Management, 3e (Hitt) Chapter 9 Motivation

The motivational forces that come from a person are called “pull” or external forces.
FALSE
The category of motivational forces that relates to both internal and external forces focuses on the characteristics of a person’s job or task.
TRUE
Need hierarchy and acquired needs content theories focus on the identification of external factors of motivation, while the two-factor content theory focuses on identifying internal factors of motivation.
FALSE
Within the context of Maslow’s need hierarchy, a program that allows employees to “make a difference” in their communities may satisfy their physiological needs.
FALSE
The essence of Maslow’s need hierarchy is that individuals take a “top down” approach to satisfying their needs.
FALSE
Unlike Maslow’s need hierarchy theory, Alderfer’s ERG theory asserts that different levels of needs may be active at the same time.
TRUE
David McClelland’s theory of acquired needs focuses on the inborn needs for power, achievement, and affiliation and how those needs become activated over time.
FALSE
Frederick Herzberg asserts that hygiene factors and motivators are equivalent.
FALSE
The job characteristics model developed by two organizational scientists, J. Richard Hackman and Greg Oldham, emphasizes core job characteristics, such as skill, variety, and task significance.
TRUE
Task significance is the degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities in carrying out the work.
FALSE
The task significance theory predicts the methods that dissatisfied employees will use to remedy their feelings that others are “doing better” than they are
FALSE
Vroom’s expectancy theory focuses on the thought processes people use when they consider alternatives, particularly alternative courses of action.
TRUE
Vroom’s expectancy theory states that the three key variables, effort, performance, and outcome, interact in an additive manner to determine the amount of effort people will choose to expend on a particular task
FALSE
Self-efficacy is the tendency for one to take more credit for success than failure.
FALSE
Vicarious learning involves gaining knowledge by observing how others successfully perform a task and then modeling one’s own behavior in a similar manner.
TRUE
It is unlikely that a manager can positively influence the self-efficacy of subordinates
FALSE
Goal-setting is a simple panacea for motivating increased performance suitable for all occasions and in all types of situations.
FALSE
Positive reinforcements used to motivate people in organizational settings are said to be equitable if they have some capacity to affect future performance.
FALSE
Both positive reinforcements and extinctions maintain or increase particular types of behavior and performance
FALSE
Managers can use the principle of extinction to their advantage by deliberately not reinforcing employee behavior that they consider undesirable.
TRUE
A potential hazard of the unintended use of extinction is that it can leave the interpretation of important situations in the hands of employees rather than under the control of the manager.
TRUE
In countries and cultures with strong collectivist tendencies, the individual is likely to be influenced by the “in-group”; that is, the group to which he or she belongs.
TRUE
Subordinates can influence the motivation of their superiors through their ability to punish behavior by subtly withholding rewards.
TRUE
A key issue related to work centrality is the subordination of personal goals to the goals of a group.
FALSE
) ________ is the set of forces that energize, direct, and sustain behavior.
A) Motivation
B) Acculturation
C) Empowerment
D) Socialization
A) Motivation
Which of the following is a “push” force of motivation?
A) availability of training and job status
B) preset goals for completing a task
C) rewards and compensation
D) pressure for high levels of output
B) preset goals for completing a task
Which of the following is an external motivational force?
A) goals
B) needs
C) attitudes
D) rewards
D) rewards
Which of the following motivational forces relates to both internal and external forces?
A) amount of direct feedback
B) attitudes toward a job
C) availability of training
D) needs for security
A) amount of direct feedback
Characteristics of the individual is considered an ________.
A) external or pull force that focuses on what happens outside the work setting
B) internal or push force that focuses on what the employee brings to the work setting
C) external or pull force that focuses on what happens to the individual
D) internal or push force that focuses on what the person does in the work setting
B) internal or push force that focuses on what the employee brings to the work setting
Characteristics of a work situation is considered an ________.
A) external or pull force that focuses on what happens outside the work setting
B) external or pull force that focuses on what happens to the individual
C) internal or push force that focuses on what the employee brings to the work setting
D) internal or push force that focuses on what the person does in the work setting
B) external or pull force that focuses on what happens to the individual
Characteristics of a person’s job is considered an ________.
