managers articulate a clear organizational vision for the organization’s members to accomplish, and they energize and enable employees so everyone understands the part he or she plays in achieving organizational goals.
measure of the appropriateness of the goals that managers have selected for the organization to pursue and the degree to which the organization achieves those goals.
managers identify and select appropriate organizational goals and courses of action; they develop strategies for how to achieve high performance.
measure of how productively resources are used to achieve a goal.
manager who evaluates the performance of other managers in different tasks and takes corrective action to improve their performance
include the general ability to understand, alter, lead, and control the behavior of other individuals and groups.
Human Skills
group of employees who assume collective responsibility for organizing, controlling, and supervising their own work activities.
Self-Managed Team
At the base of the managerial hierarchy are first-line managers, often called
specific set of departmental skills, knowledge, and experience that allows one organization to outperform another
Core Competency
The amount of time managers spend planning and organizing resources to maintain and improve organizational performance ____________ as they ascend the hierarchy
job-specific skills required to perform a particular type of work or occupation at a high level
Technical Skills
managers evaluate how well the organization is accomplishing goals
creation of a new vision for a struggling company using a new approach to planning and organizing to make better use of a company;s resources and allow it to survive and eventually prosper
Turnaround Management
____________ ___________ supervise first-line managers
Middle Managers
informs employees about changes taking place in the external and internal environment
_____ _____________ have cross-departmental responsibility
Top Managers
The __________ a manager’s position in hierarchy, the more time she spends in leading and controlling first-line managers or non managerial employees
Who advocated to establish a fair or acceptable level of performance for a task, and then develop a pay system that rewards performance above the acceptable level.
F.W. Taylor
According to Henri Fayol, esprit de corps refers to:
shared feelings of comradeship, enthusiasm, or devotion to a common cause among members of a group.
_________ _________ found that the performance of the factories in which workers specialized in only one or a few tasks was much greater than the performance of the factory in which each worker performed all the tasks.
Adam Smith
What is an example of a company’s standard operating procedure?
A compulsory practice of employees cleaning their work areas at the end of each day
Administrative management is the study of:
how an organizational structure is to be created such that it leads to high efficiency and effectiveness
_____ refers to a system where small workshops run by skilled workers produce hand-manufactured products.
Crafts production
A person performing above the work group performance norm
According to Henri Fayol, discipline refers to:
Stability of tenure of personnel
____________ has a clearly specified system of task and role relationships
The _______ ______ __ _________ _______ is that there is no one best way to organize.
Crucial Message of Contingency Theory
If authority is very ___________, only managers at the top make important decisions and subordinates simply follow orders.
the power to hold people accountable for their actions and to make decisions concerning the use of organizational resources.
According to Fayol, the _______ the levels in the managerial hierarchy of an organization, the faster the pace of planning and organizing.
The use of ________ ________ ________ led workers to hide the true potential efficiency of the work setting to protect their own well-being.
Scientific Management Practices
Managers in an __________ structure can react more quickly to a changing environment than can managers in a mechanistic structure.
a system of task and authority relationships that controls how employees use resources to achieve a company’s goals.
Organizational Structure
_____ is the performance gain caused by two or more departments coordinating their efforts
What is consistent with the principles of scientific management?
Increase job specialization in order to make the production process more efficient.
___________ ___________ ________ focuses on the use of rigorous quantitative techniques to help managers.
Management Science Theory
____________ ____________ _____________ raised many concerns, including the ethical issue of the definition of workers’ rights, not by the workers themselves but by the owners or managers.
Scientific Management Practices
_____ refers to the concentration of authority at the top of the organizational chart instead of being distributed throughout the managerial hierarchy.
idea that the organizational structures and control systems managers choose depend on characteristics of the external environment in which the organization operates.
Contingency Theory
singleness of purpose that makes possible the creation of one plan of action for the organization
Unity of Direction
______ are unwritten, informal codes of conduct that prescribe how people should act in particular situations.
What revelation from different research studies came to be known as the Hawthorne effect?
