Mass Comm. Chapter 4

Print Media Industries (SP)
“As an industry, the mass media didn’t take form until the 1830s with the introduction of newspapers that were affordable to most people and edited for mass readership. Key factors in the development of mass audiences at the time were intertwined economic and social changes-growing industrialization, urbanization, immigration, and literacy.”
Jimmy Wales
invented Wikipedia in 2000; it was a user created and edited online encyclopedia
Benjamin Day
Published the New York Sun
Penny Papers
Affordable newspapers introduced in 1833 created unprecedented mass audience
Industrialization as a factor of “Penny Press”
With new steam power presses, hundreds of copies an hour could be printed. Earlier presses had been hand operated.
Social and Economic factors that made the Penny Press Possible:
Industrialization, Urbanization, Immigration, Literacy
Urbanization as a factor of “Penny Press”
Workers flocked to cities to work in new factories, creating a great pool of potential newspaper readers for same day delivery. Until the 1820-1830s the US population had been mainly agricultural.
Immigration as a factor of “Penny Press”
Waves of immigrants arrived from impoverished parts of Europe. Most were eager to learn English and found that penny papers not only were affordable but were also good tutors with their simple, direct writing style.
Literacy as a factor of “Penny Press”
in general, literacy was increasing, which contributed to the rise of mass circulation newspapers and magazines.
Wiki software
allowed for writing and editing from all over the globe, in 2001 he renamed it to Wikipedia, and accepted online contributions from anyone, in a proves called open editing.
Newspaper Industry (SP)
“With the success of penny papers, newspapers grew into the first major media industry. The newspaper business model endured for decades for all news media. The dominance of newspapers among media products has been shaken by internet triggered alternatives for readers and advertisers.”
Business Model
a design operating business, identifying revenue sources, customer base, products, and financing.
Publisher
heads the organizational structure of the newspaper. Usually the owner.
Editor
A manager who is responsible for news media content
News Editorial
A newspapers staff component that produces news, amusement and opinion content
Newspaper Influenced
influenced the lives of generations. What was reported was what was talked about
Newspaper circulation was effected by
market penetration and hidden implosion
William Randolph Hearst
Publisher of the New York Journal, and other major dailies in the Yellow Period.
Benjamin Franklin
created the first newspaper chain in the colonial era, called the Pennsylvania Gazette
Chain newspaper
owned by a company that owns other newspapers elsewhere.
AM’s
newspapers that were issued in the morning; dominated PM market
PM’s
newspapers that were issued in the afternoons
He had multiple metropolitan dailies that created some of the largest personal fortunes in the nation.
William Randolf Hurst
Market penetration
sales per capita, has slipped and newspapers are losing the battle to online journalism
Hidden implosion
technology and new media revolution has had a crushing impact on the newspaper business model.
Headed by the editor, who has a staff of assistants who produce content in a branched structure. News focuses on covering events and issues and generating amusement. The editorial side produces opinion sections separately and apart from the news side.
this part of the newspaper is the News Editorial
Advertising
Expenses of the news editorial and production are underwritten mostly by revenue from advertisers. The content of ads is not written by newspapers but by advertisers that buy space in the newspaper to reach an audience for their spiels.
Circulation
This department works at promoting sales of the newspaper.
Leading Newspapers (SP)
“Although not the largest US daily, the New York Times is the most influential. The Times is known for comprehensive news coverage and journalistic enterprise and coverage. The largest US dailies are the Wall Street Journal and USA Today followed by the New York Times.”
New York Times
Founded in 1851; is known for comprehensive news coverage and journalistic enterprise and courage.
Paper of Record
prints the president’s annual State of Union address and other important documents in their entirety.
Times Heritage
the journalistic reputation of this newspaper was cemented in the 1870s when courageous reporting brought down the city government.
The TImes Heritage exposed corrupt politicians
true
Sullivan Libel Case 1960
A Montgomery police officer was angry at criticism in an advertisement in the Times that promoted racial integration. He sued for defamation and won in 1964.
The Sullivan Decision
was a landmark defamation case in which the New York Times argued for unrestricted reporting of public officials.
Pentagon Papers
Were secret government generated Vietnam War military documents revealed by the New York Times.
Wall Street Journal
Began in 1882 and is not the nation’s largest newspaper or daily
Barney Kilgore
He revamped the concept of the Wall Street Journal in the 1940s. He took the paper into a different journalistic direction. His vision was not to reduce coverage but seek business angles in other fields and cover them too. It worked.
Rupert Murdoch
the Wall Street Journal was sold to this man in 2007. He is the founder of global media conglomerate News Corporation.
USA Today
Founded in 1982 by the giant Gannett chain.
the impact USA Today
has been influential in American journalism. When it was launched it formed snappy, quick to read formats and shorter stories that were easier to digest, infographics and data lists.