A) internal and external force that focuses on what the person does outside the work setting
B) internal or push force that focuses on what happens to the individual
C) internal and external force that focuses on what the person does in the work setting
D) external force that focuses on what the employee brings to the work setting
C) internal and external force that focuses on what the person does in the work setting
________ focus on the needs a person is trying to satisfy and the features of the work environment that seem to satisfy those needs.
A) Process theories
B) Content theories
C) Situational theories
D) Contingency theories
B) Content theories
Which of the following is a content theory of motivation?
A) social cognitive theory
B) Vroom’s expectancy theory
C) Herzberg’s two-factor theory
D) equity theory of motivation
C) Herzberg’s two-factor theory
To begin motivating an apathetic associate, a manager informally questions her about her satisfaction with her job’s ability to provide safety, social interaction, self-respect, and opportunities for growth. What theory of motivation is this manager most likely trying to apply in working with the associate?
A) Maslow’s need hierarchy
B) Vroom’s expectancy theory
C) Herzberg’s two-factor theory
D) McClelland’s acquired needs theory
A) Maslow’s need hierarchy
Which of the following is a process theory of motivation?
A) Vroom’s expectancy theory
B) Maslow’s need hierarchy
C) McClelland’s acquired needs theory
D) Herzberg’s two-factor theory
A) Vroom’s expectancy theory
Which of the following categories is included in the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs?
A) existence
B) relatedness
C) physiological needs
D) growth
C) physiological needs
A well-known bank providing health insurance and retirement benefits to all its employees is concerned about the ________ needs of its employees.
A) social
B) physiological
C) esteem
D) security
D) security
According to Maslow’s need hierarchy, which of the following needs relate to the need for self-respect and respect from other people?
A) safety needs
B) esteem needs
C) social needs
D) self-actualization needs
B) esteem needs
In Maslow’s need hierarchy, the ________ need relates to an individual’s need to be personally fulfilled and to develop one’s unique talents to their highest possible levels.
A) esteem
B) social
C) safety
D) self-actualization
D) self-actualization
According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, which of the following needs includes the need for the basic essentials of life, such as water, food, and shelter?
A) physiological needs
B) social needs
C) psychological needs
D) safety needs
A) physiological needs
A plant manager in a small factory wants to raise workforce morale. Upon inquiry, she finds out that the working conditions at the plant are safe, clean, and pleasant and that recent expansion of the workforce has assured employees of job security. Which of the following actions should the manager take to ensure that the “belongingness” needs in Maslow’s hierarchy are satisfied?
A) pay bonuses to workers who achieve specified goals
B) publicly praise those workers who have been most productive
C) set up after-work activities, such as a softball team, to allow more social interaction
D) arrange training sessions to boost the skills of workers who show talent in a particular area
C) set up after-work activities, such as a softball team, to allow more social interaction
The three basic categories of needs identified by Alderfer in his ERG theory are ________.
A) existence, relatedness, and goal
B) existence, recognition, and growth
C) existence, relatedness, and growth
D) esteem, relatedness, and goal
C) existence, relatedness, and growth
McClelland, in his acquired needs theory, considered ________ needs to be extremely important.
A) esteem, achievement, and recognition
B) affiliation, power, and achievement
C) existence, power, and growth
D) existence, relatedness, and growth
B) affiliation, power, and achievement
McClelland’s acquired needs theory asserts that managers who work with high-need achievers typically should ________.
A) expect them to take extreme risks
B) assign extremely difficult tasks to them
C) not provide any feedback on their performance
D) assume they will take personal responsibility for their actions
D) assume they will take personal responsibility for their actions
________ is a motivation theory that focuses on the presumed different effects of intrinsic job factors and extrinsic situational factors.
A) Herzberg’s two-factor theory
B) Vroom’s expectancy theory
C) McClelland’s acquired needs theory
D) Maslow’s need hierarchy
A) Herzberg’s two-factor theory
According to Frederick Herzberg, ________ are elements associated with conditions surrounding the job and are not directly related to the doing of a job.
A) hygiene factors
B) motivators
C) economic factors
D) environmental factors
A) hygiene factors
A manager wishes to improve the job performance of a group of clerical workers. Based on Herzberg’s theory, ________ would be an appropriate motivator.
A) providing them with a better health care plan
B) setting up a break room where coworkers could socialize
C) offering them opportunities for achievement and recognition
D) redecorating their offices so that they are pleasant and comfortable
C) offering them opportunities for achievement and recognition
While they agree that satisfaction is a factor in motivation, scholars note that there is little evidence that increasing employee satisfaction actually increases motivation. This has led them to criticize the ________ as being overly simplistic.