Workers’ productivity being affected more by the attention received from researchers than by the work setting
According to Henri Fayol, initiative refers to:
the ability to act on one’s own without direction from a superior.
If an organization has a profit-sharing plan in which employees are able to purchase the company’s stock at a discount whenever the organization makes huge profits, then this organization follows Fayol’s principle of:
Remuneration of Personnel
According to ________ ___, it is the manager’s task to create a work setting that encourages commitment to organizational goals and provides opportunities for workers to be imaginative and to exercise initiative and self-direction.
Theory Y
Obedience to a manager’s authority is most consistent with Fayol’s principle of:
The principle of _____ ____ ________ specifies that an employee should receive orders from, and report to, only one superior.
unity of command
An open system:
takes in resources from its external environment and converts them into goods that are then sent back to that environment for purchase by customers.
The power to hold workers accountable for their actions and to make decisions about the use of organizational resources is known as:
___________ ______________ produces huge cost savings in large organized work settings.
Scientific Management
According to Taylor, the production process becomes more efficient with:
an increase in division of labor through specialization.
In a mechanistic structure,
Employees are closely supervised and follow well-defined rules and standard operating procedures.
_________ ____ assumes employees are not inherently lazy, do not naturally dislike work, and, if given the opportunity, will do what is good for the organization.
Theory Y
Managers who accept the assumptions of Theory Y:
create a work setting that encourages commitment.
When managers rely too much on rules to solve problems and not enough on their own skills and judgment, their behavior becomes ____________.
In ___________ __________ authority is decentralized to middle and first-line managers to encourage them to take responsibility and act quickly to pursue scarce resources.
organic structure
In a ___________ _________ ___ _____________, obedience is owed to a manager not because of any personal qualities—such as personality, wealth, or social status—but because the manager occupies a position that is associated with a certain level of authority and responsibility.
Bureaucratic System of Administration
As a result of the application of scientific management principles, workers became __________ _____________.
increasingly dissatisfied
A ______ _____ ________ study involves the careful timing and recording of the actions taken to perform a particular task.
Henri Fayol’s approach to administration more closely reflects the assumptions of _________ ___
Theory Y
The idea that workers should be aware of how their performance affects the performance of the organization as a whole is most consistent with Fayol’s principle of:
subordination of individual interests to the common interest.
If a manager designs the organizational hierarchy based on the characteristics of the organizational environment, he is acting in accordance with _____.
Contingency Theory
_____ refers to the tendency of a closed system to lose its ability to control itself, and thus disintegrate.
_____ have the right to expect a good return or reward by investing their human capital to improve a company’s performance.
Managers who sell their stock in advance of other stockholders because they know that their company’s performance is about to fall demonstrate the _____ approach to social responsibility.
The standards that govern how members of a profession should conduct themselves are called ____________ ethics.
The stakeholder group with the most responsibility for deciding the goals of the organization are:
The managers of Lehman Brothers, whose bankruptcy helped propel the 2008-2009 financial crisis, used loopholes in U.K. law to hide billions of dollars of worthless assets in its balance sheet to disguise its poor financial condition. Which of the following approaches to social responsibility is illustrated from this example?
Managers at Enron prevented employees from selling Enron shares in their pension funds while they sold hundreds of millions of dollars’ worth of their own Enron stock. The illustrates the _____ approach to social responsibility.
Under the ___________ _________, managers should determine fair rules and procedures for distributing outcomes to stakeholders.
justice rule
The people and groups affected by how a company and its managers behave are called its ______________
Jim is comfortable with his decision and would have no problem with people reading about it on the front page of a morning paper. This indicates that he is following the __________ _________
practical rule
Under the _____ rule, an ethical decision is one that best maintains people’s fundamental privileges.
When faced with an ethical dilemma as a manager, Sam tries to reflect back on his upbringing to decide between right and wrong. Sam is reflecting on _______ ________.
individual ethics
Dianna has noticed that there has been an error in her weekly pay stub and the company has unknowingly paid her too much. This example illustrates a(n) _________ ________.
ethical dilemma
The guiding practices and beliefs through which a particular firm and its managers view their responsibilities to stakeholders are called ____________ __________.
organizational ethics
_______________ include stockholders, managers, employees, suppliers and distributors, customers, and community, society, and nation-state.
