Marriage and Family Quiz #2

Changes in sexual activity in the United States since the start of the century have served to:
A) weaken the role of marriage as the core of family life.
B) strengthen the role of marriage as the core of family life.
C) reinforce the central focus of children as the core of family life.
D) decrease the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases.
“Living apart together” (LAT), people who are intimately involved but live in separate households,
A) was first noticed in Europe in the late 1970s
B) has been studied extensively in Spain
C) has been widely studied in the United States
D) represents about 10% of the population in Britain
Of the following, which is not true about the “family of choice”?
A) friends may be more central to your family than a partner
B) they must be actively constructed
C) are easily formed by people of all racial-ethnic and social levels.
D) always include one or more legal or biological member of one’s family of origin
The fact that sexual identities have only recently emerged as a concept suggests that:
A) they are socially constructed.
B) this is a new phenomenon.
C) this is a phenomenon not worthy of study.
D) we need to base everything on biology.
Social constructionists would argue that sexual identities
A) are effected by the environment
B) don’t have particular boundaries that are followed
C) vary from culture to culture
D) are not measured on a continuum
In several surveys of adult sexual activity, over __% of women and over ___% of men said that they had had no sex partners other than their spouses over the previous 12 months.
A) 97; 94
B) 85; 65
C) 80; 65
D) 75; 70
The concept of sexual identity requires _____________ and ________________ that was not prominent until the late nineteenth century.
A) self-consciousness; self-reliance.
B) self-reliance; self-examination.
C) self consciousness; self-examination.
D) selfishness; independence.
The idea that sexual acts and preferences are socially organized is no more than _____ years old.
A) 200
B) 175
C) 150
D) 75
Social constructivists believe that sexual identities
A) are determined by both social and biological factors.
B) are the same across cultures.
C) vary from culture to culture.
D) are determined by social norms.
The Kinsey Report, a book published in 1948, shocked the nation because
A) of the high number of men who admitted to have had sexual relations with other men.
B) the author’s claim that sexuality should be viewed as a continuum running from exclusively heterosexual to exclusively homosexual.
C) of the high number of men who admitted to sexual feelings toward other men.
D) all of the above
A marriage in which the emphasis is on self-development, flexible roles, and open communication is called
A) institutional marriage
B) companionate marriage
C) individualistic marriage
D) companionable marriage
The institutional marriage is marked predominately by
A) equal sharing of household chores and childcare.
B) mutual respect.
C) an attachment based on love and caring.
D) strict roles dictating how one is to behave within the family unit.
After the 1900s, the key resource that young people in the United States gained, which changed a centuries-old system of courtship was:
A) education.
B) land.
C) inheritance.
D) spending money.
Recent studies suggest that cohabitation is
A) an alternative way of being single
B) a testing ground for marriage
C) an alternative to marriage
D) all of the above
Hooking up
A) became common in the 2000s
B) does not always imply sexual intercourse
C) does not imply romantic attraction
D) all of the above
Historians Lynd & Lynd (1929) concluded that in the 1920s, young adults wanted
A) sexual allure
B) emotional fulfillment
C) romantic love
D) domesticity
Burgess, a family sociologist,
A) felt that the individualized type of marriage was the best form
B) did not foresee the dual-earner marriage overtaking the breadwinner-homemaker marriage
C) predicted that the bread-winner homemaker marriage model could not last
D) that men and women should have an equal share of the household chores
Which of the following did not contribute to the end of traditional courtship patterns in the United States?
A) migration from rural areas to cities
B) higher standards of living
C) growth in passionate love as a basis for marriage
D) extended adolescence
The breadwinner-homemaker model of marriage

A) flourished in the 1950s
B) was the norm between 1945 and 1975
C) still flourishes today
D) is all but extinct

Which of the following was not a factor in changing the nature of marriage from companionship to individualization?

A) a rise in the standard of living
B) increasing economic independence of young women
C) the exposure of women to new ideas beyond the home
D) the migration of large numbers of people to rural areas

Time study diaries that covered almost 40 years compared the changes in the amount of time women and men spent in household work and they found

A) women are spending fewer hours in housework
B) men are spending more hours in housework
C) women were spending 4 times as many minutes caring for children than were men
D) both A and B

The first parental leave act passed by U.S. Congress in 1993 (and still in effect) provided parental leave under the following conditions

A) employees working in firms with less than 50 employees.
B) 12 weeks paid leave to all employed workers.
C) 12 weeks paid leave.
D) 12 weeks unpaid leave in firms with more than 50 employees.

Tronto (1993) and others believe that we overvalue individualism and _________ and undervalue interdependence and __________.

A) autonomy; work experience
B) caring; autonomy
C) autonomy; caring
D) caring; work experience

Most childcare assistance currently offered by U.S. business firms benefits

A) women.
B) the working-class
C) men.
D) the middle-class.

By the mid-200s, what percentage of wage and salary workers telecommuted on an average day?