A) equity theory
B) expectancy theory
C) two-factor theory
D) hierarchy of needs theory
C) two-factor theory
________ focuses on core job attributes, critical psychological states, and expected outcomes.
A) The equity model
B) The expectancy model
C) The two-factor model
D) The job characteristics model
D) The job characteristics model
________ involves increasing the complexity of a job to provide a greater sense of responsibility, accomplishment, and achievement.
A) Job rotation
B) Job enrichment
C) Job evaluation
D) Positive reinforcement
B) Job enrichment
Whereas ________ focus on which variables affect motivation, ________ focus on how the variables affect motivation.
A) content theories; process theories
B) process theories; content theories
C) equity theories; expectancy theories
D) goal-setting theories; reinforcement theories
A) content theories; process theories
________ is a motivation theory proposing that individuals will compare their circumstances to those of others and that such comparisons may motivate certain kinds of behavior.
A) Expectancy theory
B) Social cognitive theory
C) Equity theory
D) Herzberg’s two-factor theory
C) Equity theory
Angela is an HR manager at Hard Rock Cafe. She is responsible for recruiting employees and training them, organizing work space for new employees, overseeing employee relations counseling and exit interviews, developing and implementing HR policies and procedures, and reviewing annual performance. This is an example of ________ according to the job characteristics model.
A) task significance
B) skill matrix
C) task identity
D) skill variety
D) skill variety
According to the job characteristics model, ________ is defined as the degree to which a job has a substantial impact on the lives of other people.
A) autonomy
B) task identify
C) task significance
D) skill variety
C) task significance
According to the job characteristics model, ________ is defined as the degree to which carrying out the work activities required by the job provides the individual with direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance.
A) task significance
B) feedback from the job
C) autonomy
D) task identify
B) feedback from the job
According to the job characteristics model, ________ is the degree to which a job provides substantial freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out.
A) task significance
B) autonomy
C) feedback from the job
D) task identity
B) autonomy
Harry, a finance manager of an IT company, devises a new child education benefit plan to partly sponsor the primary education of their employees’ children. Within the context of the job characteristics model, this is an example of ________.
A) autonomy
B) task identity
C) skill variety
D) task significance
D) task significance
Within the context of the job characteristics model, a company’s intranet linking all the R&D scientists, allowing them to post their ideas and propose solutions at any hour of the day, whether at the office, at home, or on the road, is an example of ________.
A) autonomy
B) task significance
C) skill variety
D) task identity
A) autonomy
Within the context of the job characteristics model, the event manager, handling all the plans for the annual executive retreat and attending the retreat and receiving information on its success from the participants, is an example of ________.
A) skill variety
B) task identity
C) autonomy
D) task significance
B) task identity
Hackman and Oldham proposed that ________ is the degree to which a job requires the completion of a “whole” and identifiable piece of work.
A) autonomy
B) skill variety
C) task identity
D) task significance
C) task identity
Within the context of the job characteristics model, ________ is involved when a machine designer knows that her schematics are correct as very few are rejected by the machine shop.
A) skill variety
B) task identify
C) task significance
D) feedback from the job
D) feedback from the job
________ asserts that individuals are likely to compare the ratios of inputs to outcomes they receive against the ratios of other people, such as colleagues or acquaintances.
A) Acquired needs theory
B) Equity theory
C) Expectancy theory
D) Two-factor theory
B) Equity theory
According to equity theory, if the ratio of an employee’s outcomes to his/her inputs is equal to the ratio of another employee’s outcomes to inputs then the employee is motivated to ________.
A) do nothing
B) increase his own outcomes
C) change the referent
D) reevaluate the other employee’s inputs
A) do nothing
The basic components of ________ are effort, performance, and outcomes.
A) equity theory
B) goal-setting theory
C) expectancy theory
D) social cognitive theory
C) expectancy theory
A software engineer believes that if she can complete her current project on time she will get her much awaited promotion to the ranks of a team leader. However, she doubts her capability of completing the project on time. Within the context of expectancy theory, what level of motivation would the engineer have and why?
