Marketing Chapter 7

Abercrombie & Fitch is developing a program to get to know its customers. Which of the following is not a reason why A&F needs to understand consumer buying behavior?
a) customer’s reactions to marketing strategy can impact the firm’s success
b) all customers are the same when it comes to buying behavior
c) a firm should create a marketing mix that satisfies customers
d) it helps the marketer predict how consumers will respond to marketing strategies
e) the marketing concept stresses that a firm should know its customers
18. Purchasers who intend to use or benefit from the purchased product and do not buy products for business purposes are called the
a) ultimate consumers.
b) end-use consumption group.
c) business market.
d) household purchasing group.
e) organizational market.
19. Many aspects of consumer buying decisions are affected by the individual’s level of involvement. Level of involvement is
a) the importance and intensity of interest in a product in a particular situation.
b) the buyer’s perception, motives, and abilities.
c) the amount of external search that an individual puts into the decision-making process.
d) the particular circumstance or environment in which consumers find themselves.
e) a combination of an individual’s demographic factors.
20. Justin is purchasing his third car in the past five years. He has been a car enthusiast ever since he was a little boy. He likes to spend his free time looking at car magazines, going to car shows, and watching NASCAR. Justin’s interest in cars is referred to as
a) situational involvement.
b) dynamic involvement.
c) enduring involvement.
d) dynamic buying behavior.
e) situational buying behavior.
21. A major determining factor in deciding which type of problem-solving process should be used depends on the individual’s intensity of interest in a product and the importance of the product for that person. This is known as an individual’s
a) motivational structure.
b) routinized response behavior.
c) level of involvement.
d) cognitive dissonance.
e) evaluative criteria.
22. Chloe and Max are searching for a health club to join. This purchase will likely be affected by ___________ involvement.
a) low
b) internal
c) enduring
d) evoked
e) perceived
23. Temporary and dynamic factors that result from a particular set of circumstance a consumer is facing when making purchase decisions characterize
a) enduring involvement.
b) extended problem solving.
c) selective exposure.
d) situational involvement.
e) selective retention.
24. The three most widely recognized types of consumer problem solving are:
a) limited problem solving, extended problem solving, and routinized response behavior.
b) extended problem solving, enduring problem solving, and situational problem solving.
c) planned problem solving, impulse buying, and limited problem solving.
d) internal problem solving, external problem solving, situational behavior.
e) responsive behavior, planned behavior, and impulsive problem solving.
25. While shopping at a Kroger grocery store, Tom sees a display of his favorite brand of diet cola. He buys a six-pack to take home for the weekend. This purchase process would be described as
a) routinized response behavior.
b) extended problem solving.
c) limited problem solving.
d) situational perception.
e) enduring involvement.
26. Which of the following consumer problem-solving processes will probably be used in purchasing toothpaste?
a) Extended problem solving
b) Routinized response behavior
c) Intensive problem solving
d) Limited problem solving
e) Perceptual scanning
27. Which product listed would most likely be purchased through routinized response behavior?
a) Car
b) Desk
c) Shirt
d) Soft drink
e) Television set
28. Which of the following buying situations is most consistent with routinized response behavior?
a) Ian buying his first pair of basketball shoes
b) Molly buying a new set of tires for her car
c) Aaron buying a new fishing rod and reel
d) Stephanie buying bottled water
e) Bryan buying a new software program
29. Stacy is going to the store to buy a gallon of milk. She will most likely use ___________ in her consumer decision-making process.
a) routinized response behavior
b) limited problem solving
c) extended problem solving
d) perceptual scanning
e) evaluation of alternatives
30. Routinized response behavior is what a consumer does when
a) purchasing an unfamiliar product.
b) buying frequently purchased, low-cost items that need little effort.
c) an information search is extensive and may involve consulting with friends and family.
d) buying products that require a moderate amount of time for information gathering and deliberation.
e) he or she enters the problem recognition stage of the consumer buying decision process.
