values, beliefs, preferences, and tastes handed down from one generation to the next
groups with their own distinct modes of behavior.
named after psychologist S.E. Asch, who first documented characteristics of individual behavior.
are the values, attitudes, and behaviors a group deems appropriate for its members.
define behavior that members of a group expect of individuals who hold specific positions within that group.
people or institutions whose opinions are valued and to whom a person looks for guidance in his or her own behavior, values, and conduct, such as spouse, family, friends, or celebrities.
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trendsetters who purchase new products before others in a group and then influence others in their purchases.
Imbalance between a consumer’s actual and desired states
Inner state that directs a person toward the goal of satisfying a need.
meaning that a person attributes to incoming stimuli gathered through the five senses.
the mental filtering processes through which all inputs must pass
the subconscious receipt of incoming information.
person’s enduring favorable or unfavorable evaluations, emotions, or action tendencies toward some object or idea.
Knowledge or skill acquired as a result of experience, which changes consumer behavior.
is any strong stimulus that impels action
an individual’s reaction to a set of cues and drives
the reduction in drive that results from a proper response.
the process of applying a series of rewards and reinforcements to permit more complex behavior to evolve
Person’s multifaceted picture of himself or herself.
High-involvement purchase decisions
Purchases with high levels of potential social or economic consequences are:
Low-involvement purchase decisions
Routine purchases that pose little risk to the consumer are:
Number of alternatives a consumer actually considers in making a purchase decision.
Features a consumer considers in choosing among alternatives
Imbalance among knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes that occurs after an action or decision, such as a purchase.
Routinized response behavior
routinely choosing a preferred brand or on of limited group of acceptable brands
Introduction of a new shampoo is an example of:
Extended problem solving
when brands are difficult to categorize or evaluate.
process of collection and using information for marketing decision making
Full-service research supplier
an organization that contracts with clients to conduct complete marketing research projects is:
Limited-service research supplier
a firm that specializes in a limited number of activities
an organization that regularly provides a standardized set of data to all customers is called:
process of discussing a marketing problem with informed sources both within and outside the firm and examining information from secondary sources.
provides important details to management
a tentative explanation for some specific event
to test hypotheses and find solution to marketing problems a marketer creates:
previously published information
information collected for a specific investigation
process of selecting survey respondents or research participants
the total group of people the researcher wants to study is called?
is on that gives every member of the population a chance of being selected.
simple random sample
every member of the relevant universe has an equal opportunity of selection.
randomly selected sub samples of different groups are represented in the total sample
researchers select a sample of subgroups from which they draw respondents
non probability sample
relies on personal judgment somewhere in the selection process.
a non-probability sample selected from among readily available respondents
is a non probability sample divided to maintain the proportion of certain characteristics among different segments or groups seen in the population as a whole.
a method in which a researcher observes a customer or group of customer in their natural setting and interprets their behavior base on an understanding of the social and cultural characteristics of that setting.
Personal interview of a small group of individuals that relies on group discussion about a certain topic
interview conducted in a mall
Marketing information system
is a planned, computer-based system designed to provide decision makers with a continuous flow of information relevant to their areas of responsibility
MDSS marketing decision support system
marketing information system component that links a decision maker with relevant databases and analysis tools
estimate of a firm’s revenue for a specified future period
rely on subjective data that reports opinions rather than exact historical data
use statistical computations such as trend extensions based on past data, computer simulations, and econometric models
jury of executive opinion
combines and averages the outlooks of top executive from such areas as marketing, finance, production, and purchasing.
solicits opinions from several people, but it also gather input form experts outside the firm, such as academic researchers, rather than relying completely on company executives
Sales force composite
develops forecasts base on the belief that organization members closest to the marketplace- those with specialized product, customer, and competitive knowledge- offer the best insights concerning short-term future sales.
survey of buyer intentions
gathers input through mail-in questionnaires, online feedback, telephone polls and personal interviews to determine the purchasing intention of a representative group of present and potential customers.
forecasts for future sales by analyzing the historical relationship between sale and time.
weighs each year’s sales data, giving weight to results from the most recent years.