A) very high, since the level of expectancy and the level of valence are both high
B) moderately high, as high levels of valence and instrumentality offset low expectancy levels
C) moderate, since high levels of expectancy and high levels of valence will be balanced by the low level of instrumentality
D) low, since the expectancy, instrumentality, and valence of the outcome must all be high for motivation
D) low, since the expectancy, instrumentality, and valence of the outcome must all be high for motivation
Expectancy theory asserts that ________ or performance-to-outcome is the probability that a particular level of performance will lead to particular outcomes or consequences.
A) expectancy belief
B) profitability belief
C) associability belief
D) instrumentality belief
D) instrumentality belief
According to expectancy theory, valence, outcome, and performance interact in a multiplicative way to determine ________.
A) the cost of a particular course of action
B) the projected results of a particular task
C) the anticipated value of a particular outcome
D) the amount of effort a person will expend on a particular task
D) the amount of effort a person will expend on a particular task
________ is a process theory that, in part, describes how to increase an individual’s sense of self-efficacy, thus increasing motivation.
A) Equity theory
B) Vroom’s expectancy theory
C) Social cognitive theory
D) Herzberg’s two-factor theory
C) Social cognitive theory
________ is the extent to which a person believes he or she can accomplish a given task in a specific situation.
A) Self-indulgence
B) Self-esteem
C) Self-image
D) Self-efficacy
D) Self-efficacy
Self-efficacy is roughly the equivalent of ________ expectancy in the expectancy theory.
A) effort-to-performance
B) performance-to-valence
C) performance-to-outcome
D) effort-to-outcome
A) effort-to-performance
From an expectancy theory perspective, a manager who wanted to boost motivation levels would be least likely to ________.
A) identify rewards that are valued
B) limit praise to encourage hard work
C) dispense rewards directly following particular levels of performance
D) strengthen employees’ beliefs that their efforts will lead to valued rewards
B) limit praise to encourage hard work
Albert Bandura’s social cognitive theory defines ________ as succeeding on a similar prior task and attributing that success to one’s own capabilities rather than to luck or circumstances.
A) enactive mastery experience
B) psychological arousal
C) vicarious learning
D) verbal persuasion
A) enactive mastery experience
Albert Bandura’s social cognitive theory defines ________ as gaining knowledge by observing how others perform a task and then modeling one’s own behavior in a similar manner.
A) enactive mastery experience
B) vicarious learning
C) verbal persuasion
D) psychological arousal
B) vicarious learning
Albert Bandura’s social cognitive theory defines verbal persuasion as ________.
A) potential energizing forces that can increase self-efficacy beliefs if the focus is directed to the task
B) gaining knowledge by observing how others perform a task and then modeling one’s own behavior in a similar manner
C) statements from others that convince a person that he or she can successfully perform the task
D) succeeding on a similar prior task and attributing that success to one’s own capabilities rather than to luck or circumstances
C) statements from others that convince a person that he or she can successfully perform the task
Albert Bandura’s social cognitive theory defines physiological and psychological arousal as ________.
A) gaining knowledge by observing how others perform a task and then modeling one’s own behavior in a similar manner
B) statements from others that convince a person that he or she can successfully perform the task
C) succeeding on a similar prior task and attributing that success to one’s own capabilities rather than to luck or circumstances
D) potential energizing forces that can increase self-efficacy beliefs if the focus is directed to the task
D) potential energizing forces that can increase self-efficacy beliefs if the focus is directed to the task
________ is a theory that emphasizes the role of conscious aim and intentions in directing human actions.
A) Goal-setting theory
B) Expectancy theory
C) Equity theory
D) Social cognitive theory
A) Goal-setting theory
A call center manager hopes to improve the performance of her staff by decreasing the average time spent on a call. First, she sets up a performance board where the average length of a call for the previous week is posted and compared to the average call length for the preceding four weeks. Then, she encourages the staff to reduce the average. According to goal-setting theory, how could she improve this scheme?
A) She should make the goal easier.
B) She should make the goal more specific.
C) She should make the goal more general.
D) She should make the goal incomprehensible.
B) She should make the goal more specific.
Goal-setting research suggests that people will exert higher levels of effort when goals are ________.
A) easy and general
B) challenging and specific
C) very difficult to attain and specific
D) moderately easy to attain and general
B) challenging and specific
________ is a desirable consequence that, by occurring or being supplied following a behavior, increases the likelihood of that behavior being repeated in the future.