31. In contrast to extended problem solving, routinized response behavior requires
a) careful deliberation before making a choice.
b) less information about products.
c) more time.
d) considerable thought.
e) more money.
32. When a consumer purchases products occasionally or needs information about an unfamiliar brand in a familiar product category, he or she will most likely engage in
a) enduring purchase behavior.
b) routinized response behavior.
c) extended problem solving.
d) impulse searching.
e) limited problem solving.
33. When a new variety of Kashi whole-grain breakfast cereals is first introduced, consumers will most likely engage in______ when deciding whether or not to purchase this new product.
a) extended problem solving
b) limited problem solving
c) situational solving behavior
d) routinized response behavior
e) automatic processing behavior
34. Jenny plans to buy a new swimsuit for her spring break cruise. She has not seen this year’s styles and thus will do some comparison shopping before making a purchase decision. Jenny is engaging in
a) routinized response behavior.
b) extended problem solving.
c) limited problem solving.
d) impulse buying.
e) intensive problem solving.
35. Kellogg’s is introducing a new bran waffle for toasters. Television commercials will be a key element in communicating the benefits associated with this product. Based on that decision, Kellogg’s is expecting consumers to engage in what form of problem solving?
a) Routinized response behavior
b) Limited problem solving
c) Extended problem solving
d) Impulse buying
e) Extensive response behavior
36. For which of the following products would a consumer most likely use limited problem solving?
a) Detergent
b) Toothpaste
c) Automobile
d) Hair dryer
e) Washing machine
37. Which of the following purchases would most likely require a consumer to use extended problem solving?
a) Audio equipment
b) Shaving cream
c) Cereal
d) Kitchen napkins
e) Gasoline
38. Extended problem solving is the type of consumer problem-solving process that
a) involves no conscious planning but rather a powerful and persistent urge to buy something.
b) is the most complex problem-solving behavior, which comes into play when a purchase involves unfamiliar, expensive, or infrequently bought products.
c) requires a moderate amount of time for information gathering and search.
d) is the creation and maintenance of a collection of products that satisfy a person’s needs and wants.
e) requires very little search-and-decision effort and is practiced when buying low-cost and frequently purchased products.
39. Which of the following products would probably require extended problem solving before a purchase?
a) Products purchased frequently
b) Products to be purchased in the future
c) Products that are purchased routinely
d) Expensive products
e) Products purchased as a result of social influences
40. Jose and Teresa are searching for a new cellular phone. They will most likely engage in which one of the following forms of problem solving?
a) Extended problem solving
b) Limited problem solving
c) Impulse buying
d) Routinized response behavior
e) Intensive response behavior
41. An unplanned buying behavior resulting from a powerful urge to buy something immediately is called
a) impulse buying.
b) habitual buying.
c) compulsive response behavior.
d) non-problem solving.
e) cognitive dissonance.
42. Marissa goes to Target to purchase school supplies for her two children. As she is approaching the check-out counter, she sees a vase she just has to have and buys it immediately. Marissa’s purchase of the vase is an example of
a) limited problem solving.
b) impulse buying.
c) routinized response behavior.
d) addictive consumption.
e) situational involvement.
43. Beth Hines is buying furniture for her apartment for the first time. She is spending considerable time and effort comparing the products that different stores offer. Which type of problem-solving process is she using?
a) Selective
b) Intensive
c) Extended
d) Shopping
e) Routinized
44. Mark is shopping for a new suit to wear to an important interview. He really wants to impress his prospective employer and is shopping at many stores to find the right outfit. Martin is using which type of consumer problem-solving process?
a) Routinized response behavior
b) Habitual response
c) Information search
d) Extended problem solving
e) Intensive problem solving
45. The five major stages of the consumer buying decision process, in order, are
a) information search, establishment of product criteria, evaluation of alternatives, purchase, and postpurchase evaluation
b) problem recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase, and postpurchase evaluation.
c) problem recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, postpurchase evaluation and purchase.
d) information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase, trial adoption period, and postpurchase evaluation.
e) problem recognition, purchase, evaluation of alternatives, postpurchase evaluation, and rebuy.
