passed from parents to their children is
pay employees from other ethnic groups less than employees from their own ethnic group
Prejudice against other ethnic groups is transformed into discrimination when individuals
prejudice
Some children develop preconceived negative attitudes against members of groups who are different from them in some way. These patterns, which they may learn from their families, cause them to practice
discrimination
Hiring practices which look at each applicant based upon skills and qualifications rather than judging applicants by their sex, skin color, or able-bodiedness are designed to prevent
differences in power and advantage
Roger Whittington was raised in an affluent, white, Protestant family and attended a private college preparatory school in the northeast. Roger is likely to have more difficulty than most Americans in acknowledging the existence of
sexism
What is the conscious or unconscious belief that men are superior to women?
ableism
As Bill Pearson, the Personnel Manager of Elite Office Services opens the door to the next applicant for a job, he is momentarily taken aback when he sees Rianne in her wheelchair. Bill struggles with the preconceived notion that she is not up to the job even though he has not yet asked her a single question. The preconceived notions that he has are most likely due to
normal
Tayshan is deaf. Although he has been given the chance to undergo surgery to provide a measure of hearing, he prefers not to undergo the operation. Activists for the hearing impaired would encourage Tayshan to consider his condition
They have easy access to stable employment
Students who drop out of high school today generally do so for all of the following reasons, EXCEPT:
statistically are not considered to be high school graduates
Talented students, who take off a year from high school to spend time traveling with their family, and then obtain their GED later than the peers with whom they started high school
Asian Americans
The ethnic group with the highest graduation rate in the United States consists of
ninth
Pierre Lappan is a counsellor at Pinewoods High School whose specific focus is to work with students who are most likely to drop out of school. Statistics show that the majority of students that Pierre will be working with are currently enrolled in which grade?
cross-check the facts included for accuracy
Lindsay Sutherland is a history teacher at Green River High School. She has noticed that many of her students rely heavily on Wikipedia articles for documentation in papers they write. Because of the design and nature of Wikipedia, Lindsay recognizes that she needs to take time to work with her students to
ability to be self-effacing
Resilient students exhibit all of the following characteristics EXCEPT:
can be viewed by anyone with access to the internet
If teachers encourage students to develop and use blogs or social networking programs, they should also be very careful to make certain that students understand that their postings
more time to plan
The major advantages of teachers using computer technology to plan lessons includes providing them with all of the following EXCEPT:
highly qualified teachers returning from exchange programs
Selena Tarquin is the principal of an inner-city elementary school located in an impoverished neighbourhood. She has several openings for teachers and optimistically looks at the small pile of resumes received today. Compared to schools in better neighborhoods, Selena is most likely to find that the most of the applications she has received come from all of the following, EXCEPT:
local school board
The governmental unit empowered by state law to administer the school system of a local community is called the
state legislation
The legal authority for operating local school systems is given to local boards of education through
the state
Legally, the primary responsibility for education belongs to
hired by the local board of education
In most states, superintendents of local school districts are
line
A person who is supervised by another person has a type of organizational relationship known as
intermediate units
Which of the following serves as a liaison between the state department of education and local school districts?
hiring and firing of school personnel
All of the following are roles performed by an intermediate unit of school organization, EXCEPT:
is the chief executive officer of the school board
In most states, the school superintendent
the noise makes it difficult for students to focus on their work
One of the shortcomings of the open-space design of school architecture is that
there is little opportunity for teachers to communicate with one another
Critics of the self-contained egg-crate concept of traditional school architecture contend that
Additional assistant principals should be appointed to help the principal
The Millhaven School District has hired a management consultant to study its organizational structure and recommend improvements to provide the most effective supervisory structure at Central High School, which has an enrollment of 2,000 students. Which of the following suggestions would be most beneficial in bringing the school more in line with accepted practices in other effective organizations?
principal
In law, the final authority at the school site is the
the science department head
Nino Pizzuti is a new teacher in the science department at 35th Street High School. John Brown, one of the veteran teachers in the same department, is frequently late and unprepared for his classes. He has been in the habit of removing teaching resources from the cart Nino uses to assemble the materials required for next day’s classes. Even though Nino has discussed the issue several times with John, the problem continues. Nino considers who he should speak to in seeking help to resolve the situation. Normal protocol suggests that the next person he should talk to is
increased parental participation in decision-making
Recently the role of the principal has been expanded to include
school-based management
Allowing individual schools within a school district to be involved in decision-making on issues such as budgeting, personnel selection, and curriculum design is called
less abountability for decisions that prove to be unwelcome
Juan Hernandez is the principal of Rio Hondo High School. He is conducting a series of in-service sessions to acquaint his staff with the district’s new empowerment policy. He has divided the teachers into groups to discuss the significance of various advantages to the system. His list of advantages should include all of the following EXCEPT:
increase the number of students that can be handled annually
One major practical advantages for a school district that organizes one or more of its schools on a year-round schedule is to
advisory and regulatory
What type of power do state boards of education have?
regulatory powers
The State Department of Education activity that involves making sure school buses are safe is due to its
state courts and the attorney general
The legality of any interpretation of state law that governs education is determined by the
individual members of the state legislature
The Education Committee of the National Widget Workers Union has decided that it would like to try and influence the state curriculum because it believes students are not receiving appropriate education in the benefits of trade unions. Due to the legal structure of the educational system, the committee would have the best chance of success if it were to focus its efforts on
property tax
What has historically been the primary source of local revenue for schools?
it provides steady, regular income
What is the main advantage of using property tax for school funding?
it tends to discourage rehabilitation and up keep
A major limitation of property tax is
when property taxes are the major source of income for education all communities benefit equally
The Red River School District is in a rural part of your state. There are few jobs available in the district because the only major employer has closed its antiquated plant in order to move to an area where wages are lower and materials cheaper. You are part of a local group that is concerned that the amount of money available for education in the district is the lowest in the state. You are aware that the courts in many states have ordered a reorganization of school funding to respond to similar situations. In arguing for a different funding system, your group will be able to use all of the following arguments to support your position EXCEPT:
the students in both districts would benefit equally if their districts accepted the offer
The Central City School District has a large enrollment of students but has little potential for greater funding because of the low socioeconomic status of the community. The suburban Rolling Hills School District is in a much more affluent area. There are many large homes and prosperous businesses in the community. A convenience store chain has come forward with a proposal to form a business partnership with one of the school districts. The company will install vending machines for fruit drinks and healthy snack foods and will provide a percentage of the profits to the district to help fund the schools. When you consider the potential benefits to the students, all of the following statements are true about this situation EXCEPT:
financing of public schools is unjust and in total chaos
Providing equitable educational opportunities for all students within a state is one of the challenges of education today. You are reading some of the ʺLetters to the Editorʺ in a major newspaper that people have written in response to an article on educational funding. Which of the following statements corresponds to the opinions that have been expressed by court decisions on funding in most states?
the dollar value of basic educational opprtunities desired in a state
What is a foundation level?
equity for taxpayers and equality of opportunity for students
What does the foundation concept imply?
sets foundation levels far below actual per-pupil costs
State foundation programs are designed to provide more equitable funding to all districts within a state. Even though such a system is in place, some districts might still ʺbe more equal than others.ʺ This situation is most likely to occur when the state
the use of grants tied to various mandates
The most effective tool the U.S. Department of Education has for influencing education is through
children of employees of federal defense contractors
The federal government operates school systems directly for all of the following students EXCEPT:
been expanded
The Elementary Secondary Education Act (ESEA) was first passed by Congress during the presidency of Lyndon Johnson in 1965. The bill has been reauthorized every three or four years since. Each time it has been passed, the scope of the bill has
those in gifted programs
No Child Left Behind requires all schools to produce students who are ʺproficientʺ in their performance on standardized achievement tests by the 2013-2014 school year. The schools must disaggregate the scores of students in all of the following subgroups EXCEPT:
the disaggregated scores of adequate yearly progress for all groups within the school population
No Child Left Behind identifies schools in need of improvement through
restructure, which includes reopening as a charter school
Schools labeled as low performing or failing schools for five consecutive years under No Child Left Behind, must
proof of the scores attained by the teacher on required state or Praxis certification tests
In response to No Child Left Behind, Ling Chang, the principal of Thistledale Middle School, knows he must collect data to be distributed on request to parents about the members of his teaching staff. He will satisfy the requirements by having a database prepared that contains all of the following information EXCEPT:
can effectively talk and negotiate with all parties
People who wish to be politically successful in an educational setting have the best chance of success if they
concentrating on developing the best strategies to use in his own classroom
Grayson Donald is a young teacher interested in becoming an administrator. He will most likely increase his chances of promotion if he engages in all of the following activities, EXCEPT:
the increasing scores of U.S. students on international standardized tests
The pressure for teacher accountability comes from all of the following EXCEPT:
Tenth amendment
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people is part of the
makes education the legal responsibility of each state
The Tenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution
First amendment
Freedom of speech, religion, and press and the right to petition is ensured by the
guarantees the right of due process of law for teachers
The Fourteenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution
Fourteenth amendment
No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law is part of the
by providing equal protection of rights for all citizens
In what way does the Fourteenth Amendment apply to education?
does the act require adherence to a particular faith
All of the following are questions from the Lemon Test, EXCEPT:
the child benefit theory
The provision of benefits to children in parochial schools without benefit to the school or to a religious establishment is known as
he grants the request since the Bible Club is already meeting in the school
A few students from a local mosque attend the public high school in Walnut Grove. They ask David McIntyre, principal of Walnut Grove High, to allow them to use a classroom on Friday during lunch period so they can pray together according to Muslim law. They point out that a Bible Club, organized and led by students, meets once a week at the school. Mr. McIntyre fears that granting the request could create tension in a school with a population of students from different faiths, but he is aware of judicial decisions made in similar cases. Legally, what action should Mr. McIntyre take?
teachers may teach about the Bible as an aspect of the history of literature
Jody Fischer, an English teacher at Crestwood Middle School has given her students an assignment that involves reading and comparing the language in Ecclesiastes Chapter 12 as it appears in the King James Version and The Good News for Modern Man translations of the Bible. A number of parents have complained to the principal about “the blatant introduction of religion” into a public school program. They demand that the principal order Jody to withdraw the assignment. Which of the following statements reflects the judicial decisions that have been made regarding the use of the Bible in public schools?
de facto segregation
Segregation that does not result from laws or school policy is called
Plessy v. Ferguson
The court decision that struck down the separate but equal doctrine of 1896 was:
the area is under no obligation to try and correct a situation due to changing demographic patterns
Metropolis is a large city surrounded by a number of suburbs. During the 1960s the school districts in the area were under court order to provide a racially balanced population in the schools. The plan was successful and the districts were released from the court order. Recently, a large number of families from a politically unstable area have moved into several adjacent neighborhoods. As a result, some schools have become segregated once again. What would past Supreme Court decisions suggest should be done in this case?
race or national origin
The Civil Rights Act states that no person may be excluded from participation due to
reverse discrimination
When a majority or an individual of a majority has not been accorded certain rights because of preferential treatment provided to a minority, that act is called
gender
Title IX states that no person may be excluded from participation in school activities on the basis of
prevent discrimination so that girls and boys have equal opportunities
Title IX programs are intended to
making grants to states and school districts
The Individuals With Disabilities Act (IDEA) assists children with disabilities by
the Americans with Disabilities Act
AIDS is considered a disability under the umbrella of
property interests
Most court cases related to teachers evolve from either liberty interests or
to make sure there are competent teachers in the classroom
The primary purpose of teacher certification is:
board of education
The authority to employ teachers typically lies with the
the district’s dress code
You are about to sign your first teacher contract with a public school district. All of the following items should be covered in the contract, EXCEPT:
She cannot be dismissed for participating in the weekend forum
On the last day of school prior to the Winter Break, Shu-Shen, a first-year teacher, received a letter in her mailbox that informed her she was being dismissed from her position because she had been a participant in a weekend civil rights forum. Which of the following statements is true about a non-tenured teacher such as Shu-Shen?
federal legislation
All of the following provides teachers with the right to have a voice in employee/employer relations, EXCEPT:
the teacher’s firing is upheld while the professor’s firing is overturned
A high school history teacher and a college professor jointly sponsor a student forum at which they provide proof that some races are genetically inferior to others. Both are fired by their respective institutions. Both file lawsuits to demand their reinstatement. Which of the following court judgments is most likely based on the legal system?
it is not generally recognized for elementary and secondary teachers
What is the legal status of academic freedom for teachers?
as long as the statements they make are true
Mr. Micelli, a teacher at Southdale High School, is upset with a Board of Education decision that requires all teachers to sign a petition disagreeing with the city’s plans for the public park across the street from the school. Mr. Micelli writes a letter to the local newspaper in which he states that the school board has no right to make such a demand. He knows that the U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that teachers can legally and publicly criticize policies of the Board of Education for their school district
prohibiting non-custodial parents access to records
All of the following are requirements of FERPA, EXCEPT:
tort
An act or omission of an act that violates the private rights of an individual is called a:
she should ask Anastasia for written permission to disclose the records
One of the voice mail messages for homeroom teacher Juanita Garcia was a request from a prestigious local boutique. The owner was considering hiring 18 year-old Anastasia, who was in Juanita’s class, and wanted to confirm whether Anastasia had really won all of the awards she listed in her resume while attending the school. How should Juanita respond to the request?
cannot generally be proven
The current status of cases concerning educational malpractice indicates that it
rule that a reasonable teacher would be able to foresee that the candles were dangerous
Marianna Stankovic looked around her 4th grade classroom to see that everything was in order for the Halloween party. She carefully lit several candles that sat on a table near her desk. When the bell rang, her excited students rushed into the room and before Marianna could tell them to slow down, Marko bumped into the table and ignited his costume. He was badly burned and his parents filed a lawsuit claiming negligence on the part of the teacher. In such a case, the court would likely
Maria has a right to free public education even though she is homeless
Maria is a student at Orange Grove Middle School. She is from a single -parent family and her mother suddenly lost her job when the company she worked for went bankrupt. As a result, Maria and her mother were no longer able to pay the rent and were forced to live in an old car that Maria’s father had left when he passed away. When the school counselor discovered that Maria was homeless, he informed her that she would have to withdraw from Orange Grove. Which of the following statements reflects the situation as outlined in federal legislation?
the school’s right to act as a parent substitute
What is in loco parentis?
following procedures for protecting individual rights
Due process means
the school may discipline Karl for using obscene and derogatory language in a student assembly
Karl is running for president of the student body at Pineridge High School. One of his opponents is a very popular student named Deshawn. Karl’s election assembly speech was filled with derogatory and obscene language directed at his rival. He concluded his speech by unfurling a banner that said, Don’t vote for Deshawn. He’s Gay! When the principal suspended Karl, his father threatened a lawsuit alleging that his son was being denied freedom of expression. Which of the following reflects the opinion of the U.S. Supreme Court on this issue?
state constitution
The U.S. Supreme Court ruled on and resolved the issue of corporal punishment. It established that corporal punishment may be authorized by the
Title IX prohibits the exclusion of the student from regular classes and also prohibits exclusion from extra-curricular activities
In the Hollywood film, Music of the Heart, a pregnant student is told by the school counselor that she cannot be part of the school choir and must withdraw from the school. Instead she is required to enroll in a program for mothers-to-be at an alternative school. Which of the following reflects the legality of the issue?
provides funds for states which implement a program of action
What is the main function of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act?
search the lockers of students
The courts have used the doctrine of in loco parentis to uphold the right of school personnel to
the way in which the search is conducted
The two standards applied to the search of a student’s person are reasonable suspicion and
Which statement would most likely be made by a critic of schools’ efforts to transmit culture?
“When schools transmit culture, they tend to privilege certain groups and make other groups feel inferior.”
Alexis is a teacher who feels strongly about the importance of preparing students to live in a democracy. She feels that this objective is just as important as math or science, and she constantly pushes her colleagues to incorporate civic instruction into their courses, no matter the subject. Alexis’s ideas reflect
social democratic reconstructionism
Economic reconstructionists believe that
schools are tools of oppression
As an economic reconstructionist, Paulo Freire argued that
schools were tools of oppression and miseducation
When students, parents, and teachers were asked to rate school goals in a study,
vocational, personal, academic, and social and civic goals were all rated “very important.”
In schools where teachers do not have daily contact with one another and act independently of others in the school, this represents a failure of which “five-factor theory” concept?
a clear school mission
Studies on school size have determined that
smaller schools are more effective than larger schools because their students are more likely to pass their classes
The current reform efforts in education can be traced to
A Nation at Risk
The economist who argued that school competition and choice would improve the quality of public education was
Milton Friedman
Which of the following statements most reflects the beliefs of James Coleman?
When we look at private and parochial schools, we can see that they do a better job than public schools. So perhaps private schools are the way to fix education.”
Which of the following is a characteristic of charter schools?
Charter schools can be virtual
At a recent school board meeting, a group of parents spoke out on the issue of the poor quality of the district’s schools. They demanded the formation of charter schools that emphasized a rigorous, traditional curriculum and teacher-centered classrooms. These parents most closely resemble
zealots.
An early promoter of vouchers in education was
economist Milton Friedman
Which of the following was begun as a tool to desegregate schools?
magnet schools
How many states currently allow open enrollment within their school districts?
40 or more
There tend to be fewer virtual schools at the elementary levels, primarily because
virtual schooling can deprive children of interactions needed for them to develop socialization skills
The experiences that school districts had with the Edison Schools Inc.
did not have a visible effect on the privatization movement
Based on poll results, how have Americans’ opinion on the idea of charter schools changed in the past decade?
In the latter half of the decade, Americans have become significantly more favorable toward the idea of charter schools.