A) 50.
B) 5
C) 10
D) 35

People who do paid care work

A) earn less than people who do comparable work
B) have jobs that are devalued in the labor market
C) often are experiencing “free-riding” from others
D) all of the above

Which of the following factors is not related to women’s increased participation in the labor force?

A) expansion of manufacturing jobs
B) rising divorce rate
C) lower fertility rate
D) expansion of service jobs

In 2004, what percentage of all workers had evening, night, or rotating schedules?

A) 18
B) 5
C) 22
D) 32

One of the most important twentieth-century developments for the family has been

A) the decline of patriarchy.
B) the movement of married women into employment outside the home.
C) birth control innovation.
D) none of the above.

Face-to-face activity in which one person meets the needs of another who cannot fully care for herself or himself is called

A) personal assistance.
B) nursing.
C) care work.
D) none of the above.

Recent research on fathering suggests that:

A) father involvement is inconsequential for the healthy development of children.
B) father involvement is correlated with positive development in both sons and daughters.
C) higher involvement reduces the divorce rate.
D) the greater increase in children born outside of marriage is related to the father role.

Socialization of children is closely correlated with:

A) interest of the parents in the children.
B) cultural norms and values.
C) mothers working outside the home.
D) parents’ awareness of their children’s personality changes.

The best parents (that is, those who are most likely to produce children who are socially competent) perform three tasks well: they set clear standards, they enforce standards consistently without harsh punishment, and they __________.

A) spend a lot of money on their children
B) provide substantial emotional support
C) put the marital relationship as a second priority to the parental relationship for many years
D) reason with their children

The few, and admittedly biased, studies of children growing up in lesbian families compared to heterosexual families show that

A) there are substantial differences between the two.
B) there is little significant difference between the two.
C) there are differences for boys but not girls in the homosexual families.
D) there are differences for girls but not boys in the homosexual families.

About half of the disadvantages of living in a single- parent family are due to

A) the sense of relative deprivation these families experience.
B) low income.
C) lack of supervision.
D) inability to work for pay.

Studies on the effects of unemployment on families have shown that

A) unemployment does not affect families in any ways other than economically.
B) unemployment affects only the out-of-work parent.
C) unemployment places stress on parents who then often act hostile toward their children.
D) unemployment has no affect whatsoever on the children

Families that maintain continual contact with each other though they live in different countries are called

A) transnational families
B) immigrant caregivers
C) migrant families
D) immigrant families

Two important aspects of U.S. parents’ socialization of their children include

A) provision of physical and emotional support.
B) teaching both dependence on and independence from the family.
C) religious and secular training.
D) provision for emotional support and exercise of control.

An important difference between working-class and middle-class parents with respect to socialization is

A) that working-class parents tend to stress independence and curiosity.
B) that working-class parents tend toward permissive parenting.
C) that middle-class parents are more likely to stress authority and conformity.
D) that working-class parents stress qualities that will allow their children to enter blue-collar jobs and middle-class parents stress qualities that will allow their children to enter white-collar jobs.

The major source of primary socialization for children in the United States is

A) school.
B) church.
C) family.
D) day care.

As the twentieth century ended, the most common living arrangement among elderly women in the U.S. became

A) living with a married daughter.
B) living alone.
C) living in a nursing home.
D) living with a married son.

Of the following, which statement most clearly reflects intergenerational ambivalence?

A) men feel more ambivalence toward their older parents than do women
B) women feel more ambivalence toward their older parents than do men
C) older parents feel more ambivalence toward their sons
D) a son is more likely to provide care for an aging parent even though he felt ambivalent about it

Falling mortality and fertility rates have altered the kinship bonds of people in the United States. The major change has been

A) an increase in horizontal ties and a decrease in vertical ties across generations.
B) decreasing bonds of kinship of any type.
C) decreasing links vertically across generations.
D) decreasing horizontal bonds and increasing vertical bonds of kinship across generations.

The primary factor determining the amount and degree of contact among families is

A) love.
B) health.
C) previous relations.
D) geographical distance.

Which of the following relationships tends to be the most distant in middle and late life in the United States?

A) mother-son
B) mother-daughter
C) divorced mother-children
D) divorced father-children

Of the following living arrangements, which is the most likely one for elderly men today in the United States?

A) living alone
B) living with a spouse
C) living with other relatives
D) living with other non-relatives

In a recent survey, it was found that _______ of the caregivers for the dependent elderly living in the community and not in a nursing homes were women.

A) one-half
B) two-thirds
C) three-quarters
D) four-fifths

Public awareness of nursing home care for the elderly has been influenced in recent years by numerous expose-type news articles and documentaries. This focus has had the perhaps unintended result of many U.S. citizens believing that _____ of the elderly live in nursing homes, when in fact, most of the elderly are cared for by _____.

A) a minority; home-care nurses
B) a majority; members of their families
C) a majority; government social programs
D) a minority; friends and neighbors who check in on them

The most common generation linkage of kin in the United States is __________ generations.

A) five
B) four
C) three
D) two

Which of the following factors did not contribute to the elderly relying on kin for support in the earlier history of our country?

A) social welfare programs
B) unemployment
C) death
D) lower wages