46. Which of the following statements about the consumer buying decision process is true?
a) Consumers progress through the five stages of this process for all limited problem-solving decisions.
b) Although all of the steps in the process are used in all decision processes, the order tends to depend on the customer’s level of involvement.
c) The key element of the process that exists in all consumer buying decision processes is the purchase of the product.
d) Once the purchase of a product has been made, the consumer buying decision process is complete.
e) Consumers making limited problem-solving decisions may not go through all five steps of the process.
47. Problem recognition occurs when a consumer
a) searches for information to resolve a problem.
b) becomes aware that there is a difference between a desired state and an actual condition.
c) recognizes a need.
d) evaluates her or his purchase.
e) is exposed to a television advertisement.
48. When Julia goes to the first class of her Operations Management course, she finds out that in addition to the textbook she already purchased, she also needs a copy of the book The Goal. At which stage of the consumer buying decision process is Julia?
a) Purchase
b) Evaluation of alternatives
c) Problem recognition
d) Information search
e) Prepurchase evaluation
49. As Steve is shopping for groceries, he notices a product on the shelf and remembers that he is about to run out of it at home. In terms of the consumer buying decision process, Steve just experienced
a) problem recognition.
b) high involvement.
c) postpurchase evaluation.
d) information search.
e) evaluation of alternatives
50. Within the information search step of the consumer buying decision process, what two primary aspects exist?
a) Consideration sets and evoked sets
b) Personal information and non-personal information
c) Selective retention and selective distortion
d) Internal search and external search
e) Company-produced information and internal information
51. As Jeff runs out of shaving cream, he immediately tries to remember what he did the last time this happened. He is engaging in
a) external search.
b) consideration set development.
c) internal search.
d) cognitive dissonance.
e) alternative evaluation.
52. When Trevor realizes his liquor cabinet supply was devastated by last weekend’s party, he first retrieves information from his memory about what types of liquor he and his friends like most and then asks the attractive clerk at the liquor store what she would recommend. Trevor started with a(n) _____ search and then progressed to a(n) _____ search.
a) consideration; evaluative
b) focused; broad
c) internal; external
d) routinized; extended
e) self; inclusive
53. When, in their information search, consumers focus on communication with friends and relatives, they are utilizing ______ sources.
a) internal
b) personal
c) marketer-dominated
d) direct
e) organizational
54. In the consumer buying decision process, the information search stage
a) yields a group of brands that a buyer views as possible alternatives.
b) involves a buyer becoming aware of the need for a product.
c) is not necessary when the buyer is involved in extensive decision making.
d) occurs immediately after evaluation of alternatives.
e) is lengthy for routine response buying behavior.
55. During which stage of the consumer buying decision process does a consumer decide from which seller he or she will buy the product?
a) Evaluation of alternatives
b) Information search
c) Source selection
d) Purchase
e) Problem recognition
56. When shopping for detergent, Josh looks at Tide, Fresh Start, Surf, and All and chooses the one that is on sale. These four brands make up his _________ set.
a) alternate
b) purchase
c) consideration
d) problem
e) imposed
57. In shopping for a new laptop computer for her master degree program, the alternatives Jocelyn is considering include Dell, Toshiba, Sony, and Hewlett-Packard. These four brands make up Jocelyn’s
a) dissonance group.
b) evaluative group.
c) framing set.
d) external search results.
e) consideration set.
58. A group of brands that a consumer views as alternatives for possible purchase is called a(n)
a) evoked set.
b) acceptance group.
c) brand preference.
d) selective retention group.
e) evaluation criteria.
59. Evaluative criteria for brands within the consideration set are both
a) selective and expansive.
b) objective and subjective.
c) internal and external.
d) extended and routinized.
e) perceptive and selective.
60. A customer shopping for a fax machine tells a salesperson that it is important for the fax machine to have several attributes. It must use plain paper, be able to make copies, be compatible with all other fax machines, and not require a separate phone line. The buyer has expressed his or her
a) framing characteristics.
b) service characteristics.
c) consideration set.
d) evaluative criteria.
e) information search criteria.