Jean and Stephen were concerned about the quality of education that their son, Galen, was receiving in the neighborhood school. They felt that the secular curriculum did not reflect their strong religious beliefs. As result, they chose to homeschool Galen for the rest of his educational career. The religiously-based motivation on the part of Galen’s parents to homeschool him is indicative of
ideologues
Elaine was homeschooled for most of her life before heading to college at a state university. Based on what is known regarding homeschooled students in college, Elaine will probably
be well-thought of by many of her professors because she is willing to take risks.
Baltimore middle school was recognized by the U.S. Department of Education as a green ribbon school. The school earned this distinction for
creating a healthy school climate, implementing suggestions from students and teachers to reduce energy consumption, and producing students who were environmentally literate.
According to the survey by the Education Sector, most teachers
support educational reform
Influential teacher organizations are cautiously supportive of a merit pay plan, providing certain provisions are met. Which of the following is NOT one of those provisions?
pay across the board for all teachers must be atleast 50 percent higher than current teacher salaries
Historically, who has the LEAST opportunity to give feedback in the school reform movement
students
In Life in Classrooms, Philip W. Jackson characterizes school life as
a passive process in which students do little more than sit and wait.
Research indicates that because of noninstructional demands (discipline problems, attendance, etc.) teachers lose what percentage of instructional time
between 25 percent and 50 percent Correct
Paula is an elementary school teacher who often feels more like the last thing in the world she gets to do is teach her students. She feels as though much of her day is taken up with determining who gets to speak, when to line up for lunch, how the class will work when broken into groups, and so forth. Based on these actions, Paula occupies the role of
gatekeeper
According to Jeannie Oakes, tracking persists in schools largely because
educators don’t really believe that they can change their students’ educational capabilities
According to Goodlad, which statement is true regarding the patterns of classroom interactions?
Students are typically restrained in a relatively small space, during a period in which much of the activity is about maintaining order.
For all of his schooling, Nicola has found himself in the lower level tracks. Despite this, he has studied hard and has done well in his classes. In his eighth-grade year, one of his teachers urged him to register for college preparatory courses in high school. Inspired by the idea that one of his teachers thought he could actually make it to college, Nicola and his parents met with his counselor. Based on the research by Ray Rist, what is the counselor most likely to tell them?
“You know, not everyone is cut out for college. The work is really hard and I am not sure that you are really prepared. I think you should stay in the courses that we have previously discussed.” Correct
If detracking is to be successful, schools must
provide careful planning and training for teachers to operate in a detracked environment.
During elementary school, there is
more communication between races than between sexes.
Which of the following statements would most likely be made by a critic of middle school education?
“Middle schools do not do a good job of providing stability for either parents or students.”
Which of the following best describes a characteristic of adolescent culture in school
preoccupation with physical attractiveness and peer popularity
Critics of middle school education argue they should be replaced by
K-8 schools.
When people remember their high school experiences, they are most likely to recall issues concerning the
social status system.
Regarding the friendships that they make, teens tend to
make friends from many groups, but not close friends.
Which of the following is true of today’s families in the U.S.?
Only two-thirds of children live in two-parent households.
Which of the following is true regarding working women?
Women and men still have not reached equality in pay.
Emily’s parents have just completed a divorce in which both parents will share custody. For Emily, which of the following statements is true?
Emily will probably go through a process that closely resembles mourning.
The most widespread form of substance abuse is
alcohol abuse.
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
African Americans have the highest suicide rate of all racial and ethnic groups.
Which of the following is a recommended teaching strategy found to be particularly appropriate for students living in poverty?
focus on language skills
Poor students frequently feel alienated from the school experience because
they feel disconnected from schools that reflect middle-class values.
Members of which demographic group are at the greatest risk for committing suicide
Native American males
In researching poverty, Shirley Brice Heath found that interactions between adults and children
are fewer in lower-class families, and more information-driven.
Which of the following ranked highest with girls in describing their peer culture in middle school
relational aggression
Bullying has been an accepted school tradition for so long because
teachers accept the common myths surrounding bullying
Mercedes, a young Hispanic female, is excited because she is about to celebrate her fifteenth birthday, the quincea-era,
which is considered to be a rite of passage into adulthood. Such celebrations are an important part of Mercedes’s
culture
Demographically, most of the poor in America are
white.
Attempts to organize Gay-Straight Alliances in schools have been aided by the
Federal Equal Access Act
In an essay she wrote in her sociology of education course, Eve argued that one of the reasons that minorities struggled academically while in schools was genetic deficiencies that made them incapable of learning at the same pace as non-minority students. Such thinking on Eve’s part is indicative of
deficit theory.
According to current statistics, racial segregation among groups in society has
increased
Marie is a middle-grades teacher in a large city. Marie believes that all children can learn, and she strives mightily to help her students achieve. Yet, every day in the teacher’s workroom she seems to get into arguments with colleagues who feel that it is a waste of time and effort to try to work with the students they teach, since “they’re just going to wind up dropping out and going to jail.” The attitudes of Marie’s colleagues are indicative of
expectation theory.
The “Lau Remedies” were important because they
required schools to take positive steps to eliminate language barriers to learning
Han is an elementary school student in a rural district. Han’s family arrived from Laos, and he speaks very little English. Although Han really wants to do well at school, he struggles, because the instruction is in English only and his teachers make no effort to modify instruction so that he can understand what is going on. Han’s experience most closely reflects
language submersion
By the year 2030, children of color will make up approximately what proportion of the school population?
about half
In diverse classrooms, teachers can use generalizations about students from different cultural groups but should avoid stereotypes. Which of the following is a stereotype?
Asian American students are highly competitive.
A major assumption of multicultural education is that
students should develop positive attitudes toward different cultures.
During the past decades, the College Board has worked to diversify its reading lists for its Advanced Placement Exams to reflect works by women, people of color, and writers from Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Such efforts on the part of the College Board reflect which approach to multicultural education?
transformation
Which of the following statements about stereotyping is NOT true?
Stereotypes are undermined by contradictory information.
When Carlos Ovando’s family first emigrated from Nicaragua, school was difficult for him because of his limited English proficiency and because he was not allowed to speak Spanish at school. His experience was most similar to that of
Kinney Lau, whose difficulty in school led to a landmark court case, Lau v. Nichols.
When a teacher spends only a week of class time talking about important female inventors, the teacher is taking the ________ approach to multicultural education.
additive
Israel Zangwill’s 1910 description of America as a “melting pot” best reflects the idea of
assimilation.
Culturally responsive teaching proponent Gloria Ladson-Billings would most likely support all of the following EXCEPT
using a single learning style in order to avoid student confusion.
Frequently, the ability of teachers to engage in LGBT issues in schools is influenced by
the attitudes and support their communities demonstrate for LGBT issues in schools.
When a state implements a law that mandates English-only instruction in schools, the state’s action represents which underlying philosophy of bilingual education?
cultural assimilation
In terms of deciding which approach to bilingual education is most effective, research has indicated that
there is no single approach that is most effective.
Nick is a high school teacher in a large city in the Southeast. Although he is white, he works well with the diverse students in his school, as well as with the parents in the community. One of the things students and parents appreciate about Nick is that he is comfortable in the community and he has taken the time to learn about his students and “where they come from.” In terms of multicultural education, Nick emphasizes
cultural competence.
Which of the following statements best reflects the findings of survey data regarding the state of race relations in America?
“Yeah, I think that I’ve got a much better attitude about race than my mom and dad and grandparents do.” Correct
Multicultural educators that follow the approach called “teaching the culturally different” primarily advocate
creating close links between school and home so that minority children can succeed academically.
One of the reasons that students in schools are more segregated today than at any time since the Civil Rights movement is
a lack of willingness on the part of the federal courts to enforce desegregation policies.
As a student in college, Luisa was shocked at some of the things she was learning in her Survey of American History course. Although she had studied American history before, her teachers had never mentioned many of the things she was learning for the first time from the professor. Luisa’s experiences would most closely reflect the effects of
null cirriculum
Educator Hilda Taba argued which of the following about the importance of a school curriculum?
Learning in school is different than learning in life because schools are more formally organized
Which of the following represents a way in which a teacher might informally influence curriculum?
Paula decides to change the order in which she is going to present literary genres in her high school English class
In recent times, the role of state governments in curricular decisions has
increased through testing and the implementation of state standards. Correct
The development of common core state standards that have been adopted in over 40 states reflects the influence on curriculum by
. education commissions and committees
Which of the following groups of states wield the most influence on textbook creation and adoption
Texas, California, North Carolina and Florida Correct
Which of the following factors has the greatest potential to undermine the influence of the major textbook adoption states in determining the instructional content of textbooks?
The arrival of digital publication technology will make it easier for states to adopt texts tailored to their needs
One of the primary reasons that No Child Left Behind was revamped is that
. there was a fear that most of the nation’s schools would be labeled as failing.
Research on the effectiveness of computers in education shows that
a. although a popular idea, the jury is still out on the effectiveness of computers in schools.
Which statement would most likely be made by a proponent of Common Core Standards?
“What is great about the Common Core Standards is that they allow exploration of content in-depth, just like other countries that are successful on international achievement tests. Perhaps the Common Core Standards will allow our students to become more competitive on these tests, too
Andrew is a student in the class Rebecca teaches. While Andrew is not in the lowest percentile of the class, he isn’t in the highest, either. In fact, Andrew could go either way in terms of passing or failing. Rebecca will spend
the most amount of time on him because he is a “bubble kid
Textbook adoption states
are common in the south
Advantages of the statewide textbook adoption process include all of the following benefits EXCEPT
more options for teachers at the local level
The phenomenon represented by the test-tampering scandal in Atlanta, Georgia, is most closely associated with
Cambells law
A textbook covers twentieth-century U.S. history without mentioning the continuing struggle for civil rights; and pictures throughout the text portray only harmonious race relations. This is an example of bias called
unreality
Which of the following is NOT a reason that standardized tests are popular?
They can accurately measure teacher performance
Lisa, Paul, and Jay were given an assignment at the end of their first unit in Spanish I. They were to prepare and act out a skit where they were to assume the roles of students visiting Argentina for Spring Break. They were to enter into a restaurant order a meal, and pay for the meal, all in Spanish. The students knew they were being evaluated on how they performed these tasks, so they took care to do a good job. This sort of task is an example of
authentic assessment.
According to survey information on the subject of teaching creationism, evolution, or intelligent design in schools, a large segment of the public feels that
students should be exposed to competing theories in schools
Which constitutional amendment is at the heart of the controversies surrounding intelligent design, creationism, and evolution
1’st amendment
Research indicates that the frequency of self-censorship
is virtually impossible to trace
A scientific “theory,” such as the theory of evolution, is
a thoroughly tested belief unlikely to change.
“Intelligent design”
credits an unnamed intelligence for aspects of nature unexplained by science
The main point of the “saber-tooth curriculum” is that
slavish devotion to the content of past times can result in a curriculum obsolete in the face of contemporary realities.
Which of the following comments is most likely to be made by an opponent of censorship
“I really feel that, while schools should protect children from blatantly inappropriate ideas, ‘inappropriate’ is a pretty subjective term.”
The next major trend in educational technology appears to be the implementation of
hybrid courses
New conceptualizations of intelligence view it as changeable and somewhat controllable. This idea of intelligence is referred to as
incremental theory
Jean is a student in your class. She is very aware of how she feels emotionally, and has a clear idea of her strengths and her limitations. She uses her sense of self as a key resource as she approaches her work in your class. Based on this description, you believe that Jean has
intrapersonal intelligence
A person who demonstrates strong existential intelligence (the intelligence Gardner is currently exploring) would have the ability to
formulate questions about life, death, and who we are.
A student who says, “I failed the test because the fire alarm went off in the middle of the test” appears to exhibit
an external locus of control
According to Gardner, if we are to develop students who are willing to face hard truths and value honest behavior, we have to develop the
ethical mind.
The idea that “reasoning and control” might combine in way that “enhances living” is most directly associated with the concept of
emotional intelligence
How might you characterize the changing understanding of intelligence?
We are broadening our understanding of intelligence beyond traditional language and mathematical-logical factors.
Psychologist Daniel Goleman argues that
the emotional intelligence quotient may be a better predictor of life success than the traditional intelligence quotient
Which of the following has NOT been given as a reason for single-sex schools
Girls’ science and math genes are developed in single-sex schools
People who are popular, are good leaders, and can make others feel comfortable and connected may be strong in which emotional intelligence dimension?
handling relationships
Which principle of special education implies that children have the right to an education involving accurate diagnosis of individual needs
IEP
Today, about ________ percent of the public school student population is identified as gifted.
6
The principle of the IDEA that states that no child with disabilities may be denied a free, appropriate education is
zero subject
The concepts in the IDEA that students should be assessed fairly by the use of tests that are free from cultural biases and are in the students’ native languages would be covered by which provision
non-discriminatory education
Which of the following is NOT currently one of the five elements of giftedness identified by the National Association for Gifted Children?
wisdom
Which of the following is true of students receiving special education
Boys are more likely to receive special educational services than girls
A teacher reading the work of Janet Hyde would most likely come to which of the following conclusions about the male and female students in his classes
I really need to consider what I should do to academically support my students who come from economically disadvantaged backgrounds
The case against segregating children with disabilities was made in part because of the findings of
the Brown v. Board of Education decision
Least-restrictive environment” refers to
integrating students with disabilities into classrooms with non-disabled students whenever possible
One of the reasons that teachers feel uncertain about educating special needs students is that they
do not feel that they have the resources to work with special needs students.
Procedural due process” refers to the
rights of children with disabilities and their parents to have access to and input on school decisions
After what major event did America experience its first shift toward humanist social attempts at better treatment and education of the disabled?
the Revolutionary War
For teachers involved in gifted education programs, one of the key tasks to accomplish is
helping the students learn critical life skills
Grace Fernald, Marianne Frostig and Heinz Werner are noted for pioneering
research into special education
Which of the following is NOT a significant part of the portfolio approach to assessment?
written tests on logical ability
Which of the following is generally considered a positive aspect of the teaching profession
the ability to influence the lives of young people
Which of the following statements is true regarding merit pay
Merit pay is popular among many reformers
Alice is a teacher who has just finished her fourth year of teaching. At the end of that year, Alice was informed that she would be granted tenure. From this point, Alice can expect
protection from arbitrary dismissal
In terms of professional status, many consider teaching to be
somewhere between a full profession and a semiprofession
Edward lives in Maryland during the colonial period. When it comes time to choose a trade, he decides he wishes to become a teacher. How would he prepare to teach children during this time in American history
He would receive virtually no formal training at all.
Normal schools were important because they
represented the earliest form of professional teacher education
Modern efforts at education reform can be traced back to the
1980s and the reports by The Holmes Group and the Carnegie Foundation
When Amanda decided to be a teacher in college, she found that her school had discontinued its undergraduate teaching major. In its place, Amanda did a fifth-year program that combined both bachelor and master’s level requirements. Interestingly, when Amanda went for her NBPTS certification as a teacher, the principles reflected in the NBPTS requirements reflected those she encountered in her teacher preparation in college. Amanda’s teacher preparation most closely reflected the ideas contained in
A Nation Prepared.
To demonstrate their expertise, teachers undergoing NBPTS certification must
demonstrate understanding of the most effective teaching methods
Elaine has been a fifth grade teacher since 1998. During this time she has become an adept observer of her students and how they learn. Elaine takes her experiences with her students and combines them with the theory she has learned to craft instruction that promotes curiosity, tolerance, honesty, respect for diversity, and appreciation for all cultures. Finally, Elaine makes a point of modeling these virtues for her students so that they master these ideas even more effectively. Elaine’s actions most closely reflect which of the NBPTS’s core propositions?
Teachers think systematically about their practice and learn from experience.
Paula is a high school music teacher who is known for her involvement and commitment to her students and to her school. She is constantly working with other teachers and administrators so that they can have the best instruction, curriculum, and staff development possible. She also reaches out through her music program to involve parents and the community to make sure that these groups are engaged with the school and feel like they have stake in what is going on there. Paula’s actions most closely reflect which of the NBPTS’s core propositions?
Teachers are members of learning communities
Regarding the issue of how to best prepare teachers, there is
no consensus on how to best prepare teachers
Unlike traditional teacher preparation programs, alternative teaching programs
focus on apprenticeships and on-the-job training
One of the recommendations for improving the Teach for America (TFA) program is to
increase classroom support for TFA participants as they teach
The idea for Teach for America (TFA) came from
an undergraduate thesis at Princeton
Pavel is a new teacher in an inner-city school in Boston. To prepare for teaching, Pavel first had to promise his school that he would stay for at least five years. Then, he spent his first year on the job observing and working with Dava Anderson, a master teacher who had been working with inner-city students her entire career. All the while, Pavel was taking coursework at Boston College to gain a theoretical understanding of teaching. Only during his second year was he allowed to teach students of his own, and then only under Dava’s careful supervision. Based on this description, Pavel is part of
teaching residency program
The goal of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards is to
assess and certify highly competent teachers
Only about 3% of teachers become board certified because
it is expensive and fewer than half of the states pay for their teachers to prepare for board certification.
Although U.S. middle school students may lag behind their Japanese counterparts in international algebra tests, the differences disappear on later tests due to the
greater effectiveness of U.S. university systems.
What is the evidence that U.S. students are actually doing quite well in their educational performance?
SAT reading and mathematics scores are at an all-time high.
Which of these is NOT a reason for the furor surrounding the quality of U.S. education
the idea that schools are underfunded and need more governmental support Correct
Compared to resumes, portfolios
take a more creative approach to highlighting a candidate’s skills
Horace Mann helped establish the first
state-supported normal school
________ was influential in creating the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards.
The Carnegie Forum
One of the reasons that urban legends about teaching are damaging to teachers is that
they are accepted as true by many policymakers
Various groups of educators define the term ʺstandardsʺ in different ways. All of the following are accepted definitions, EXCEPT:
Standards are vague enough to be interpreted in many different ways.
an instructional approach, standards-based education places which of the following at the center?
student learning
The Cedar Creek Business Owner’s Association has asked you to make a presentation to the Education Standards Committee of the school district. Like most business leaders, the group will emphasize the need for high school graduates who