What is true about stockholders?
They have a claim on a company because when they buy its stock or shares they become its owners.
When Bob was calculating the yearly bonuses for his employees, he paid particular attention to the individual employee scores to ensure that they were based on performance and not favoritism. Which ethical rule was Bob following?
__________ is the esteem or high repute that people or organizations gain when they behave ethically, is an important asset
Web sites like Napster that allow free downloading of songs and movies illustrate the “tragedy of the commons” because pursuit of self interest only destroys societal interest.
The president at Protector’s Insurance takes pride in the fact that his organization strives to behave legally and ethically. The company advocates an approach that tries to balance the interests of different stakeholders in relation to the claims of other stakeholders. What approach to social responsibility is the organization implementing?
When tobacco companies sought to hide evidence that cigarette smoking causes lung cancer, they were exhibiting a(n) _____ approach to social responsibility.
Under the __________ rule, an ethical decision is that which creates the greatest good for the greatest number of people.
A company demonstrating its social responsibility helps it build a good _____.
________ ________ are thoughts and feelings that tell people what is right or wrong.
Moral Scruples
Steve has noticed that there has been an error in his weekly pay stub and the company has unknowingly paid him too much. Steve is pondering about whether to report this issue or not. This is an example of an ethical dilemma.
Stockholders play a crucial role in determining a company’s ethics.
Bryan is the manager of a company which has been judged as having the best corporate reputation for two years in a row, based on a survey of country-wide consumers. This company is well known for its:
ethical culture
Which of the following stakeholder group’s individual ethics are important in shaping the organizational code of ethics?
According to the _____ approach, companies and their managers behave legally and ethically and try to balance the interests of different stakeholders as the need arises.
When making business decisions, managers must consider the claims of stockholders exclusively.
Which of the following statements is true of the practical rule of ethical decision making?
This rule ensures that managers will take into account the interests of all the stakeholders.
Which of the following statements is true about ethics?
Laws change to reflect the changing ethical beliefs of a society.
Which of the following statements is true about the role of organizational culture?
Ethics ombudspeople can provide guidance when organizational members are uncertain about whether an action is ethical.
An obstructionist approach displays the highest level of social responsibility.
Under the practical rule, a manager would not be reluctant to communicate a decision to people outside the company when:
a typical person would consider the decision acceptable.
Which of the following statements is true of stakeholders and ethics?
The failure of a company can have catastrophic effects on a community since a general decline in business activity can affect a whole nation.
Under the moral rights rule, an ethical decision is one that distributes benefits and harms among people and groups in an equitable way.
The practical rule states that an ethical decision is one that:
can be communicated with no reluctance.
Companies that go out of their way to learn about the needs of different stakeholders and use organizational resources to promote their interests are using the _____ approach.
A company that expects its managers to behave ethically to the degree that they stay within the law is acting with a(n) _____ approach.
The way a company’s managers view their duty to make decisions that enhance the well being of stakeholders is called organizational ethics.
David is trying to provide a visible means of support to develop an ethical culture in his company. He can do so by creating:
an ethics ombudsperson position.
The local communities in which an organization operates are seldom considered as stakeholders of the organization.
The standards that govern how members of a profession should conduct themselves are called organizational ethics.
_____ companies are often at the forefront of campaigns for causes such as a pollution-free environment; recycling and conservation of resources; the minimization or elimination of the use of animals in drug and cosmetics testing; and the reduction of crime, illiteracy, and poverty.
_______________ is a formal system of organization and administration designed to ensure efficiency and effectiveness developed by Max Weber
_____ are systematic tendencies to use information about others in ways that result in inaccurate perceptions.
Two male managers exchange a lewd sexual joke in the presence of a female manager. This is an example of:
a hostile work environment.