61. All of the following are marketer-dominated sources of information except
a) salespeople.
b) advertising.
c) packaging.
d) friends.
e) displays.
62. During the evaluation of alternatives stage of the consumer buying decision process, framing most likely influences the decision process of ___________ buyers.
a) younger
b) older
c) wealthier
d) veteran
e) inexperienced
63. After doing considerable shopping, Eric has just decided what brand and type of athletic shoes to buy and where he’s going to buy them. In what stage of the consumer buying decision process is Eric?
a) Problem recognition
b) Information search
c) Evaluation of alternatives
d) Purchase
e) Postpurchase evaluation
64. Doubts in a buyer’s mind about whether the purchase decision made was the right one may occur during the
a) cognitive dissonance.
b) purchase.
c) evaluation of alternatives.
d) internal search.
e) postpurchase evaluation.
65. After purchasing a new Lexus, Pablo sees an Infinity pass by on the street and begins to wonder if he made the right choice. Pablo is experiencing
a) problem recognition.
b) cognitive dissonance.
c) internal search.
d) alternative evaluation.
e) framing.
66. After purchasing a product, postpurchase evaluation may result in cognitive dissonance. Cognitive dissonance is
a) the congruence between external and internal searches for product information.
b) a function of the manner in which the manufacturer of the product describes its attributes.
c) satisfaction with the purchase.
d) the establishment of criteria for comparing products.
e) doubts that occur because the buyer questions whether the decision to purchase the product was right.
67. The three major categories of influences on the consumer buying decision process are:
a) situational influences, demographic influences, and psychological influences.
b) social influences, situational influences, and marketer-dominated influences.
c) demographic influences, situational influences, and marketer-dominated influences.
d) situational influences, social influences, and psychological influences.
e) marketer-dominated influences, psychological influences, and person-specific influences.
68. The five categories of situational influences are:
a) product involvement level, physical surroundings, social surroundings, time perspective, and purchase reason.
b) antecedent states, physical surroundings, social surroundings, time perspective, and space dimensions.
c) social surroundings, physical surroundings, time pressures, purchase reason, and lifestyles.
d) purchase reason, time perspective, social surroundings, physical surroundings, and buyer’s momentary mood.
e) store atmosphere, location, aromas, sounds, and lighting.
69. Bob Turner makes an appointment to visit with a new dermatologist in town to determine whether he should have several moles on his neck removed. When he arrives at the dermatologist’s office, Bob notices a foul odor in the air, worn floor coverings, cluttered rooms that have paint peeling from the walls, and poor lighting. While Bob viewed the dermatologist as competent, Bob decided not to have the moles removed even though the dermatologist recommended removal. Which situational influences are most likely to have affected Bob’s decision?
a) Social surroundings
b) Customer’s momentary mood and condition
c) Time pressures
d) Purchase reasons
e) Physical surroundings
70. ___________ are situational influences that include the characteristics and interactions of others who are present when a purchase decision is being made, such as friends, relatives, and salespeople.
a) Physical surroundings
b) Social surroundings
c) Purchase reasons
d) Buyer’s momentary mood and condition
e) Pressures created by time factors
71. The primary psychological influences on consumer behavior are:
a) perception, motives, learning, attitudes, personality, and lifestyles.
b) attitudes, perception, retention, exposure, roles, and lifestyles.
c) attitudes, perception, social class, culture, and learning.
d) perception, motives, reference groups, social class, and personality.
e) lifestyles, personality, perception, motives, attitudes, and culture.
72. Perception is a three-step process that involves
a) motivation, personality, and attitudes.
b) classifying, recording, and eliminating information received through the senses.
c) collecting, eliminating, and organizing information inputs.
d) selecting, organizing, and interpreting information inputs.
e) anticipating, classifying, and discarding information inputs.