are ready for work by being able to read, write, and compute.
The State Representatives for the area have asked you to make a presentation to the Education Standards Committee of the Cedar Creek School District. Like most policymakers, they will emphasize the need for high school graduates who
achieve at higher levels than students in other countries
The Parents Association at Cedar Creek High School has asked you to make a presentation to the Education Standards Committee of the school district. All of the following would be emphasized by most parents, EXCEPT:
The students achieve at levels equal to students in other countries
Recognizing that standards-based education requires the involvement of various stakeholders, it would be appropriate for the Los Alamos School District to invite all of the following to be part of the development and transition to a new curriculum, EXCEPT:
city council members
World-class standards are
visionary statements of aspiration and accomplishment at high levels
It is impossible for the results of any standardized test of achievement to accurately reflect student achievement unless which of the following type of standards are in place?
opportunity-to-learn
The Green Meadows School District is concerned about the low level of achievement by its students. Consultants in the district have developed opportunity-to-learn standards that match state tests. In order for the standards to be translated into improved student achievement, the most critical help the district can provide would be
teacher inservice to help teachers fine-tune instructional techniques
All of the following conditions must accompany opportunity-to-learn standards in order to assist in improvements in student achievement, EXCEPT:
procedures to exempt low achieveing students from testing
Some sets of standards include dispositions such as
the habits and inclinations that should be nurtured in students
The first set of national content standards was developed by the
the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
No Child Left Behind requires all states to have standards for what a child should know and learn for all grades in
mathematics, reading, and science
No Child Left Behind requires that by 2013 all schools must demonstrate that every student must
be at the proficiency level for their grade level
As standards- based education is implemented, teachers must transition from
dispenser of knowledge to coach and facilitator
of the following changes are required when linking assessment to standards, EXCEPT:
eliminating the use of grades
When assessments are interwoven into standards, the assessments become
much more varied and meaningful to teachers and students
The term assessment is derived from the Latin, assessio, which means to
sit beside
Some theorists believe that all true assessment is ultimately
self-assesment
Formative assessment is used to
measure what a student has learned so feedback can be provided
Summative evaluation is used to
make final judgments about whether a certain level of accomplishment has been attained
The ACT and SAT tests are examples of what kind of assessment?
gatekeeping
Student essays, projects, portfolios, journals, and observation checklists are
measures the assessors use to provide feedback
Mai-Lin notices that some of her students are not able to obtain the correct answers to the mathematical problems they are working on in a particular unit. In order to determine what specific difficulties are preventing them from solving the problems, Mai-Lin should design and administer a
diagnostic assessment
Norm-referenced tests do all of the following, EXCEPT
provide an accurate picture of what a student knows and can do
Senator Foghorn is incensed that a group of students in the Deer Valley School District have performed below the fiftieth percentile on a test administered to all students. He demands that the schools be penalized for the results. However, the senator is misguided in his complaints because it is impossible for all students to achieve above the fiftieth percentile on tests that are
norm-referenced
A good example of a capstone/summative assessment is
student teaching
Gordana Jovanoski teaches electricity and electronics and Explorer High School. She requires her students to assemble and demonstrate a laser transit by surveying a construction site near the school. This task is best considered as an example of a
proficiency-based assessment
Students can best demonstrate the standards they can meet in real world settings through
authentic assessments
Research shows that the types of questions students are asked
determines the academic culture of a classroom
Analytic rubrics are useful because they do all of the following, EXCEPT
allow for unexpected deviations from the stated criteria
Ethical behavior on the part of teachers is particularly important because
students have no choice about associating with teachers
One of the most common complaints heard from students is the refrain, “That’s not fair!” When designing assessments, fairness refers to the care taken to:
elimination of biases that would disadvantage a certain segment of the population
An assessment is considered valid when it:
actually measures what it is intended to measure
The success of the program at a particular school is best determined through
multiple assessments
The heavy focus on testing by administering the same assessments to every student contradicts all of the following long standing beliefs about education in the United States, EXCEPT
all students need to be familiar with certain knowledge and concepts
Increased teacher burdens that result from implementing the new assessment approaches can best be reduced through
collaboration with colleagues
Critics of No Child Left Behind argue that proficiency tests used to hold teachers accountable fail to take into account certain factors. All of the following are cited by critics as one of the factors, EXCEPT:
specific knowledge
Since students who perform poorly on state tests disproportionately come from low-income families, many researchers have concluded that the tests actually are measures of
socioeconomic status
There is a growing trend to include performance assessments, such as PACT and TWS, for teacher candidates. Both of these assessments require teachers to do all of the following assessment tasks involving their students, EXCEPT:
utilize data collected to determine how the students compare with one another
The curriculum specialists of the Blind River School District have organized the curriculum so that key content is taught at various grade levels with concepts and applications geared to the interests and abilities of the students in the grades in question. This curriculum design is known as
spiral
In the United States, a subject-centered curriculum
was in place in the earliest schools
Schools in the United States have sometimes been criticized for the tendency to teach according to an analogy that compares the curriculum to a river that is a mile wide and an inch deep. This analogy most closely resembles a curriculum design that emphasizes
memorizing as much content as possible
All of the following are usually considered co-curricular activities EXCEPT:
science labs
The Libertyville School District is facing a budget crunch because of the loss of several local industries. One of the school board members has suggested cutting the music program and athletics to free up money for the core areas. Another member vigorously opposes the move because it has been shown that
many students attend school so they can participate in these activities
Felipe Vasquez is preparing for his first year as a science teacher. When he arrives at the school, he should expect to be provided with all of the following EXCEPT:
assessments to be administered
Groups who oppose the cutting of old-growth forests and who want to influence the curriculum have the greatest chance of success if they apply pressure on
state legislatures
One of the dangers of high-stakes testing is that students will not
have opportunities to learn critical topics not covered on the tests
Rachael Stern teaches fourth grade at Arlington Elementary School. She regularly examines the curriculum guides and syllabi for the grades above and below the fourth grade. This is a sound practice because she will be able to
see how what she is teaching relates to what students learned previously and are expected to learn next year
Some states have programs based on documents called Curriculum Frameworks. These documents are organized around
the big ideas for each subject area
Classroom teachers have the major responsibility for all of the following EXCEPT:
selection of the curriculum
The School Improvement Committee of Shady Acres Middle School is responsible for all of the following EXCEPT:
administration of achievement tests to students
The concept of linking the success or failure of students to achieve to the performance of the classroom teacher is opposed to the beliefs of:
teacher associations
Community priorities have the greatest effect on the value placed on which of the following in a school?
the marching band and football team
The teachers at Thunder Ridge High School strongly subscribe to the belief that all students can learn. As a result, they will support all of the following EXCEPT:
aptitude tests determine what courses counselors advise students to take
If each teacher were allowed to choose his or her own curriculum
there would be a lack of continuity in the system
The legal responsibility to establish standards is at the level of
each individual state
One problem of statewide textbook selection procedures in large states is:
pressure groups and politicians can effectively influence content
Organizing secondary schools into departments provides all of the following advantages EXCEPT:
decreasing the emphasis on particular content
The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is designed to
indicate how well students are doing in each state
At the beginning of class, Krista Bielecki displayed the following on the SmartBoard, By the end of this class, students will measure objects and calculate their areas and volumes. This statement is an example of a(n)
objective
“Students should specify locations and describe spatial relationships using coordinate geometry and other representational systems.” This statement is an example of a(n)
standard
Martin Greenway presented his students with the following objective, Students will participate in a jigsaw activity to investigate the reasons for the great depression. After giving a test that three-quarters of the students failed, Martin was heard to say, Well I did my job. No one can say that the objective wasn’t met during class. Which of the following best describes the situation outlined?
Martin is correct because the objective is an input statement
Sanela Baric presented her students with the following objective, By the end of class, students will identify the verbs in various French sentences and convert them from the present tense to the past tense. After the lesson, Sanela gave a test and found that seventy-five percent of her students failed. She remarked to her colleague, No one can say that the objective wasn’t met. I did my best in teaching the lesson. Which of the following statements best represents the situation?
Sanela is incorrect since the objective is an output statement
All of the following are true of Bloom’s Taxonomy EXCEPT:
memorization and recall represent the highest levels of achievements
Which of the following lists the levels of the revised version of Bloom’s Taxonomy on the correct order from the simplest to the most complex?
remember, comprehend, apply, analyze, evaluate, create
The following question appeared on Ms. Longstreet’s World History examination. ʺCompare and contrast the reasons for the outbreak of hostilities in World War I and World War II.ʺ This question is at which level of the revised version of Bloom’s Taxonomy?
analyze
The effort to produce a taxonomy of educational objectives of the affective domain was spearheaded by
David Krathwohl
Direct instruction can take all of the following forms EXCEPT:
completing a laboratory experiment
When Dr. Gregory House and his team work together to diagnose unusual symptoms in patients, they are engaging in the learning strategy that was first developed in medical schools and is know today as
model-centered instruction
Lakeisha Mutuma divided her class into cooperative groups of four. She gave each group a piece of thick cardboard and asked each team to design and build a rigid container that would hold the greatest number of hard-boiled eggs of standard size. The task that Lakeisha has designed is an example of
problem-based learning
Research on cooperative learning strategies has shown that student improvement occurs in all of the following EXCEPT:
competitive drive
Jordan is beginning his first year as a certified teacher. He is a strong believer in differentiated instruction and is fully aware that students in his class will exhibit a range of responses from immediate mastery, through misconceptions, to complete confusion following his initial lesson. He knows that his best chance of reaching the students who have mastery is to
design follow-up learning activities based on the group’s needs
Jordan is beginning his first year as a certified teacher. He is a strong believer in differentiated instruction and is fully aware that students in his class will exhibit a range of responses from immediate mastery, through misconceptions, to complete confusion following his initial lesson. He knows that his best chance of reaching the confused students is to
reteach the content using a totally different instructional method
Matthew Stephen is aware that his students will be able to learn better if they work together in small groups while utilizing technology. Research has proven that this positive difference will occur as long as all of the following factors are taken into account, EXCEPT:
their prior levels of cognitive achievement need to match closely
Chumani Stonefish has obtained a position as a teacher of English Language Learners. She has been reading about strategies for these students and has discovered that all of the following have been found to be successful EXCEPT:
direct instruction
The first step contributing to the success of students with special needs is the
development of appropriate personal attitudes
Mina Stolarski is beginning the year in a classroom with several mainstreamed students with special needs. The best way for her to encourage the students in her class to value and respect diversity is for her to
value and respect all of the students in the class herself
Approaches to school reform are most successful when all of the following have been considered EXCEPT:
the principal or a particular staff members is chosen to implement the process
A successful school improvement process
involves a yearly cycle
If you are to be a successful, high-quality teacher, then your number one concern must be to
work toward improving the learning of all your students
The tendency for new teachers is to focus most on
the details of the moment
In an attempt to prevent problems of focusing on the here and now as opposed to seeing the big picture in education, Sashkin and Egermeier developed a model for understanding educational change. According to this model, there are a number of “levers” that have been used in reform attempts. These levers include all of the following, EXCEPT:
fix the classroom
According to Sashkin and Egermeier, attempts to effect educational change over the last thirty plus years have fallen into four categories. Present efforts are centered in which of the four phases?
fix the system
Denise Petras is principal of Mesa Verde High School. She wants to improve student learning in her school. She knows that the place to start is to base her efforts on research. Denise is aware that studies during the 1970s proved that there were strong correlations between student test results and
teacher behavior
Research that led to the formation of the Effective Schools model showed that the schools shared all of the following characteristics, EXCEPT:
extensive test-prep strategies
A frequent result of attempts to improve the disaggregated test scores of students is:
a reduction in learning time of two or more months to allow for test preparation
As a result of the movement toward public ranking of schools based on test scores, which of the following scenarios is the most likely for two middle schools in the neighboring school districts?
staff members of the two schools develop their own programs
The U.S. Census Bureau defines drop-outs from the school system as individuals who are not enrolled in and have not completed high school and are between the ages of
16 and 24
Madelyn Weinberg is a sixth grade teacher at Elm Street Middle School. She has just returned from a workshop to help her identify early signs that indicate a high risk of dropping-out. Research has shown that she should look for all of the following signs, EXCEPT:
failing grade in social studies
One way that a school can help reduce future drop-outs from the educational system is to:
create smaller schools within large schools to foster a feeling of belonging
High-quality schools use data from student achievement to make instructional and budgetary decisions
continuously
The most effective School Improvement Plans are developed by
a committee of staff and administrators
Elizabeth Patterson is a new teacher in an isolated community where there are no other teachers with the same grade level as hers. Although she is physically isolated from colleagues she knows that she will be able to seek advice and assistance for her personal questions as part of a “virtual professional learning community” through all of the following EXCEPT:
encyclopedias on CDs
As Tracey MacFie begins her teaching career she recognizes that she will become part of a professional learning community. As part of this concept, she should
be seen by her students as a life-long learner
A professional learning community would exhibit all of the following characteristics EXCEPT:
a focus on using tried-and-true classical strategies
Lyndsay Purcell is the principal of Concord Elementary School which has a large population of children from low income families. She realizes that she needs to establish closer relationships with the parents of her students to establish a high-quality school. All of the following have been shown to assist in improving parent-school relationships, EXCEPT:
regularly scheduled 2:00 PM meetings to make it easier for parents to attend
Hall and Hord describe three facilitator styles for principals. They include all of the following, EXCEPT:
directors
Megan Waterson is preparing her resume for the position f principal at Shallow Lake Elementary School. She includes the following statement in her letter of application. “I have a clear vision of the future of Shallow Lake Elementary and I care passionately about its place in the community. We must focus on the success of students – inside the classroom and in co-curricular activities. We must serve a leadership role in the community and must fully engage our parents and district leaders.” This statement identifies Megan clearly as which of the following style of facilitator?
initiator
Taylor Hall is preparing his resume for the position of principal and Roseland Elementary School. He includes the following statement in his letter of application. “I have a healthy respect for the teachers at Roseland and feel that they have a solid understanding of their role in the school and its future. I know that there are numerous leaders among the staff who are more than willing and able to manage their classrooms and inspire their students to achieve their true potentials. My door will always be open to assist the staff members in their professional and personal pursuits.” This statement identifies Taylor clearly as which of the following style of facilitator?
responder
Chung Lee, the principal of Leaside High School, is interviewing candidates for teaching positions at his school. He asks the following question as part of an interview, “Please describe for me how you would organize a unit on the Civil War and its ramifications?” This type of question is a clear indication that Chung subscribes to which of the following facilitator styles?
manager
Which of the following principals is most likely to succeed in leading the staff through a major change in a school that has been struggling?
Principal D calls on her contacts in the district to provide resources, supplies, and budget increases she feels are needed
To be considered a high-quality teacher, educators today must place more emphasis on
gathering data to prove students are achieving
As a beginning teacher who will be affected by the increased focus on student achievement results, you should plan to collect data in all of the following ways EXCEPT:
aptitude assesments
Willow Flaherty is a teacher at Sylvan Glen Middle School. She is an active member of an environmental group that it is part of her duty as a responsible citizen to reduce the effects of global warming. One of her students, Dave Bussiere, wants to research and write a paper on the topic, “Global Warming – A Cruel Hoax.” Willow refuses to allow him to do so because she says that there are no reasonable or credible arguments to back up his premise. Which of the following statements best outlines the stand taken by the NEA Code of Ethics with respect to Willow’s actions?
The educator shall not unreasonably deny the student’s access to varying points of view
teacher candidate should possess pedagogical knowledge in all of the following areas, ECXEPT:
knowing subject area content
Teachers with pedagogical content knowledge
understand the knowledge students possess and how to build on it
Juan Sanfilippo is a teacher at Los Alamos High School. The school district has announced that major changes will occur as the school is converted to school-within-a-school structure. Juan is anxious about the new structure and has requested a detailed outline of what it will look like, how he is expected to function within it, and whether he will be able to adapt. Juan is expressing what type of concern about change?
self
Dranadia Roc is a teacher at Bois Blanc Junior High School. The school district has announced that major changes will occur as the school is to be converted into a middle school with the philosophical differences that are required. Dranadia is concerned about whether the change will benefit her students, whether they will succeed in learning, and what she can do along with her colleagues to maximize the benefits of such a change. Dranadia is expressing what type of concern about change?
impact
Research has shown that concerns about the change process tend to occur in the following order as the change process occurs.
unconcerned, self, task, impact
Teachers participating in new teacher orientation sessions can expect to learn about all of the following, EXCEPT:
how and when pay is issued
As a new teacher about to begin his career in a school district over a thousand miles from home, Alex Harrison knows that he can expect the district to provide all of the following assistance in his new school, EXCEPT:
a union representative to assist with contract issues
Teachers in today’s schools can rely on the assistance of support personnel in all of the following areas EXCEPT:
getting to know the students as individuals
Teachers’ organizations and unions can be effective at the state level in
influencing policies, laws, and regulations
The largest teacher union in existence in the United States today is the
NEA
Many states require teacher education programs to be accredited through the national organization known as
NCATE
The American Federation of Teachers is
an affiliate of the AFL-CIO
During election campaigns, the AFT and NEA tend to
support candidates sympathetic to education and teacher issues
Phi Delta Kappa International is an organization that primarily serves
all educators
State licensure for teachers best represents
the beginning of a lifetime of professional growth
In comparison to typical students, students who are exceptional
A. have both similarities and differences
B. are similar in almost every way.
C. are different in almost every way
D. have the same instructional needs, but differ in ability level
A. have both similarities and differences
The most important characteristic of exceptional learners is
A. their physical limitations
B. their disabilities
C. their abilities
D. their health concerns
C. Their abilities
Which one of the following descriptions distinguishes best between a disability and a
handicap?
A. Disabilities are functional impairments, while handicaps are disadvantages imposed on an individual
B. Disabilities are more severe than handicaps.
C. Handicaps are caused by disabilities
D. There is no real difference between the two; the terms are interchangeable.
A. Disabilities are functional impairments, while handicaps are disadvantages imposed on an individual

