Marketing Ch5/Ch8

Culture
values, beliefs, preferences, and tastes handed down from one generation to the next
Sub cultures
groups with their own distinct modes of behavior.
Asch Phenomenon
named after psychologist S.E. Asch, who first documented characteristics of individual behavior.
Norms
are the values, attitudes, and behaviors a group deems appropriate for its members.
roles
define behavior that members of a group expect of individuals who hold specific positions within that group.
reference groups
people or institutions whose opinions are valued and to whom a person looks for guidance in his or her own behavior, values, and conduct, such as spouse, family, friends, or celebrities.
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Opinion Leaders
trendsetters who purchase new products before others in a group and then influence others in their purchases.
Need
Imbalance between a consumer’s actual and desired states
Motive
Inner state that directs a person toward the goal of satisfying a need.
Perception
meaning that a person attributes to incoming stimuli gathered through the five senses.
Perceptual screens
the mental filtering processes through which all inputs must pass
Subliminal perception
the subconscious receipt of incoming information.
Attitudes
person’s enduring favorable or unfavorable evaluations, emotions, or action tendencies toward some object or idea.
Learning
Knowledge or skill acquired as a result of experience, which changes consumer behavior.
Drive
is any strong stimulus that impels action
response
an individual’s reaction to a set of cues and drives
Reinforcement
the reduction in drive that results from a proper response.
Shaping
the process of applying a series of rewards and reinforcements to permit more complex behavior to evolve
Self-concept
Person’s multifaceted picture of himself or herself.
High-involvement purchase decisions
Purchases with high levels of potential social or economic consequences are:
Low-involvement purchase decisions
Routine purchases that pose little risk to the consumer are:
Evoked set
Number of alternatives a consumer actually considers in making a purchase decision.
Evaluative cr4iteria
Features a consumer considers in choosing among alternatives
Cognitive dissonance
Imbalance among knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes that occurs after an action or decision, such as a purchase.
Routinized response behavior
routinely choosing a preferred brand or on of limited group of acceptable brands
Limited problem-solving
Introduction of a new shampoo is an example of:
Extended problem solving
when brands are difficult to categorize or evaluate.
Marketing research
process of collection and using information for marketing decision making
Full-service research supplier
an organization that contracts with clients to conduct complete marketing research projects is:
Limited-service research supplier
a firm that specializes in a limited number of activities
Syndicated service
an organization that regularly provides a standardized set of data to all customers is called:
Exploratory research
process of discussing a marketing problem with informed sources both within and outside the firm and examining information from secondary sources.
sales analysis
provides important details to management
hypothesis
a tentative explanation for some specific event
research design
to test hypotheses and find solution to marketing problems a marketer creates:
Secondary data
previously published information
Primary data
information collected for a specific investigation
Sampling
process of selecting survey respondents or research participants
Population/Universe
the total group of people the researcher wants to study is called?
Probability sample
is on that gives every member of the population a chance of being selected.
simple random sample
every member of the relevant universe has an equal opportunity of selection.
Stratified sample
randomly selected sub samples of different groups are represented in the total sample
cluster sample
researchers select a sample of subgroups from which they draw respondents
non probability sample
relies on personal judgment somewhere in the selection process.
Convenience sample
a non-probability sample selected from among readily available respondents
Quota sample
is a non probability sample divided to maintain the proportion of certain characteristics among different segments or groups seen in the population as a whole.
Interpretative research
a method in which a researcher observes a customer or group of customer in their natural setting and interprets their behavior base on an understanding of the social and cultural characteristics of that setting.
Focus group
Personal interview of a small group of individuals that relies on group discussion about a certain topic
Mall intercepts
interview conducted in a mall
Marketing information system
is a planned, computer-based system designed to provide decision makers with a continuous flow of information relevant to their areas of responsibility
MDSS marketing decision support system
marketing information system component that links a decision maker with relevant databases and analysis tools
Sales forecasting
estimate of a firm’s revenue for a specified future period
Qualitative forecasting
rely on subjective data that reports opinions rather than exact historical data
Quantitative forecasting
use statistical computations such as trend extensions based on past data, computer simulations, and econometric models
jury of executive opinion
combines and averages the outlooks of top executive from such areas as marketing, finance, production, and purchasing.
Delphi Technique
solicits opinions from several people, but it also gather input form experts outside the firm, such as academic researchers, rather than relying completely on company executives
Sales force composite
develops forecasts base on the belief that organization members closest to the marketplace- those with specialized product, customer, and competitive knowledge- offer the best insights concerning short-term future sales.
survey of buyer intentions
gathers input through mail-in questionnaires, online feedback, telephone polls and personal interviews to determine the purchasing intention of a representative group of present and potential customers.
Trend analysis
forecasts for future sales by analyzing the historical relationship between sale and time.
Exponential smoothing
weighs each year’s sales data, giving weight to results from the most recent years.