73. In the process of perception, individuals receive sensations through sight, sound, taste, smell, and hearing. These sensations are called
a) selective inputs.
b) olfactory receptors.
c) information inputs.
d) perceptual motives.
e) psychological influences.
74. Selective exposure refers to
a) targeting only certain parts of the total market.
b) admitting only certain inputs into consciousness.
c) the circumstances or conditions that exist when a consumer is making a purchase decision.
d) the process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting information inputs to produce meaning.
e) remembering inputs that support personal feelings and beliefs and forgetting those that do not.
75. As Brianna walks to classes, she selects, organizes, and interprets the sensations she is receiving through her sense organs. Brianna is experiencing the process of
a) exposure.
b) motivation.
c) learning.
d) attitude formation.
e) perception.
76. You are in the market for a new car and believe there are more car ads than usual on TV. Perhaps the need you have is driving which of the following phenomena?
a) perception.
b) selective exposure.
c) selective distortion.
d) cognitive dissonance.
e) selective retention.
77. If a consumer receives information that is inconsistent with her or his beliefs, the consumer may alter this information. This perceptual process is known as selective
a) exposure.
b) distortion.
c) retention.
d) information.
e) organization.
78. After certain inputs have been selected to reach an individual’s awareness, the next step in the perceptual process is perceptual
a) organization.
b) attention.
c) retention.
d) interpretation.
e) redefinition.
79. Maria reads through the newspaper fashion flyers containing advertisements for sweaters from Polo, purses from JC Penney, and tennis shoes from Foot Locker. She remembers only the shoe ad, thanks to the recent tear in her own Reeboks. Maria has engaged in selective
a) distortion.
b) decision making.
c) analysis.
d) retention.
e) reading.
80. When organizing perceptual inputs, people tend to mentally fill in missing elements in a pattern or statement. This principle is called
a) interpretation.
b) completion.
c) distortion.
d) closure.
e) linking.
81. Assignment of meaning to organized information inputs is called
a) motivation.
b) redefinition.
c) learning.
d) interpretation.
e) selection.
82. A salesperson at Best Buy tells Patrick Dunnavan that the Sony Notebook is one of the most reliable computer notebooks ever made. Patrick, however, has just heard about a second Sony recall for this model because of overheating. His most likely response will be to
a) buy the Sony.
b) forget the information from the salesperson.
c) ignore the recall as a fluke.
d) focus on positive aspects of the Sony.
e) cease shopping for a computer notebook at this time.
83. Consumers tend to remember information inputs that support their feelings and beliefs and forget inputs that do not. This is known as selective
a) exposure.
b) distortion.
c) retention.
d) information.
e) organization.
84. Which of the following statements about how a consumer organizes inputs that reach awareness is most accurate?
a) Inputs are organized by individuals to produce meaning, and this organizational process is usually a slow one.
b) Organization of information inputs is not always needed to produce meaning.
c) Inputs that reach awareness are organized and interpreted in much the same way by all consumers.
d) Because a person interprets information in terms of what is familiar, only one interpretation of organized inputs is possible.
e) Inputs that reach awareness are organized to produce meaning, and this meaning is interpreted in light of what is familiar to the individual.
85. Buyers’ actions are affected by one or more internal energizing forces geared toward satisfying needs, which are called
a) motives.
b) lifestyles.
c) perceptions.
d) attitudes.
e) traits.
86. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs refers to the five levels of needs that humans seek to satisfy, from most to least important. These needs, in order from most to least important are
a) psychological, physiological, safety, social, and esteem.
b) physiological, safety, esteem, social, and self-actualization.
c) physiological, psychological, safety, social, and esteem.
d) physiological, safety, social, and esteem, self-actualization.
e) physiological, esteem, safety, self-actualization, and psychological.
87. According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs,
a) individuals simultaneously try to satisfy all five levels of needs.
b) self-actualization needs are the most important needs to be met for most individuals.
c) individuals first address needs at the top of the pyramid and then move down to the lower level needs.
d) levels of needs are different for everyone, and we all try to satisfy them in a different order.
e) individuals first satisfy the most basic needs and then try to fulfill needs at the next level up.