Blaire uses a wheel chair for mobility. She is a member of her high schoolʹs varsity cheerleading squad. For purposes of cheer leading, Blaire would be considered to have

A. a disability.
B. a handicap.
C. a disability and a handicap
D. neither a disability nor a handicap

A. a disabilty

Annette is a high school student who reads at the level of a typical third grader. She wants to get her driverʹs license, but is unable to read the driverʹs manual or the questions on the driving test. For purposes of driver training, Annette would be considered to have

A. a disability
B. a handicap
C. a disability and a handicap
D. neither a disability nor a handicap

C. a disability and a handicap

A six-month-old child who cannot walk or talk would best be described as having a(n)

A. disability
B. age-appropriate disability
C. age-appropriate inability
D. instructional inability

C. age-appropriate inability

Although no two students are alike, to be considered ʺexceptionalʺ for purposes of their school program, students must

A. have a disability related to their academic progress
B. be handicapped
C. require special educational services to achieve their potential
D. have a history of school failure

C. require special educational services to achieve their potential

When special education works as it should, the outcome for students is

A. the ability to hide their disabilities
B. the eradication of their disabilities
C. instruction in a special class
D. improved achievement and behavior

D. improved achievement and behavior

Which one of the following students most resembles the ʺtypicalʺ student who receives special education services?

A. Joe is a high school student with a physical disability.
B. Lisa is an elementary school student with mental retardation
C. Edna is a middle school student with a learning disability
D. Sam is an elementary school student with a learning disability

D. Sam is an elementary school student with a learning disability

By federal law, an exceptional student is eligible for special education when

A. a teacher recommends it
B. careful assessment indicates he or she is unable to make satisfactory progress in the
regular school program
C. a parent requests it
D. a teacher has recorded observations of behavior and assessment of academic
performance for at least two months

B. careful assessment indicates he or she is unable to make satisfactory progress in the
regular school program

Prevalence refers to

A. the number of individuals having a particular exceptionality.
B. the probability of having a child with a particular exceptionality
C. the percentage of a population having a particular exceptionality
D. the distribution of exceptionalities across different segments of the population.