Employees’ promotions based on their performance evaluations, independent of ethnicity, age, or gender is known as:
distributive justice.
Justin, a human resources manager for XYZ Company, commits 5% of the annual budget toward instituting a new program that rewards employees for effectively handling diversity. Justin is playing the role of a(n) _____.
What is diversity?
Differences among people due to age, gender, race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, socioeconomic background, and any other characteristic that is used to distinguish between people.
Which act requires that men and women be paid equally if they are performing equal work?
Equal Pay Act
What is the salience effect?
It is the tendency to focus attention on individuals who are conspicuously different from us.
Which of the following is true of managing diversity?
Effective management of diversity can increase profitability and employee retention
Which of the following is true of perception?
The effects of perception lead to different interpretations in the area of diversity.
ALT Inc. conducts periodic reviews to assess the extent to which law firms support diversity in their activities. It uses this information to decide which law firms would be most suitable to represent it legally. This is an example of effective:
diversity management.
As the branch manager of Missouri Bank, Jim is responsible for informing staff members about changes in diversity policies. Jim plays the role of a _____ in handling diversity.
Which of the following is a guideline for managers to evaluate employees?
Ensure that performance standards are not vague
Whenever Lisa goes to the warehouse to pick up time sheets, she is confronted with whistles and lewd comments from male co-workers, both of which make her uncomfortable. What type of environment is this?
Hostile work environment
The management of St. Richard’s, a school in Texas, receives Martin’s application for a teacher’s job. A background check reveals that Martin is gay. Martin’s application is rejected on this account. The management at St. Richard’s is influenced by:
Which of the following is a step to manage diversity effectively?
Empower employees to challenge discriminatory behaviors
Annie assigns interesting job assignments to employees based on their contribution to the company. Which principle is Annie’s action consistent with?
Distributive justice
In addition to prohibiting discrimination in employment, the Civil Rights Act of 1991:
allows for the awarding of punitive and compensatory damages.
In the _____ role, a manager conveys that the effective management of diversity is a valued goal and objective.
_____ are composed of simplistic and often inaccurate beliefs about the typical characteristics of particular groups of people.
_____ refers to a grouping of people based on some shared characteristic such as national origin, language, or culture.
Which of the following is a way to effectively manage diversity?
Insisting that even suppliers support diversity
Which of the following is an aim of distributive justice within an organization?
to ensure that outcomes are not distributed based on a person’s personal characteristics like race or age
Which of the following helps managers increase diversity awareness in an organization?
Improving understanding of others who are different from oneself
What is a schema?
Abstract knowledge structure which enables a person’s interpretation and organization of information about a person, event or situation.
The success of fast-food restaurants in diverse markets can be attributed to relatively accurate _____ of managers
When a manager asks a subordinate for sexual favors in return for a promotion, what type of sexual harassment has occurred?
Quid pro quo
Which principle dictates that managers should receive a raise in pay based upon their contributions to the organization, and not based on their gender?
Distributive justice
All decisions and actions of managers are based on their _____ ___________ .
subjective perceptions
Which of the following helps ensure that diversity is managed effectively in an organization?
Securing top management commitment
One result of effectively managing diversity is a(n) _____.
reduction in turnover rates
What is perception?
It is the process through which people select, organize, and interpret sensory input.
What is the social-status effect?
It is the tendency to perceive individuals with a higher position in social hierarchy more positively than we perceive those with a lower position in social hierarchy.
Which of the following is the right approach to eradicating sexual harassment?
Organizations should develop and clearly communicate a sexual harassment policy.
As the manager of Taylor Construction, Scott created a policy that required all subcontractors to submit monthly reports to show the percentage of work that was completed by their diverse employees. This is an example of:
managing diversity
What is overt discrimination?
Knowingly and willingly denying diverse individuals access to opportunities and outcomes in an organization
Which of the following helps managers respond to the differing needs of diverse employees while enabling those employees to be effective contributors to an organization?
Not feeling threatened by different approaches and perspectives
Which of the following is true of the salience effect?