88. Shortly after moving into their new home, Mark and Katherine Gould purchase and install smoke detectors and an alarm system. The Goulds are concerned about fulfilling their need for
a) survival.
b) safety.
c) self-actualization.
d) esteem.
e) belonging.
89. Jana now feels that her teeth are not white enough after seeing advertisements for whitening toothpaste. Marketers promote these brands based on ___________ needs, appealing to sex appeal.
a) physiological
b) esteem
c) self-actualization
d) psychological
e) social
90. People’s needs to grow, develop, and achieve their full potential are referred to by Maslow as ______ needs.
a) ego
b) esteem
c) self-actualization
d) social
e) safety
91. The U.S. Army recruits soldiers based on the slogan, “An army of one,” implying that people can reach their full personal potential in the U.S. Army. This is an appeal to what need according to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs?
a) Safety
b) Esteem
c) Self-actualization
d) Physiological
e) Social
92. Psychological influences that determine where a person purchases products on a regular basis are called
a) convenience responses.
b) patronage motives.
c) shopping motives.
d) pattern responses.
e) routine decisions.
93. Luis likes shopping at Stein Mart, a discount department store, because he likes the prices, products, and services the store provides. His selection of this store as a regular stop when shopping is influenced by ___________ motives.
a) self-concept
b) self-image
c) projective
d) depth
e) patronage
94. Changes in an individual’s thought processes and behavior caused by information and experience is called
a) learning.
b) attitude formation.
c) patronage motives.
d) personality.
e) motivation.
95. Marketers often provide consumers with experience to their products, including free samples and trial offers, to facilitate consumer
a) patronage motives.
b) attitudes.
c) perception.
d) distortion.
e) learning.
96. An attitude is
a) an internal trait that makes a person unique.
b) a set of actions that a person in a particular position is supposed to perform.
c) a competence in performing activities.
d) a person’s behavior caused by information and experience.
e) one’s evaluation, feelings, and behavioral tendencies toward an object or idea.
97. Having used both Secret and Sure deodorants, Annette feels that Secret is a good product and the one that best meets her needs. She has formed a(n) ___________ about Secret.
a) motive
b) consideration set
c) cognition
d) attitude
e) self-concept
98. Cognitive, affective, and behavioral are the three major components of
a) self-concept.
b) motives.
c) lifestyles.
d) consumer socialization.
e) attitudes.
99. What consumer research method consists of a series of adjectives, phrases, or sentences regarding an object, with subjects indicating the intensity of their feelings toward this object by reacting to these adjectives, phrases, or sentences?
a) Projective specification
b) Patronage clarification
c) Group interview
d) Attitude scale
e) Depth interview
100. Melanie prefers to shop at Target for most of her household needs even though the same products and brands are available at KMart. She prefers the service, location, and friendliness of the employees at Target. Melanie’s reasons that influence her decision to shop at Target are called
a) social needs.
b) learning processes.
c) patronage motives.
d) product attitudes.
e) retailer attitudes.
101. An attitude scale measures the
a) strength of a buyer’s need for a product.
b) buyer’s level of information about a product.
c) amount of experience the buyer has had with the product.
d) intensity of a buyer’s feelings toward a certain object.
e) intensity of a buyer’s desire for the product.
102. Changing people’s attitudes toward a firm and its marketing program is
a) simple when advertisements are used.
b) impossible, even if the firm uses advertisements.
c) a long, expensive, and difficult task that may require extensive advertising campaigns.
d) unnecessary, since consumer attitudes are of little importance.
e) rarely attempted through the use of marketing practice.
103. The results of many studies have been inconclusive regarding the association between buyer behavior and
a) personality.
b) perception.
c) motives.
d) social class.
e) learning.
104. Hereditary characteristics combined with personal experiences that together make an individual unique form one’s
a) self-concept.
b) attitudes.
c) lifestyle.
d) personality.
e) role.
105. The development of a person’s self-concept is a function of
a) learning.
b) psychological and social factors.
c) reference groups and opinion leaders.
d) roles and family influences.
e) subcultures.