C. the percentage of a population having a particular exceptionality

Each of the following may in part explain changes in prevalence of disabilities EXCEPT

A. improved diet among impoverished children
B. changes in definitions
C. changes in diagnostic criteria
D. social acceptability of some labels

A. improved diet among impoverished children

Dramatic increases in prevalence figures since 1995 have been recorded for children identified as having

A. learning disabilities
B. mental retardation
C. physical disabilities
D. autism or traumatic brain injury

D. autism or traumatic brain injury

Which one of the following provides the best definition of special education?

A. Special education uses special equipment and materials
B. Special education meets individual needs of exceptional students.
C. Special education is delivered by a certified special education teacher
D. Special education provides greater structure and smaller classes

B. Special education meets individual needs of exceptional students.

Educational services and placement for exceptional students depends on

A. student characteristics and community resources
B. teacher attitudes and student preferences
C. both student and parental preferences
D. the category of exceptionality and parental preferences

A. student characteristics and community resources

Mr. Pondʹs teaching job requires him to move from school to school, visiting classrooms to

A. He is a resource teacher
B. He is a speech and language consultant
C. He is an itinerant teacher
D. He is a diagnostic-prescriptive teacher

C. He is an itinerant teacher
Leslie is enrolled in a regular classroom, but works with a special education teacher in a
special education classroom for an hour a day. What type of special education services does Leslie receive?A. She receives itinerant services.
B. She receives resource services
C. She receives consultation services
D. She receives diagnostic-prescriptive services

B. She receives resource services
Of the following, the special education intervention that represents the highest level of
specialization isA. instruction by an itinerant teacher
B. instruction in a diagnostic-prescriptive center.
C. consultation by a special educator.
D. instruction in a self-contained special education classroom

D. instruction in a self-contained special education classroom

Estella has a learning disability. Her primary placement is most likely a

A. self-contained special education class
B. regular classroom
C. resource room
D. special day school

B. regular classroom
All teachers must be prepared to work with exceptional students for all of the following
reasons EXCEPTA. Most exceptional students are in the regular classroom for part of the day
B. Most teachers have the supports needed to work in the regular classroom with students
of all exceptionalities
C. Many students who are not identified as being in need of services share characteristics of those who are.
D. Radical reforms of special education threaten special education as a separate, identifiable
part of education.

B. Most teachers have the supports needed to work in the regular classroom with students
of all exceptionalities

Communication requires

A. language
B. encoding and decoding.
C. speech
D. listening and speaking

B. encoding and decoding.

Language disorders are generally classified according to two dimensions:

A. domain and etiology.
B. primary and secondary causes.
C. phonology and cause.
D. specific impairment and expressive delay

A. domain and etiology.
The most common fluency disorder is
A. stuttering.
B. acquired aphasia
C. echolalia
D. dysarthria
A. stuttering.

The communication of ideas through an arbitrary system of symbols used according to certain rules that determine meaning is

A. speech
B. language
C. communication
D. phonology

B. language
Encoding, or sending messages, is referred to as
A. expressive language
B. receptive language
C. discourse
D. communication
A. expressive language

“Phonology” refers to linguistic rules governing

A. construction of sentences
B. sound combinations
C. patterns of language use
D. construction of word forms

B. sound combinations

Most speech disorders are addressed primarily by a speech-language pathologist, not a classroom teacher

True
False

True

A language disorder that involves problems with functional and socially appropriate communication is

A. communication
B. semantics
C. speech
D. pragmatics

D. pragmatics

The meanings and concepts people attach to words and sentences are referred to as

A. morphology
B. pragmatics
C. syntax
D. semantics.

D. semantics.

It is difficult to estimate the prevalence of communication disorders primarily because

A. there is so much overlap with other categories of disability
B. schools do not maintain accurate records in this area
C. many parents are reluctant to allow their children to receive speech and language services
D. definitions of communication disorders vary so much from state to state

A. there is so much overlap with other categories of disability

Janice has a speech disorder which causes her to speak extremely slowly. This is a disorder of

A. articulation
B. language.
C. voice.
D. fluency

D. fluency

Which statement is true concerning the comparison between the language of a normally developing child and one with a language disorder?

A. the sequence of a development is similar, but milestones are reached at later years by the child with a disorder
B. the sequence of a development is different, but milestones are reached at around the same ages
C. the sequence of development is different, and milestones are reached later by the child with a disorder
D. there is no developmental difference; they just sound different

A. the sequence of a development is similar, but milestones are reached at later years by the child with a disorder

Specific language impairment refers to

A. language disorders resulting from learning disabilities
B. language disorders with no identifiable cause
C. language disorders occurring concomitantly with other disorders
D. language disorders resulting from mental retardation

B. language disorders with no identifiable cause

Which one of the following is an example of an alternative question-asking strategy?

A. focusing on student-initiated questions
B. reducing the complexity of a question
C. increasing interaction between student and teacher so both members ask and answer
D. creating several questions with synonymous meaning

B. reducing the complexity of a question

Articulation disorders

A. are easily distinguished
B. refer to the same problem
C. are caused by biological factors
D. involve errors in word production

D. involve errors in word production

The dimensions of voice are

A. resonance, pitch, and loudness
B. resonance, loudness, and quality
C. pitch, loudness, and quality
D. resonance, pitch, and quality

C. pitch, loudness, and quality

The primary role of the classroom teacher is to facilitate development of which aspect of language?

A. phonology
B. semantics
C. pragmatics
D. morphology

C. pragmatics
Children with language disorders frequently experience problems with written language as well.
True
False
True

he ability to transfer written words into speech is

A. phonology
B. decoding
C. encoding
D. reading

B. decoding

Methods of progress monitoring that involve a cycle of teaching, followed by testing, and then reteaching as necessary are

A. dynamic assessments
B. curriculum-based language and communication assessment
C. curriculum-based management
D. response to intervention

A. dynamic assessments

Many people who are deaf believe that deafness should not be considered a disability

True
False

true

Which academic area is most affected by deafness?

A. spelling
B. writing
C. reading
D. math

C. reading

Teaching people with hearing impairments to use visual information (such as facial expressions) to understand what is being said to them is

A. speech reading
B. lip reading
C. face reading
D. gestural reading

A. speech reading

It is not unusual for students with deafness to read at what grade level when they graduate from high school?

A. first
B. fourth
C. eighth
D. twelfth

B. fourth

The focus of early intervention for children with hearing impairments is on

A. social skills.
B. language development
C. play
D. concept acquisition

B. language development

According to its advocates of American Sign Language(ASL), a major advantage of ASL over signing English systems is that

A. interpreters can easily sign in ASL while speaking in English.
B. most public schools are already using ASL in special education programs.
C. ASL provides a stronger knowledge base for developing literacy in English.
D. users of ASL score higher on tests of intelligence than users of Signing English systems

C. ASL provides a stronger knowledge base for developing literacy in English.

Which one of the following best describes American Sign Language (ASL)?

A. loosely structured group of gestures
B. system for communicating concrete ideas
C. language with its own grammatical rules
D. manual translation of English sentences

C. language with its own grammatical rules

A particularly controversial point of view held by many members of the Deaf culture is that

A. children should not receive cochlear implants to improve their hearing
B. parents should not permit children who are deaf to learn English.
C. all students who are deaf should attend residential schools until the age of 16.
D. all citizens should be required to learn American Sign Language

A. children should not receive cochlear implants to improve their hearing

The most important organ for hearing is the

A. cerumen.
B. tympanic membrane.
C. vestibular mechanism.
D. cochlea

D. cochlea

From the physiological perspective, the distinction between ʺdeafʺ and ʺhard of hearingʺ is based on

A. decibels levels detected.
B. frequency of sounds detected
C. location of hearing loss.
D. language ability.

A. decibels levels detected.

The earlier a child experiences a hearing loss, the more difficulty he/she will have in developing spoken language.

True
False

True

Sensorineural impairments are caused by problems in the

A. oval window.
B. middle ear
C. inner ear
D. conductive pathway

C. Inner Ear

Elise has a hearing loss that occurred during childhood. Her loss is best described as

A. congenital.
B. sensorineural
C. adventitious
D. conductive

C. adventitious

People who say that deafness should not be considered a disability argue that

A. there is a difference between prelingual and postlingual deafness
B. they should be considered a cultural minority with a language of their own.
C. there are advantages to being deaf, so it is not a disability
D. although deafness is a handicap, it is not a disability.

B. they should be considered a cultural minority with a language of their own.

The ʺspeech reception thresholdʺ is best defined as the

A. dB level at which one can understand speech.
B. intensity and frequency of spoken English
C. Hz level at which the average person can detect sound
D. level at which the human ear can discriminate between similar sounds.

A. dB level at which one can understand speech.

The total communication approach utilizes

A. Braille and manual communication.
B. sign language and a typewriter
C. a telephone and a computer.
D. oral and manual communication

D. oral and manual communication

In recent years, many parents and professionals have questioned the trend toward inclusion of children with hearing impairment because

A. it creates too much work for the regular teacher
B. they do not get along with the other students.
C. it reduces their opportunity to participate in the signing community.
D. they do not have the cognitive or academic skills to succeed in the mainstream

C. it reduces their opportunity to participate in the signing community.

When assessing the intellectual abilities of students with deafness, it is best to use which type of test?

A. performance
B. verbal
C. norm-referenced
D. criterion-referenced

A. performance

The ossicles function to create

A. increased sense of balance.
B. electrical impulse being sent to the brain
C. transfer of energy from the middle to the inner ear.
D. movement of the stapes

C. transfer of energy from the middle to the inner ear.

Children who are deaf reach language development milestones in sign later than hearing children do in spoken language.

True
False

False

The legal definition of blindness involves assessment of

A. color perception and visual acuity.
B. field of vision and depth perception
C. visual acuity and field of vision.
D. depth perception and color perception

C. visual acuity and field of vision.

When guiding a person who is blind, you should

A. take his or her arm and push him/her ahead of you
B. let the person take your arm and walk slightly behind you
C. walk at a slower pace than normal.
D. allow the person to go through a door ahead of you

B. let the person take your arm and walk slightly behind you

Blindness occurs most often in

A. adulthood.
B. adolescence.
C. early childhood
D. preadolescence.

A. adulthood

People who are blind have an extra sense that enables them to detect obstacles

True
False

False

Social adjustment problems for children with visual impairment are most likely the result of

A. inherent personality problems.
B. societyʹs reaction to people who are blind
C. stereotypic behaviors.
D. blindisms which cannot be controlled

B. societyʹs reaction to people who are blind

The condition that results when the cornea or lens of the eye is irregular resulting in blurred vision is known as

A. myopia
B. hyperopia
C. astigmatism
D. glaucoma

C. astigmatism

A long cane is generally preferred over a guide dog as a mobility aid for a child with blindness.

True
False

true

Itinerant teachers are more likely to be used in the area of visual impairment than in other areas of disability primarily because

A. most classroom modifications are a matter of common sense
B. blindness is a low prevalence condition
C. there are not enough teachers trained in Braille to accommodate the number of students who need training in Braille
D. regular classroom teachers can be easily trained to deal with the special needs of students with visual impairment

B. blindness is a low prevalence condition

The structure in the eye which refines and changes the focus of the light rays is the

A. lens.
B. pupil.
C. vitreous humor
D. retina.

A. lens.

Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is caused by

A. premature birth.
B. excessive oxygen given to infants at birth
C. fetal alcohol syndrome.
D. degenerative hereditary disease

B. excessive oxygen given to infants at birth

According to Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), braille services and instruction must be made available unless all members of an individualized education program (IEP) agree that braille should not be used.

True
False

True

In general, people who are blind

A. have superior musical ability.
B. have an extra sense that enables them to detect obstacles.
C. make better use of acuity in their other senses.
D. automatically develop superior powers of concentration.

C. make better use of acuity in their other senses.

When walking, Lisa, an eighteen-year-old with blindness, has learned to attend to the subtle changes in pitch of echoes from objects as she moves towards them. Which phenomenon is responsible for these changes?

A. obstacle sense
B. Doppler effect
C. echolalia
D. tactual perception

B. Doppler effect

Which educational consideration requiring special modifications for students with little or no sight refers to a skill needed more for everyday living than for academics?

A. Braille
B. use of remaining sight
C. listening skills
D. mobility training

D. mobility training

Adults who are blind are employed at about half the rate of those who are sighted

True
False

True

The retina is

A. the contractile opening in the middle of the iris.
B. the colored portion of the eye that contracts or expands depending on the amount of light striking it
C. the back portion of the eye containing nerve fibers connected to the optic nerve
D. a transparent cover in front of the iris and pupil.

C. the back portion of the eye containing nerve fibers connected to the optic nerve

A skill used by people who are blind to aid them in acquiring mobility is

A. sequential mapping

B. spatial ability.

C. Doppler effect.

D. tactual perception.

B. spatial ability.

The majority of people who are legally blind have some useful vision.

True
False

True

David has myopia. Another term for this condition is

A. nearsightedness
B. farsightedness
C. blurred vision
D. color blindness

A. nearsightedness

Repetitive movements such as rocking, rubbing the eyes, and grimacing displayed by some people who are blind are known as

A. blindisms.

B. redundant behavior
C. stereotypic behavior
D. perseverations

C. stereotypic behavior

Brain damage caused by internal compression, stretching, or other shearing motion of neural tissues within the head is due to

A. open head injuries
B. external force
C. closed head injuries
D. degenerative conditions

C. closed head injuries

Any manual or electronic means by which a person who is unable to communicate through normal speech can express wants and needs, share information, engage in social closeness, or manage social etiquette is

A. facilitated communication
B. augmentative or alternative communication
C. manual communication
D. applied functional communication.

B. augmentative or alternative communication

The effects of TBI are always severe and permanent.