Individuals who are salient are often perceived to be primarily responsible for outcomes.
Overt discrimination is:
intentional and deliberate.
The supervisor of medical billing at a hospital has established a rubric that helps her make objective decisions when promoting employees in her department. Which principle is the supervisor’s actions based on?
Procedural justice
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination:
in employment decisions on the basis of race, religion, sex, color, or national origin.
JRC Inc., a consumer-electronics firm based in Atlanta, is opening another manufacturing unit besides its existing one. The top-management involves female representatives in the design team to take care of any concerns that female employees may have. This is an example of:
managing diversity
A fair complaint procedure to investigate charges of sexual harassment should ensure that:
the alleged harassers are fairly treated.
Which of the following is true of schemas?
People tend to pay attention to information that is consistent with their schemas
A manager in the leader role manages diversity in an organization by:
serving as a role model and instituting policies and procedures to ensure that diverse members are treated fairly.
Middle managers are responsible for:
finding the best way to use resources to achieve organizational goals.
Which of the following is true of top managers?
They have cross-departmental responsibility.
The importance of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling remains the same irrespective of a manager’s position in the managerial hierarchy.
SkyGen, an airlines company, appointed an engineer to be the link between the company’s R&D department and the government contractor who is sponsoring the designing and prototyping of a new fighter airplane. According to Mintzberg, the engineer appointed by SkyGen to be the link between the company’s R&D department and the government contractor is playing the role of a _____.
Which of the following is a characteristic of first-line managers?
They are responsible for daily supervision of the nonmanagerial employees.
IT cannot be used to empower employees as it decreases the scope of their job responsibilities.
Leading is the process that mangers use to select the goals for the organization.
Modern IT’s ability to improve efficiency has decreased the incidence of downsizing in recent years.
Which of the following is true of first-line managers?
They work in all departments or functions of an organization.
An organization’s competitive advantage does not derive from departmental skills.
The job-specific skills required to perform a particular type of work or occupation at a high level are called conceptual skills.
Human skills are innate and cannot be learned.
At a recent staff meeting, Jim was praised by his CEO for always choosing the right goals to pursue. The quality that Jim displays here is efficiency.
First-line managers typically supervise middle managers.
Controlling is the managerial task that involves
taking any corrective actions needed to maintain or improve performance.
Bob was recently promoted to the position of manager of the engineering division in his company because of his knowledge and his ability to perform all the functions required in his field. In this instance, Bob was promoted because of his _____ skill.
A low-cost strategy allows an organization to attract customers by selling goods of inferior quality at a very low price.
Which of the following tasks does a manager perform when he/she energizes employees and enables them to understand the part he/she plays in achieving organizational goals?
Which of the following is a primary concern of top managers?
Deciding which goods a company should produce
According to Mintzberg’s typology, a manager who commits organizational resources to develop innovative goods and services is a(n) _____.
_____ involves encouraging all employees to perform at a high level to help the organization achieve its vision and goals.
_____ is the managerial task that involves managers using their power, personality, influence, persuasion, and communication skills to coordinate people and groups so their activities and efforts are in harmony.
In a bureaucratic system of administration, obedience owed to a manager depends on his or her personal qualities such as personality and social status.
The use of scientific management practices led workers to hide the true potential efficiency of the work setting to protect their own well-being.
According to Weber, in a bureaucracy, people should occupy positions because of their social standing and personal contacts.
Assessing any manager’s authority and responsibility in a system of dual command is easier than it is in a system where unity of command exists.
Scientific management practices allowed workers to define their own rights
_____ refers to the tendency of a closed system to lose its ability to control itself, and thus disintegrate
Standards that determine how people view their responsibilities to others and how they should act in situations when their own self-interest is at stake are called _____.
individual ethics
WorldCom gave managers stock options and bonuses even when the company performance was declining, and managers sold their stock in advance of other stockholders. This illustrates the _____ approach.
According to Weber, in a bureaucracy, people should occupy positions because of their social standing and personal contacts.