106. Shane spends most of his free time participating in extreme sports and traveling to exotic locations with a group of close friends who share his interests and opinions about most things. This is a description of Shane’s
a) self-concept.
b) lifestyle.
c) personality.
d) attitudes.
e) role.
107. A consumer’s buying decisions are affected in part by the people around him or her. Such people and the forces they exert on an individual buyer are called
a) motivational influences.
b) social influences.
c) roles.
d) personality influences.
e) cultural influences.
108. The actions and activities associated with a position one holds within a group, organization, or institution constitute
a) personality.
b) a role.
c) a motive.
d) perception.
e) an attitude.
109. Jonathan is torn between buying a new swing set for his kids and buying a new set of Ping golf clubs for himself. Jonathan is experiencing
a) attitude formation.
b) belief assessment.
c) role inconsistency.
d) cognitive dissonance.
e) personality.
110. The forces that other people exert on one’s buying behavior are called social influences. These come from reference groups and opinion leaders, social classes, culture and subcultures, roles, and
a) ethnic heritage.
b) personality.
c) attitudes.
d) perception.
e) family.
111. Shaun is going shopping with his dad to buy his first baseball glove for Little League. He listens to his dad talk to the salesperson at the sporting goods store, watches him examine the stitching in the glove and then rub his finger over the leather palm. Shaun’s observations are part of his
a) consumer development.
b) attitude development.
c) purchasing evaluation.
d) consumer socialization.
e) consumer attitude.
112. Children often achieve ______ by observing parents and older siblings in purchase situations and then through their own purchase experiences.
a) consumer socialization
b) personality
c) role identification
d) social class
e) attitude formation
113. Jennifer is interested in joining Kappa Lambda Iota sorority. She begins to shop at Sarah’s, a local store where the Kappas buy their clothes. She also asks her family for a new car because all the sorority members have new cars. In these instances, Jennifer is influenced by
a) personality.
b) a reference group.
c) a consideration set.
d) a knowledge base.
e) a role conflict.
114. The three major types of reference groups are:
a) membership, aspirational, and advocacy.
b) advocacy, avoidance, and approach.
c) aspirational, disassociative, and membership.
d) actual, implied, and desired.
e) family, peer group, and media.
115. Marketers who attempt to use reference-group influence in advertisements are most likely to succeed when messages indicate that
a) people in a specific group buy the product and are highly satisfied by it.
b) reference groups should be of little concern to the consumer.
c) reference groups are “in” and everyone should belong to at least one.
d) all products and brands are influenced by reference groups.
e) people in a specific group have tried the product and dislike it.
116. A group becomes a reference group for an individual when that person identifies with this group so strongly that he or she
a) takes on many of the values, attitudes, or behaviors of group members.
b) becomes a formal member of the group.
c) becomes familiar with the group’s activities.
d) seeks information from members of the group regarding buying decisions.
e) cannot control the strength of his or her involvement with the group.
117. Which one of the following is most likely to be a product for which both the purchasing decision and the brand decision are strongly influenced by reference groups?
a) Canned peaches
b) Instant coffee
c) Jeans
d) Furniture
e) Soap
118. An opinion leader is likely to be most effective under all of the following conditions except when the
a) follower has high product involvement.
b) follower has low product knowledge.
c) follower has values and attitudes similar to the opinion leader.
d) product details are numerous and complicated.
e) follower has attitudes and values that are different from those of the opinion leader.
119. Katie is buying her first car and has narrowed her choices down to a Honda Civic, a Toyota Prius, or a Volkswagen Jetta. Katie goes on-line and posts questions to others who have experience with any of these cars, asking for reviews. Katie is most likely
a) using a blog.
b) an opinion leader.
c) using her reference groups for information.
d) experiencing enduring involvement.
e) exerting social influence.