True
False

False

After age 5, and increasingly through adolescence, the primary cause of TBI is

A. assaults
B. accidental falls
C. vehicular accidents
D. gunshot wounds

C. vehicular accidents

An inherited syndrome of deaf-blindness characterized by hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa, resulting in night blindness and tunnel vision is

A. Usher syndrome.
B. Asperger syndrome.
C. CHARGE syndrome
D. Down syndrome.

A. Usher syndrome.

The process of finding out why or under what circumstances problem behavior is exhibited is called

A. positive behavioral support.
B. functional behavioral assessment
C. functional behavioral analysis.
D. positive behavior management

B. functional behavioral assessment

The greatest complicating factor in most students’ return to school following TBI is

A. social skills
B. physical appearance
C. physical strength
D. language or speech disorders

D. language or speech disorders

In addressing the needs of students with deaf-blindness, two priniciples that practitioners and parents should keep in mind are

A. incidental learning and structured routines
B. direct instruction and structured routines
C. direct instruction and variable routines
D. indirect instruction and structured routines

B. direct instruction and structured routines

Tactual signals that can convey a number of messages depending on the situation and context are

A. hand-under-hand guidance
B. touch cues
C. adapted signs
D. tactual signs

B. touch cues

An adaptation that may be used by a person who is deaf-blind to communicate with the public is

A. assistance cards
B. pictorial cards
C. the long cane
D. tape-recorded messages

A. assistance cards

A type of augmentative or alternative communication that requires someone else to physically assist the intended communicator that appears to have been discredited by research is

A. falsified communication
B. prompted communication
C. assisted communication
D. facilitated communication

D. facilitated communication

With intensive instruction, many persons with severe and multiple disabilities are able to live independently or semi-independently

True
False

True

Repeated physical self-abuse, such as biting, scratching, or poking oneself, head banging, and so in is called

A. self-torture
B. self-injurious behavior
C. self-abuse
D. self-stimulation

B. self-injurious behavior

Madeline’s mother told her to pick up her stuffed bear and put it away. Madeline threw herself to the ground and began kicking and screaming. Madeline’s mom put the bear away herself, telling Madeline, “O.K., O.K., calm down.” Madeline quickly ended her tantrum and returned to playing. Which statement is true?

A. The mother’s behavior makes future tantrums less likely
B. the mother’s behavior reinforced the tantrum behavior
C. the mother imposted an unreasonable demand on her child
D. people with multiple severe disabilities should not be expected to do chores

B. the mother’s behavior reinforced the tantrum behavior

The process of finding out why or under what circumstances problem behavior is exhibited is called

A. positive behavioral support
B. functional behavioral assessment
C. functional behavioral analysis
D. positive behavior management

B. functional behavioral assessment

Most authorities agree that the biggest obstacle faced by persons with deaf-blindness is

A. self-help skills
B. accessing information
C. navigating the environment
D. communication.

D. communication.

The term deaf-blindness includes those with a combination of low vision and mild hearing impairments

True
False

True

The process of identifying alternative, acceptable ways to communicate through teaching more appropriate behaviors and/or changing the environment to reduce the likelihood of prompting the undesirable behavior is

A. positive behavioral support
B. functional behavioral assessment
C. functional behavioral analysis
D. positive behavior management

A. positive behavioral support

Which of the following is a fundamental assumption of positive behavioral support?

A. Typically, one factor alone is responsible for the presence of specific behavior
B. each behavior carries a communicative intent
C. some behaviors have no communicative intent
D. positive behavioral support is not like to behavior modification

B. each behavior carries a communicative intent

Any repetitive, stereotyped behavior that seems to have no immediately apparent purpose other than providing sensory stimulation is

A. self-mutilation
B. self-injury
C. self-stimulation
D. tantrums.

C. self-stimulation

Muscles that are floppy or lack tone are known as

A. atonic.
B. spastic
C. choreothetoid
D. reflexive

A. atonic.

Impairments that a child is born with are referred to as

A. primary characteristics
B. congenital anomalies
C. secondary problems
D. acquired disabilities

B. congenital anomalies

In most students with orthopedic or musculoskeletal disorders, intelligence is unaffected.

True
False

True

A condition that is incurable is

A. progressive
B. episodic
C. chronic
D. acute

C. Chronic

Impairments that are the result of injury to the brain that also affect the ability to move parts of one’s body are

A. neurological impairments
B. traumatic brain injuries
C. orthopedic impairments
D. neuromotor impairments

D. neuromotor impairments

Cerebral palsy is classified by

A. the limbs involved and type of motor disability
B. time period during which brain damage occurred
C. severity of the symptoms
D. the effect on intellectual functioning

A. the limbs involved and type of motor disability

The intelligence of children with cerebral palsy is

A. almost always in the range of mental retardation
B. clearly higher than the average for the general population
C. nearly the same as for the general population
D. difficult to assess due to difficulties in perception, movement, or response speed

D. difficult to assess due to difficulties in perception, movement, or response speed

The quality of life of children with epilepsy is

A. significantly lower than that of children with other disabilities
B. related to unique risk factors, different from those that affect other children with disabilities
C. related to the same risk factors that affect quality of life for others with disabilities
D. significantly better than that of children with other disabilities

C. related to the same risk factors that affect quality of life for others with disabilities

The extent of the paralysis in spina bifida depends on

A. the stage of development during which it occurs
B. the success or failure of the surgery to close the opening
C. the success or failure of the surgery to repair the nerve damage
D. the location of the spinal cord defect

D. the location of the spinal cord defect

Fetal alcohol syndrome, caused by the motherʹs use of alcohol during pregnancy, is one of the most common syndromes involving

A. muscular dystrophy and learning disabilities
B. congenital malformations and intellectual disability
C. cerebral palsy and intellectual disability
D. AIDS and intellectual disability

B. congenital malformations and intellectual disability

When a childʹs nervous system is damaged, no matter what the cause, which of the following is almost always one of the symptoms?

A. muscular weakness or paralysis
B. cognitive deficits
C. spastic movements
D. atonic movements

A. muscular weakness or paralysis

Tim has a hereditary disease characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of muscle fibers. His condition is

A. muscular dystrophy
B. spina bifida
C. cerebral palsy
D. multiple sclerosis

A. muscular dystrophy

A teacher who fails to report child abuse or neglect may be held legally liable.

True
False

True

Rheumatoid arthritis is a potentially debilitating disease that

A. causes rapid deterioration of muscle tissue
B. is characterized by pain in and around the joints and muscles
C. is associated with neurological degeneration
D. occurs only in the elderly

B. is characterized by pain in and around the joints and muscles

A lung disease characterized by episodic inflammation or obstruction of the air passages such that the person has difficulty breathing is

A. allergies
B. bronchitis
C. asthma
D. inhalation

C. asthma

Which of the following statements about AIDs is true?

A. it only makes one susceptible to fatal infections
B. children with AIDs seldom acquire neurological problems as a result of the condition
C. children in minority populations are at less of a risk for contracting HIV infections that cause AIDs
D. with reasonable procedures, there is no serious chance for transmission of AIDs in the classroom

D. with reasonable procedures, there is no serious chance for transmission of AIDs in the classroom

Which statement about phenylketonuria (PKU) is true?

A. it only causes intellectual disabilities
B. it is the only know genetically determined metabolic disorder
C. it requires a life-long special diet for treatment
D. it goes away in late childhood

C. it requires a life-long special diet for treatment

Jim has an artificial leg. This is an example of

A. orthosis
B. prosthesis
C. adaptive device
D. assistive device

B. prosthesis

For children with most physical disabilities and other health impairments, a common cause of academic difficulties is

A. discrimination and prejudice.
B. erratic school attendance
C. poor study skills
D. inadequate motivation

B. erratic school attendance

In general, academic achievement of children with physical disabilities is below that of their nondisabled peers

True
False

False

Prereferral teams serve all of the following purposes EXCEPT

A. developing IEPs for all students who need them.
B. reducing the number of referrals to special education.
C. establishing ―ownership‖ of students with disabilities by general educators.
D. recommending strategies for working with children who exhibit academic and behavioral problems.

A. developing IEPs for all students who need them.

Response to intervention (RTI)

A. has implications only for those with learning disabilities.
B. is restricted to academic learning.
C. can be applied to social behavior and academic learning.
D. is the same as a prereferral team except that it is limited to students with learning disabilities.

C. can be applied to social behavior and academic learning.

Frequent measures that provide information on whether a student is learning as expected are

A. outcome measures.
B. standardized assessments.
C. progress monitoring assessments.
D. measures of student achievement.

C. progress monitoring assessments.

Each of the following components must be included on an individualized education program (IEP) EXCEPT

A. annual goals.
B. related services to be provided.
C. student’s IQ score.
D. instructional objectives.

C. student’s IQ score.

Each of the following people is typically on an IEP team EXCEPT

A. a parent or guardian.
B. a provider of special education.
C. the child’s general education teacher.
D. a special education lawyer.

D. a special education lawyer.

The special education intervention that requires the least specialized environment is

A. consultation by a special educator.
B. instruction by an itinerant teacher.
C. instruction in a resource room.
D. instruction by a regular classroom teacher.

D. instruction by a regular classroom teacher

Leslie is enrolled in a regular classroom, but works with a special education teacher in a special education classroom for an hour a day. What type of special education services does Leslie receive?

A. She receives itinerant services.
B. She receives resource services.
C. She receives consultation services.
D. She receives diagnostic-prescriptive services.

B. She receives resource services.

Homebound instruction is most often utilized for students who have

A. a visual impairment.
B. physical disabilities.
C. mental retardation.
D. a hearing impairment.

B. physical disabilities.

Estella has a learning disability. Her primary placement is most likely a

A. self-contained special education class.
B. regular classroom.
C. resource room.
D. special day school.

B. regular classroom.

Nationwide, what percentage of students with disabilities is educated primarily in regular classrooms?

A. less than 5
B. nearly 15
C. about 35
D. more than 50

D. more than 50

Bill is a student with low vision. His teacher provides him with a set of large-type notes at the beginning of each lecture. This is an example of

A. accommodation.
B. adaptation.
C. tiered assignment.
D. partial participation.

A. accommodation.

When teachers provide choices of activities on a single topic that vary in difficulty, they are using

A. watered-down curriculum.
B. accommodations.
C. partial participation.
D. tiered assignments.

D. tiered assignments

A student who performs or behaves poorly in school and appears likely to fail or fall short of his or her potential is

A. at risk.
B. disabled.
C. handicapped
D. challenged

A. at risk.

All teachers should expect to participate in educating students with disabilities. Which one of the following responsibilities is a regular classroom teacher LEAST likely to have?

A. evaluating academic abilities
B. managing serious behavior problems
C. participating in writing individualized educational programs
D. collaborating with other professionals

B. managing serious behavior problems

Which of the following is an expectation for general education teachers?

A. knowledge of special education law
B. instruction of students with serious learning problems
C. management of serious behavior problems
D. participating in writing individualized education programs

D. participating in writing individualized education programs

Ms. Smith, a second grade teacher, has concerns about Bruce’s progress in math. Before she makes a referral for special education, she should

A. discuss her concerns with Bruce.
B. administer an intelligence test.
C. discuss her concerns with Bruce’s parents.
D. consult with specialists at a diagnostic-prescriptive center.

C. discuss her concerns with Bruce’s parents.

Before making a referral for special education, a general education classroom teacher should do all of the following EXCEPT

A. modify or adapt the student’s instructional program.
B. communicate concerns to parents.
C. examine student’s school record.
D. administer diagnostic tests.

D. administer diagnostic tests.

What makes special education “special” is

A. instruction that it alone uses.
B. the more qualified teachers involved in it.
C. instruction that is altered to meet the needs of exceptional learners.
D. the quantity of services provided.

C. instruction that is altered to meet the needs of exceptional learners.

Research evidence suggests that response to intervention is more effective than prereferral teams at reducing the number of students referred for special education.

True
False

False

The individualized education program (IEP) is not required to be a written statement; however, the parents must agree to the teacher’s plans before the student is enrolled.

True
False

False

Which one of the following best describes the purpose of multicultural education?

A. It provides equal educational opportunities to all students

B. It provides bilingual education for non-English speakers.

C. It involves parents in their child’s education.

D. It teaches children of ethnic minorities about their ancestors.

A. It provides equal educational opportunities to all students

Critics of multicultural education claim that it

A. erodes the moral foundation of society.
B. presses children into a humanistic, secular mold
C. undermines the central purpose of school, which is to ensure academic competence
D. all of the above

D. all of the above

Which two issues particularly complicate teaching about cultures and engendering an acceptance of cultural diversity?

A. deciding which cultures best illustrate the concepts of universality of cultural pride and shame
B. the money and time we have for curriculum changes
C. deciding which cultures should be included and how to teach about them
D. deciding which cultures should be represented and the predominate religious beliefs within a school system

C. deciding which cultures should be included and how to teach about them

Assuming that one’s cultural identity is sufficient to explain academic achievement or economic success is a form of

A. stereotyping.
B. cultural relativism
C. racism.
D. ethnicity.

A. stereotyping.

The two primary objectives of multicultural special education are

A. promoting understanding of exceptionality as a microculture and ensuring that exceptionality is included in the multicultural curriculum.
B. ensuring that ethnicity is not mistaken for exceptionality and increasing understanding of disability as a microculture.
C. enabling students from culturally diverse backgrounds to succeed in the mainstream and lobbying for services in multicultural educational programs
D. increasing visibility of people with disabilities in the macroculture and promoting acceptance of people with disabilities by the majority culture

B. ensuring that ethnicity is not mistaken for exceptionality and increasing understanding of disability as a microculture.

An example of a disability with a highly organized subculture is

A. deafness.
B. blindness.
C. mental retardation.
D. autism.

A. deafness.

Which one of the following best describes assessment of the instructional environment?