Neuharth Concept
USA Today built its circulation mostly on single copy sales and bulk sales. It targeted business travelers who wanted a quick fix on the news; many sales were at airport news racks. Discounts were given to upscale hotels who would buy the newspapers in bulk.
Magazine Industry (SP)
“Advances in printing and in transportation, as well as postal discounts, propelled magazines into a major media industry in the 1800s. Content innovations like long-form journalism and photojournalism drew massive readerships. In recent time, competing media have eroded magazines’ province on the innovations. Digital technology has cut into the audience and also advertising revenue.”
muckraking
a term coined by president Roosevelt, in the early 1990s for Investigative Reporting
Ida Tarbell
wrote a 19 part series in 1902 on the standard oil monopoly “McClures”. As a result of her investigative reporting, the government broke up the monopoly.
Lincoln Stevens
exposed municipal corruption and reformers followed.
Demassification
the process of media narrowing focus to audience niches.
Reinventing Magazines (SP)
“The twin revenue streams for the magazine industry, advertising and direct sales to readers, are in a rapid decline. Newsmagazines are a case study in survival strategies with no course guaranteeing success. Even so, some magazines continue to hold their own, particularly shelter and niche titles.”
Sponsored Web Magazines
Are online web magazines written by the general public and have very low up keep. They are knows as sugar daddy sponsor sites which usually have a narrow bent, some ideological, which limits their broad appeal.
CPM
Cost per thousand. A tool to determine the cost effectiveness of different media.
Book Industry (SP)
“The book industry held its own more than media companies with ink-on-paper products after the economic recession that began in 2007. Niche publishers were especially strong. One factor in the book industry’s state of affairs is the mergers and acquisitions of publishing companies, many on a global scale, which put more emphasis on the bottom line. A downside is the disappearance of quirks that once gave publishing houses their distinctive characters. A negative component of the US book industry is retailing, with bookstores losing to online vendors.”
Jeff Bezos
Founder of the online book retailer Amazon.com
Examples include the works of Shakespeare and Beethoven, most of the early silent films, the formulae of Newtonian physics, and powered flight.
Public Domain
Public domain
Works in the public domain are those whose intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, or are inapplicable.
Book Genres (SP)
“Reference works are vulnerable in this age of the internet. DO you know anybody who’s bought a set of encyclopedias lately? Wikipedia is the now norm. Textbooks are less vulnerable. Textbooks each have a perspective that dovetails into how an adopting professor or school board sees how a course should be taught. Yet the demand for lower priced books and e-reader versions is rising. Trade books can adapt easily to e-reading devices.”
Reference Books
Complications, including encyclopedias, dictionaries, and atlases
Textbooks
Curriculum related titles for learning and understanding
Trade Books
General interest titles, including fiction and nonfiction
Book Industry Prospects (SP)
“In general, the book industry is well positioned to continue shifting successfully to digital formats. The book industry doesn’t rely on advertising, which has proven fickle as a revenue stream for newspapers and magazines. Also, nook publishers, unlike newspapers, have no costly investment in printing presses.”
E Books
Digital files of book content that are stored, searched, sampled, downloaded and paid for online for use on computer, dedicated reader or cellphone.
Examples of E Books are
Amazon Kindle & Sony Reader
E Reader
Portable electronic devices for on screen reading of books
Apple I Pad
is an example of an E Reader
Harry Potter Effect
the impact of a single best-selling book, categorized by young readers grew from 20-75% between the ages of 10 and 14.
Post Print Culture (SP)
“For nearly 300 years, newspapers have contributed importantly to making democracy work with news coverage. Both newspapers and magazines, also, have been at the forefront promoting openness in government and rooting out corruption. What will happen if periodicals vanish?”
News Coverage
Day to day news coverage doesn’t match the staffing that newspapers put into coverage of public policy and governance.
Investigative Reporting
Besides a core of chronicling events, newspapers in their heyday had the financial resources to dig for truths on political and government abuses that would not otherwise be covered.
Government Openness
More than any other media newspapers companies have fought expensive battles to go after truths hidden in government meetings and documents.
Discovery of Mass Audiences
Guttenberg press in the mid-1440s made media possible but magazines were irregular and short lived. Newspapers were random weekly columns or sidelines. There was no reporting staff. The concept of newspaper as a comprehensive package of the day’s events had yet to take form.
Personality profiles
was an in depth balanced biographical article invented in the 1920s. Hugh Hefner established Q & A sections in the magazine industry through his Playboy articles.
Photojournalism
The most enduring innovation in the magazine industry is VISUALS. A breakthrough came in the Civil War when Harpers Weekly sent artists to draw battles. Today visuals are a core element in all mass media except radio.