120. Which of the following statements regarding social class is true?
a) A social class is a closed aggregate of people with similar social ranking.
b) The criteria used to group people into social classes do not vary from one culture to another.
c) A social class is an open aggregate of people with similar social ranking.
d) A social class is a ranking of people by other members of society into positions of social respect.
e) A social class is an open aggregate of people with different social rankings.
121. An open aggregate of people with similar social ranking is referred to as a
a) reference group.
b) social class.
c) role.
d) caste.
e) subculture.
122. Our society uses many factors, including occupation, educational level, income, wealth, religion, race, ethnic group, and possessions, to group people into
a) family types.
b) geographic regions.
c) reference groups.
d) social classes.
e) attitudinal segments.
123. According to Coleman’s major social class categories, which of the following social classes in our culture has these characteristics: lives in well-kept neighborhoods, likes fashionable items, and is often found in management positions?
a) Lower class
b) Upper class
c) Middle class
d) Working class
e) First class
124. According to Coleman’s major social class categories, the social class in our society that favors prestigious schooling, neighborhoods, and brands is the
a) upper class.
b) middle class.
c) upper-lower class.
d) working class.
e) lower class.
125. According to Coleman’s social class categories, the social class that includes approximately 40 percent of the population, shops for bargains, and buys sports and recreational equipment is the
a) upper class.
b) middle class.
c) first class.
d) working class.
e) lower class.
126. A culture can be divided into subcultures according to
a) personality characteristics of individuals in that culture.
b) motives that members of that cultural group have for their behavior.
c) geographic regions or human characteristics, such as age or ethnic background.
d) income levels.
e) information to which consumers allow themselves to be exposed.
127. Market researchers for a local bakery determined that Jewish people consume 63 percent of the portion of bagels sold in New York City. This is an example of ___________ influence on consumer buying decision processes.
a) demographic
b) situational
c) subcultural
d) role
e) social class
128. Which American subculture spends the highest proportion of its income on utilities, footwear, children’s apparel, groceries, and housing?
a) Native Americans
b) Hispanics
c) African Americans
d) Asian Americans
e) Americans over 65 years of age
129. Which of the following is the fastest growing, most affluent subculture in the United States?
a) African Americans
b) Hispanics
c) Asian Americans
d) Native Americans
e) Italian Americans
130. The type of problem solving that consumers use to select an auto repair shop would normally be
a) intensive problem solving.
b) extended problem solving.
c) routinized response behavior.
d) selective problem solving.
e) limited problem solving.
131. A dissatisfied Skola’s Auto Repair customer told a friend about his experience. The friend has been a long-time Skola’s customer and the next day, didn’t remember what her friend told her. This is an example of
a) perceptive perception.
b) selective exposure.
c) selective distortion.
d) receptive exposure.
e) selective retention.
132. The change in Steve’s behavior toward Skola’s Auto Repair, caused by the company’s response to his complaint, is a function of
a) perception.
b) motivation.
c) attitudes.
d) learning.
e) influence.
133. Positive feelings generated by satisfaction with Skola’s response will become part of Steve’s
a) personality.
b) motives.
c) social class.
d) role.
e) attitude.
134. The fact that Alicia had remembered the gas mileage of the Toyota Sienna incorrectly is most likely an example of
a) selective expression.
b) selective retention.
c) perceptual extension.
d) perceptual bias.
e) selective distortion.
135. Carlos’ knowledge of the correct gas mileage is an example of the ____ component of his attitude toward the Toyota, while Alicia’s feelings about the children in the commercial being happy in the Toyota van were an example of the _____ component of her attitude.
a) cognitive; affective
b) cognitive; behavioral
c) affective; cognitive
d) affective; behavioral
e) behavioral; affective
136. Toyota’s production of commercials that featured Hispanic actors and the Spanish language is an example of marketing to
a) cultural self-concepts.
b) social classes.
c) subcultures.
d) roles.
e) social strata
137. Since Alicia and Carlos were using gas mileage as one of their evaluative criteria, they are most likely in the ______ phase of the consumer buying process.
a) problem recognition
b) external search
c) evaluation of alternatives
d) purchase
e) post-purchase