A. examination to determine the adequacy of classroom space and layout
B. testing using actual instructional materials
C. investigation of what is being taught and how it is being taught
D. assessment of academic achievement

C. investigation of what is being taught and how it is being taught

When identifying students in need of special education, professionals must make sure the student is not mistakenly identified as the source of the learning problem. A recommended strategy for this purpose is to

A. include assessment of the instructional environment.
B. increase reliance on objectively scored, standardized tests.
C. eliminate use of standardized tests.
D. avoid use of curriculum-based assessment

A. include assessment of the instructional environment.

There is a dilemma in choosing either to ignore or recognize differences because

A. all cultural differences have both advantages and disadvantages, making it difficult to predict how those differences will affect the individual
B. either choice can perpetuate inequality for members of a subculture
C. in order to fit in at school, students must forfeit the values and beliefs that they learned at home
D. in striving to assert their identity, members of subcultures serve only to perpetuate stereotypes and inequality

B. either choice can perpetuate inequality for members of a subculture

Afrocentric instruction is best described as instruction that

A. develops convergent rather than divergent thinking
B. involves African-American students and their families in the study of their roots.
C. highlights African culture and modes of teaching and learning.
D. promotes interaction and cooperation among African-American students

C. highlights African culture and modes of teaching and learning.

The rationale underlying African-American immersion schools is that

A. with increased achievement, African-American students will achieve true integration
B. most African-American students need more structure and discipline.
C. most teachers are biased against African-American students
D. parents will become more involved in their children’s education

A. with increased achievement, African-American students will achieve true integration

Tolerance is best described as

A. an appreciation and valuing of difference
B. acknowledging our legacy of racism and prejudice
C. enduring others even if they are seen as undesirable.
D. putting up with a necessary evil.

A. an appreciation and valuing of difference

A technique in which the teacher assists the student in learning a task and then phases out help as the student learns to use the strategy independently is called

A. hand-over-hand instruction
B. scaffolded instruction
C. mnemonic instruction.
D. supported instruction

B. scaffolded instruction

Tactics that aid memory, such as rhymes or images, are called

A. visual organizers
B. reminders
C. scaffolds
D. mnemonics

D. mnemonics

A viable multicultural curriculum cannot be created and handed out to teachers because

A. they must be involved in the process because their values, perspectives, and teaching styles affect what is taught and how it is taught.
B. the government has passed legislation banning the teaching of multicultural issues within an integrated curriculum
C. there is not enough money to create such a curriculum nationwide.
D. most want to exercise their right to select their own curriculum based on their own beliefs and are resistant to being told what to teach.

A. they must be involved in the process because their values, perspectives, and teaching styles affect what is taught and how it is taught.

A recommended technique of breaking down prejudice and encouraging positive interactions among students with different characteristics is

A. direct instruction
B. immersion
C. Afrocentrism
D. cooperative learning

D. cooperative learning

The primary purpose of multicultural education is to teach children of ethnic minorities about their history and the intellectual, social, and artistic contributions of their ancestors

True
False

False

An individual can be a member of many subcultures.

True
False

True

Most professionals agree that multicultural education should consider only subcultures identified by ethnicity, not those identified by gender, sexual preference or disability

True
False

False

Some ethnic minorities are under-represented in special education

True
False

True

When dealing with the public, one of the most difficult things that parents are likely to face is

A. the inappropriate responses of their children to others.
B. the poor report cards they may get from school.
C. the problems that other children in the family will experience because they have a sibling
D. inappropriate responses of others to their children with disabilities

D. inappropriate responses of others to their children with disabilities

Most family intervention programs today are based on professional-centered models.

True
False

False

In the not too distant past, many professionals believed that parents were

A. unwilling to spend time working with their child.
B. to blame for their child’s problems.
C. unable to cope with a child with a disability
D. unable to work effectively with their child.

B. to blame for their child’s problems.

Unlike the past, many professionals now view early intervention as an opportunity to

A. teach parents how to teach their child
B. train parents to be effective therapists
C. provide counseling for parents.
D. support the natural parent-child relationship.

D. support the natural parent-child relationship.

The prevalence of feelings of guilt is probably due to

A. stranger’s stares and comments
B. the fact that the cause of so many disabilities is unknown
C. parents’ knowledge that they caused their child’s disability
D. the lack of support for families of disabled children

B. the fact that the cause of so many disabilities is unknown

In dealing with the feelings of a child with a disability, parents should

A. assure the child that he or she is no different from others and their disability doesn’t matter.
B. respond honestly to specific questions asked by the child.
C. wait until the child is an adolescent so he or she will be better able to understand.
D. speak about their disability in general, rather than specific ways.

B. respond honestly to specific questions asked by the child.

Parents are often the first to notice that something is wrong with their child

True
False

True

The degree to which families are able to change their modes of interaction when they encounter unusual or stressful situations refers to

A. acceptance
B. cohesion
C. adaptability
D. compassion

C. adaptability

It may be particularly difficult for a child to develop positive attitudes toward a sibling with a disability if

A. they live in a single-parent household.
B. there is an age gap of five or more years
C. they are of different sexes.
D. they are close in age

D. they are close in age.

Families of a child with a disability tend to experience most stress during

A. infancy to age five.
B. adolescence
C. transitions
D. adulthood

C. transitions

The family systems approach emphasizes

A. the effects of the environment on the family
B. interrelationships among the family and other social systems
C. need for ongoing and systematic family intervention.
D. quality of interactions between parents and professionals

B. interrelationships among the family and other social systems

The degree to which an individual family member is free to act independently of other family members is

A. adaptability.
B. acceptance
C. compassion
D. cohesion.

D. cohesion.

Young siblings of a child with a disability are likely to

A. have the opposite reaction as their parents
B. deny that the child with a disability is different.
C. seek out information from others about the disability.
D. have a more difficult time coping with their feelings than their parents.

D. have a more difficult time coping with their feelings than their parents

One person having the authority, granted by the courts, to make decisions for another person is

A. paternalism
B. guardianship.
C. wardenship
D. proxy.

B. guardianship.

It is suggested that social support be integrated with positive behavioral support specifically in the case of children with

A. physical disabilities
B. learning disabilities
C. emotional of behavioral disorders.
D. Down syndrome

C. emotional of behavioral disorders.

In families of a child with a disability, parental stress is usually the result of

A. daily burdens related to child care
B. the childʹs medical involvement.
C. demands placed on the family by the school system
D. catastrophic events

A. daily burdens related to child care

Which approach considers how the impact of a child with a disability on the family changes over time?

A. family-centered perspective
B. life cycle perspective
C. community systems perspective
D. social support systems model

B. life cycle perspective

Which one of the following is regarded by some parents as a positive effect of having a child with a disability?

A. entitles the family to financial benefits
B. causes family members to be more tolerant of others
C. reduces parentsʹ concerns about social issues
D. puts an end to unstable marital relationships

B. causes family members to be more tolerant of others

Families with a high level of cohesion may limit their child’s independence

True
False

True

Carol and Ed Johnson have three children: Tony, age 15; Mark, age 12; and Sarah, age 10. Tony, who is about to enter high school, has Down syndrome. He currently attends a regular middle school where he is in a self-contained special education program for most of the day. Tony’s speech is difficult to understand so he uses a combination of speech and manual signs to communicate. He has a variety of physical problems, including a congenital heart defect and visual impairment. Academically, his skills are at the kindergarten to first grade level. Tony and Mark attend the same middle school and Mark sometimes rides the special education bus with Tony. Both Carol and Ed work full-time. Although she could earn more money working in a hospital or in a physicians office, Carol works as a school nurse so she can be home after school with Tony; the community does not have after-school programs for middle school students.

For Ed and Carol, parental stress is most likely the result of

A. Tony’s medical needs

B. daily burdens related to Tony’s care

C. Mark and Sarah’s resentment of Tony

D. demands placed by the school with respect to Tony’s program

B. daily burdens related to Tony’s care

Determining the consequences, antecedents, and setting events that maintain inappropriate behavior is called

A. functional analysis
B. applied behavior analysis
C. transfer of stimulus control
D. functional behavioral assessment.

D. functional behavioral assessment.

Which one of the following components is part of the most recent American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) definition of intellectual disabilities?

A. significant limitations in intellectual functioning
B. discrepancy between intellectual ability and achievement
C. deficits in vocational skills
D. manifest before age 10

A. significant limitations in intellectual functioning

Fetal alcohol syndrome is classified as resulting from a/an

A. environmental hazard
B. infection
C. genetic factor
D. chromosomal abnormality

A. environmental hazard

In recent years, the percentage of cases in which the cause of intellectual disabilities is known has dramatically increased due to

A. better assessment practices by teachers.
B. the mapping of the human genetic code
C. better assessment practices by medical doctors.
D. advances in microscopic technology

B. the mapping of the human genetic code

Many authorities say that adaptive behavior consists of

A. social intelligence and practical intelligence
B. social skills and practical skills.
C. IQ and behavior
D. academic intelligence and practical intelligence.

A. social intelligence and practical intelligence

Causes of intellectual disabilities that occur before the birth of the child are categorized as

A. perinatal.
B. postnatal.
C. prenatal.
D. premature

C. prenatal

The likelihood of having a child with Down syndrome increases significantly with

A. the age of the mother
B. alcohol consumption during pregnancy
C. a family history of intellectual disabilities.
D. certain blood types.

A. the age of the mother

All states routinely screen for this before babies leave the hospital:

A. Fragile X syndrome
B. phenylketonuria
C. Down syndrome.
D. hydrocephalus.

B. phenylketonuria

The classification system that most school systems use to describe levels of intellectual disabilities is based on

A. an estimate of educability.
B. IQ score
C. the intensity of support needed
D. adaptive level

B. IQ score

A surgically placed shunt that drains excess fluid away from the brain is used to treat

A. microcephalus
B. encephalitis
C. meningitis
D. hydrocephalus

D. hydrocephalus

A personʹs awareness of what strategies are needed to perform a task, the ability to plan how to use the strategies, and the evaluation of how well the strategies are working is

A. self-regulation.
B. metacognition
C. working memory.
D. perception

A. self-regulation.

Intellectual disabilities that occur at the time of birth are

A. prenatal ID.
B. perinatal ID
C. postnatal ID
D. antenatal ID

B. perinatal ID

In functional academics, academics are taught in the context of

A. community living
B. vocational settings.
C. daily living skills
D. simplified curricula.

C. daily living skills

An infection of the covering of the brain that may be caused by a variety of bacterial and viral agents is

A. syphilis
B. encephalitis
C. meningitis.
D. traumatic brain injury (TBI

C. meningitis.

Most authorities now hold that the critical determinants of intelligence are both

A. nature and genetics.
B. nurture and experience.
C. nature and experience
D. genetics and intelligence.

C. nature and experience

The ability to keep information in mind while simultaneously doing another task is

A. working memory
B. short-term memory.
C. long-term memory.
D. active memory.

A. working memory

Joe tends to believe whatever he is told, even highly questionable statements or claims, despite any evidence. This tendency is

A. self-deception
B. gullibility.
C. unreasonable trust.
D. learned helplessness

B. gullibility.

The most common known hereditary cause of intellectual disabilities is

A. Fragile X syndrome
B. Down syndrome
C. Williams syndrome
D. Prader-Willi syndrome

A. Fragile X syndrome

A specific and characteristic behavior repertoire associated with a genetic or chromosomal disorder is a

A. genetic syndrome
B. personality characteristic
C. behavioral phenotype
D. behavioral genotype

C. behavioral phenotype

Testing that usually involves giving students a small sample of items from the curriculum in use is

A. curriculum-designed measurement.
B. real-sample measurement.
C. curriculum-based measurement
D. select-item measurement.

A. curriculum-designed measurement

One of the major advantages of the response to intervention method of identifying learning disabilities is that

A. it is easy to implement.
B. it is not subject to the same ʺwait-to failʺ criticism
C. it ensures that a studentʹs low achievement is not simply due to ineffective instruction
D. A great deal of research has been done to show how best to implement RTI.

C. it ensures that a studentʹs low achievement is not simply due to ineffective instruction

Dyslexia refers to a severe impairment in the ability to

A. read.
B. use expressive language
C. compute
D. write.

A. read.

The most commonly used definition of learning disabilities is that endorsed by

A. AAIDD
B. NJCLD
C. LDA
D. the federal government

D. the federal government

Over the years, evidence has accumulated showing that learning disabilities

A. manifest themselves prior to age three
B. dramatically improve in the adult years
C. can be inherited.
D. occur more often in first-born children

C. can be inherited.

Agents that can cause malformations or defects in a developing fetus are called

A. toxinogens.
B. mutations.
C. teratogens.
D. poisons.

C. teratogens

Definitions used to make eligibility and classification decisions related to learning disabilities traditionally include which one of the following factors?

A. IQ-achievement discrepancy
B. learning problems due to visual, hearing, or motor handicaps, or environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage
C. neurological evidence of brain injury
D. deficits in adaptive behavior

A. IQ-achievement discrepancy

Boys outnumber girls by about two to one in the learning disability category.

True
False

False

Which of the following statements about teachers of students with learning disabilities is true?

A. They have knowledge and skills about learning that apply only at remedial levels.
B. Their knowledge and skills typically apply to one content area at the secondary level.
C. Their knowledge and skills about learning are typically not relevant to secondary-level classes.
D. They have knowledge and skills about learning that can be used across content areas.

D. They have knowledge and skills about learning that can be used across content areas.

A tendency to reverse letters when writing may be due to problems in

A. auditory perception.
B. general coordination
C. visual perception
D. perceptual-motor skills

C. visual perception

By definition, every student with learning disabilities has

A. academic problems.
B. brain damage
C. hyperactivity
D. deficits in all academic areas

A. academic problems.

In the response to intervention (RTI) model with tiers of intervention, curriculum-based measurement is part of

A. primary prevention
B. secondary prevention
C. tertiary prevention
D. quaternary prevention

A. primary prevention

Which one of the following problems best illustrates difficulty in metacognition?

A. Oscar neglects to slow down when reading a difficult passage
B. Rita can’t tell the difference between the spoken words “think” and “thing.”
C. Joelle reverses b and d
D. Simon is always active and out of his seat.

A. Oscar neglects to slow down when reading a difficult passage

A method in which assistance is provided to students when they are first learning tasks, then gradually reduced until the students do the tasks independently is

A. scaffolded instruction
B. self-monitoring.
C. prompted instruction
D. self-regulated strategy development

A. scaffolded instruction

Brianna is a junior in high school who has a learning disability and an external locus of control. When she succeeds on a homework assignment in math, she is most likely to attribute her success to

A. intelligence
B. math ability
C. help from others
D. effort

C. help from others

Making students aware of the stages of problem-solving tasks while they are performing them and bringing behavior under verbal control is

A. reciprocal teaching
B. self-instruction
C. self-monitoring
D. scaffolded instruction

B. self-instruction

The ability to understand the rules of how sounds combine to make up words is

A. phonological awareness
B. phonemic awareness
C. decoding.
D. reading fluency

B. phonemic awareness

A method involving breaking down academic problems into their component parts that can be taught separately and then combined is called

A. task analysis.
B. cognitive training
C. scaffolded instruction
D. direct instruction.

A. task analysis.

The resource room is the most popular placement for students with learning disabilities

True
False

False

Which poses the most difficulty for most children with learning disabilities?

A. reading
B. spelling
C. handwriting
D. math

A. reading

IQ and achievement are the best predictors of adult success for people with learning disabilities

True
False

False

Mike has exhibited the following symptoms for more than a year at home and in school: difficulty organizing tasks, avoids tasks that require sustained mental effort, easily distracted by external stimuli, forgetful of daily activities, often makes careless mistakes, and does not seem to listen when spoken to directly. The type of ADHD Mike has is probably

A. predominantly hyperactive-inattentive type
B. predominantly inattentive type.
C. predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type.
D. combined type.

B. predominantly inattentive type.

The tendency to repeat the same behaviors over and over again is called

A. redundancy.
B. perseverance
C. repetition.
D. perseveration

D. perseveration

Which of the following is a method to assess a personʹs performance on a task requiring sustained attention?

A. Conners scale
B. continuous performance test
C. clinical interview
D. behavioral observation room

B. continuous performance test

Which characteristic do some authorities currently suggest should replace inattention as the primary deficit in ADHD?

A. behavioral inhibition
B. hyperactivity
C. subtle brain damage
D. aggressiveness

A. behavioral inhibition

Part of the brain responsible for executive functions such as the ability to regulate oneʹs own behavior is the

A. basal ganglia
B. cerebellum
C. corpus collosum
D. frontal lobes

D. frontal lobes

Students with ADHD receive special education services under IDEA in which category?

A. other health impaired
B. ADHD
C. emotional or behavioral disorders
D. learning disabilities

A. other health impaired

Which statement about the brains of people with ADHD is true?

A. There is evidence of tissue damage in areas of the brain in people with ADHD
B. Some areas are larger in people with ADHD compared to those without disabilities.
C. There is no apparent effect on the size or condition of brain areas in people with ADHD.
D. Some areas are smaller in people with ADHD compared to those without disabilities

D. Some areas are smaller in people with ADHD compared to those without disabilities

In contingency-based self-management, the ʺcontingencyʺ is usually a type of

A. punishment
B. reward
C. aversive
D. contract

B. reward

The ability to withhold a planned response; to interrupt a response that has been started; to protect an ongoing activity from interfering activities; and to delay a response refers to

A. self control.
B. behavioral control.
C. behavioral inhibition
D. executive functions.

C. behavioral inhibition

Abilities needed to be successful in one’s living environment (e.g., communication, self-care, social skills, and leisure) are called

A. life skills.
B. practical skills.
C. adaptive skills.
D. functional skills

C. adaptive skills.

Most students with ADHD spend most of their time in which of the following settings?

A. special day school
B. resource room
C. self-contained classroom
D. general education classroom

D. general education classroom

A behavioral recording system that allows a teacher to conduct brief observations and collect data on a specific set of behaviors is

A. momentary time sampling.
B. contingency-based recording.
C. intermittent time sampling.
D. continuous time sampling.

A. momentary time sampling.

A teaching model that includes content instruction by one teacher to a large group of students and remedial or supplementary instruction by the other teacher to a small group of students is

A. alternative teaching.
B. parallel teaching
C. team teaching
D. station teaching.

A. alternative teaching.

The behavior of one student is tied to the outcome of the whole group in a

A. group consequence model.
B. group contingency model
C. contingency-based self-monitoring model.
D. consequence-based self-management mode

B. group contingency model

According to the National Institute of Mental Health, the most effective treatment for ADHD is

A. medication management
B. combined medication management and behavioral treatment
C. behavioral treatment
D. community care.

B. combined medication management and behavioral treatment

Diagnosis of young children with ADHD is particularly difficult because

A. there is no funding to do assessment in preschool
B. symptoms usually do not appear before a child is eight years of age.
C. preschool teachers have no training in identifying children with disabilities.
D. many preschoolers without ADHD exhibit a great deal of activity and impulsivity.

D. many preschoolers without ADHD exhibit a great deal of activity and impulsivity.

The best “test” for ADHD in adults is

A. referrals from past teachers
B. an MRI to test for brain abnormalities
C. the Conner’s behavior scale.
D. the person’s life and medical history.

D. the person’s life and medical history.

The most frequently prescribed types of medication for students with ADHD are

A. depressants
B. mood enhancers
C. psychotropics
D. psychostimulants

D. psychostimulants

Behavioral changes in students with ADHD are much more likely to occur in special education than in general education classrooms.

True
False

True

Studies have shown that positive behavioral changes in students with ADHD are much more likely to occur in

A. general education settings.
B. special education settings
C. home settings.
D. residential program settings.

A. general education settings

The most obvious problem of children with E/BD is

A. imaginary friendships
B. aggression aimed at others
C. lack of close emotional ties
D. social fear or disinterest

C. lack of close emotional ties

The term used in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that has been criticized as inappropriate is

A. emotionally disturbed

B. severe behavioral disorder

C. emotional or behavioral disturbance

D. serious emotional disturbance

A. emotionally disturbed

In the majority of cases, the cause of E/BD is

A. biological
B. family-related
C. unknown
D. school-based

C. unknown

Which one of the following features is common to most definitions of E/BD?

A. behavior that is sometimes normal and sometimes deviant
B. psychological processing problem
C. sudden onset of an extreme behavior problem
D. socially unacceptable behavior

D. socially unacceptable behavior

Some states and localities interpret maladjustment as

A. conduct disorder
B. autism
C. schizophrenia
D. low academic performance

A. conduct disorder

Two broad dimensions of behavior disorders are

A. externalizing and internalizing

B. withdrawal and disinterest

C. exterior and interior

D. hostility and aggression

A. externalizing and internalizing

Comorbidity in persons with E/BD is

A. not unusual
B. very unusual
C. rare
D. part of the diagnosis

A. not unusual

Professionals believe that children with E/BD are presently underserved. By this, they mean that

A. special education interventions are not intense enough to meet the needs of most children with E/BD
B. only a small percentage of students with E/Bd are presently identified as such by schools
C. in many cases, schools refuse to provide services for students identified with E/BD, despite the legal mandate
D. few professionals are trained to work effectively with students in this category

B. only a small percentage of students with E/Bd are presently identified as such by schools

On standardized achievement tests, most students with E/BD perform

A. at grade level
B. above grade level
C. at mental age level
D. below grade level

D. below grade level

Many social learning theorists and behavioral psychologists believe that aggression is

A. caused by an overwhelming sense of frustration
B. a result of subconscious motives
C. a defense mechanism used in distressing situations
D. a learned behavior

D. a learned behavior

To maximize their effectiveness, programs for students with E/BD should provide a balance between

A. behavioral control and academic/social instruction.

B. academic/social instruction and vocational training

C. psychological therapy and academic/social instruction.

D. individualized instruction and behavioral control

A. behavioral control and academic/social instruction.
Behavioral psychologists tend to attribute withdrawal and immaturity to
A. internal conflictsB. unconscious motivations

C. conscious motivations

D. failures in social learning

D. failures in social learning

All credible conceptual models of education have two objectives. They are

A. controlling misbehavior and teaching academic and social skills

B. controlling misbehavior and teaching academic skills

C. teaching academic and social skills

D. controlling misbehavior and teaching social skills

A. controlling misbehavior and teaching academic and social skills

The most common problems exhibited by children with E/BD are

A. withdrawn behaviors.

B. attention deficit disorders

C. impulsive behaviors
D. conduct disorders.

D. conduct disorders.

The placement of individuals with E/BD in the general education classroom is secondary to

A. the least restrictive environment (LRE).
B. their civil rights.
C. the need for appropriate education and safety
D. parental demands

C. the need for appropriate education and safety

The trend today in placement of children with E/BD is away from special facilities and toward

A. educational, hospital settings
B. homebound, individualized care
C. inclusion in regular public schools
D. specialized treatment in private settings

C. inclusion in regular public schools

Two methods frequently employed to monitor behavioral progress are

A. curriculum-based measurement and standardized assessment
B. rating scales and standardized assessment
C. rating scales and direct observation.
D. curriculum-based measurement and direct observation.

C. rating scales and direct observation.

The federal definition of E/BD has been most widely criticized for its exclusion of children with

A. autism

B. schizophrenia

C. social maladjustment

D. attention deficit disorder

C. social maladjustment

Despite problems in defining E/BD, most children with severe E/BD are easily recognized because

A. teachers are trained in the use of behavior rating scales

B. systematic screening procedures are used in most schools.

C. their behavior attracts immediate attention

D. most schools have psychologists on-site.

C. their behavior attracts immediate attention

The authors of the textbook stress the importance of integrated services for students with E/BD. By this, they mean that

A. subject areas within the curriculum should not be taught in isolation from each other

B. students with E/BD should be fully included in regular classrooms.

C. schools, families, and community agencies should cooperate to meet studentsʹ needs.

D. therapy should occur in school within the context of the studentʹs academic program

C. schools, families, and community agencies should cooperate to meet studentsʹ needs

The words “autistic” and “autism” come from the Greek word autos, meaning

A. cars

B. withdrawn

C. others
D. self

D. self

One characteristic that distinguished children studied by Kanner was

A. an inability to relate to others in an ordinary manner

B. a need to be picked up or held by parents

C. surprisingly normal language development

D. an extreme dislike of repetition

A. an inability to relate to others in an ordinary manner

Asperger identified children who had

A. average intelligence but channeled their intellectual pursuits into obsessive preoccupation in narrow areas

B. above average intelligence but channeled their intellectual pursuits into obsessive preoccupation in narrow areas

C. below average intelligence but channeled their intellectual pursuits into obsessive preoccupation in narrow areas

D. below average intelligence and a tendency toward violent, psychotic behavior

A. average intelligence but channeled their intellectual pursuits into obsessive preoccupation in narrow areas

Someone who exhibits echolalia would

A. reverse pronouns

B. parrot what he or she hears

C. sound robotic when speaking

D. speak too loudly

B. parrot what he or she hears

Most scientists argue that the dramatic increase in prevalence statistics for autism is due to each of the following EXCEPT

A. a widening of the criteria used for diagnosis

B. a greater awareness of autism in general

C. widespread use of vaccinations for babies

D. “diagnostic substitution” (diagnosing with austism rather than intellectual disability)

C. widespread use of vaccinations for babies

The disorder that is much more prevalent in females than males is

A. Asperger syndrome

B. Rett syndrome

C. childhood disintegrative disorder

D. pervasive developmental disorder

B. Rett syndrome

Which term was once commonly applied to mothers of children with autism?

A. warmhearted moms

B. refrigerator moms

C. coldhearted moms

D. neglectful moms

B. refrigerator moms

Neurological research that involves the brain and head size of people with autism suggest that for many

A. their brains are larger than average at birth

B. their brains increase in size after about five years

C. their brains grow suddenly and excessively in the first two years of life

D. their brains reach maximum size around age two or three years

C. their brains grow suddenly and excessively in the first two years of life

Autism is relatively easy to diagnose because

A. there is a metabolic test that can be performed
B. brain scans clearly indicate the areas of the brain affected
C. intelligence tests can be used to pinpoint specific conditions
D. the behavioral symptoms are so severe and striking

D. the behavioral symptoms are so severe and striking

A condition characterized by normal development for at least 2 and up to 10 years, followed by a significant loss of skills is

A. Asperger syndrome
B. Rett syndrome
C. childhood disintegrative disorder
D. pervasive developmental disorder

C. childhood disintegrative disorder

Children with autism have impaired communication; as many as 50 percent are thought to

A. be mute

B. lack communicative intent

C. display stereotypic behavior

D. exhibit echolalia

A. be mute

Jeremy has severe autism. He does not interact with others socially and his intellectual functioning appears to be very low. However, Jeremy has extraordinary ability as a pianist (though he is not interested in performing for other people). Which term best describes Jeremy?

A. Asperger syndrome

B. Rett syndrome

C. autistic savant

D. autistic genuis

C. autistic savant

A person whose sensory perceptions are so abnormal that he or she could appear to be deaf or blind would be

A. hyporesponsive

B. hyperresponsive

C. overresponsive

D. hypersensitive

A. hyporesponsive

The natural inclination for most people to bring order and meaning to information in their environment by perceiving it as meaningful whole rather than as disparate parts is

A. lateral coherence

B. central coherence

C. lateral adherence

D. central synthesis

B. central coherence

Jean is a young woman with Asperger syndrome. Her coworker recently lost a family member to cancer. Jean expounded on her knowledge of the cause and effects of the illness, but did not offer condolences, nor did she notice the discomfort she was causing her coworker. Jean’s inability to perceive the feelings or to understand the emotional state of her coworker is related to

A. theory of central coherence

B. theory of empathy

C. theory of mind

D. theory of executive functioning

C. theory of mind

Functional behavioral assessment is used to reduce or eliminate negative behaviors. The purposes the behaviors serve for a person are

A. antecedents

B. setting events

C. consequences

D. motivations

C. consequences

Two strategies for teaching social skills to students with Asperger syndrome that have been relatively successful are

A. social interpreting and coaching

B. peer tutoring and counseling

C. collaborative grouping and peer response

D. social skills films and lectures

A. social interpreting and coaching

What is currently the most popular placement for students with autism

A. self-contained classroom

B. separate schools

C. resource rooms

D. general education classrooms

A. self-contained classroom

Two critical areas of assessment for students with autism spectrum disorders are

A. progress in academic skills and functional skills

B. progress in academic skills and social/adaptive behavior

C. progress in language development and functional skills

D. progress in language development and social/adaptive behavior

D. progress in language development and social/adaptive behavior

Planning for transition to adulthood for people with Asperger syndrome is largely concerned with issues of

A. supported living

B. competitive employment

C. residential placement

D. social interaction

D. social interaction