A) Positive reinforcement
B) Omission training
C) Negative reinforcement
D) Extinction
A) Positive reinforcement
Shortly after Christmas, a catalog company is besieged by complaints of poor service, so a task force designs an incentive plan to motivate associates to fill orders more quickly and more accurately. For the proposed incentive plan to be successful, which of the following positive reinforcement strategies should be used?
A) The rewards should be visible only to the associates who receive it.
B) The size of rewards should be roughly related to the quality of past job-related performance.
C) The catalog company should talk about or offer rewards that are not readily available.
D) The possibility of obtaining rewards should be limited to only a small percentage of associates.
B) The size of rewards should be roughly related to the quality of past job-related performance.
Walter works in the cutting department of a shoe manufacturing company. The workers in the department are required to cut out the skin of leather into pieces of various shapes using metal strip knives. This operation requires a high level of skill so as to avoid wastage of leather. Walter’s working standards have reduced since the last 2 months. His supervisor approaches him to discuss his substandard performance. To avoid this confrontation again, Walter tries to achieve the required standards. Which of the following is most similar to the given scenario?
A) Robin, an employee at Blueberry Interiors, stops making uninvited suggestions as he realizes that they are constantly being ignored.
B) Following poor grades in his school exams, Frank’s teacher requests a meeting with his parents. This causes Frank to work harder for better grades.
C) Gary, an employee at a denim manufacturing company, receives a bonus for achieving the monthly production quota. This motivates him to try and increase his productivity even further.
D) Roger feels highly motivated following an interview with his manager, who praised his project report.
B) Following poor grades in his school exams, Frank’s teacher requests a meeting with his parents. This causes Frank to work harder for better grades.
Which of the following will increase the probability that people will repeat a behavior?
A) extinction and punishments
B) extinction and positive reinforcements
C) positive reinforcements and punishments
D) positive and negative reinforcements
D) positive and negative reinforcements
A sales representative is informed by his supervisor that if he exceeds his sales for the last quarter by 20 percent then some of his more difficult clients will be transferred to another sales representative. The supervisor strongly believes that the transfer will help him achieve past sales targets in the subsequent years. This is an example of ________.
A) extinction
B) punishment
C) negative reinforcement
D) positive reinforcement
C) negative reinforcement
Jessica, a team leader at Hifenac Corp., has portrayed her managerial skills by successfully motivating each of her team members to perform exceedingly well. The exceptional performance of her team prompts the management to increase her team size and assign her new projects. Soon, however, management observes that this additional responsibility adversely affects Jessica’s performance and the productivity of the new team is not as impressive. Which of the following is most similar to the scenario discussed above?
A) Laura convinces her management to hire more people for her team so that they can reduce their project turnaround time.
B) Workers at a brewery are subjected to loss of pay for uninformed absence. This eventually reduces absenteeism and improves production.
C) A sales manager with a good past sales record is assigned a larger sales territory. However, he fails to deliver as expected.
D) Declining productivity at one of its plants caused the Sigma Group to hire Dan Wilkinson as the new production manager on account of his excellent performance record. Dan is, however, unable to improve the plant’s performance.
C) A sales manager with a good past sales record is assigned a larger sales territory. However, he fails to deliver as expected.
A production supervisor receives a bonus for each day a project is completed ahead of schedule. This is an example of ________.
A) extinction
B) negative reinforcement
C) positive reinforcement
D) omission training
C) positive reinforcement
When a manager uses ________ to lessen the likelihood of a behavior being repeated, he or she avoids providing any positive consequences as a result of that behavior.
A) extinction
B) reversibility
C) enactive mastery
D) negative reinforcement
A) extinction
A shift manager at a fast-food restaurant is using ________ when she fines a habitually tardy crew member the equivalent of one hour’s pay each day he is late for work.
A) extinction
B) punishment
C) negative reinforcement
D) employment psychology
B) punishment
The manager of a steel manufacturing company is using ________ when he stops raising output quotas each time workers exceed them.
A) positive reinforcement
B) extinction
C) negative reinforcement
D) omission training
D) omission training
David stops making unsolicited suggestions when his team leader no longer mentions them in group meetings. David’s behavior is most likely due to ________.
A) extinction
B) positive reinforcement
C) punishment
D) negative reinforcement
A) extinction
Which of the following is a step in a program that systematically applies the principles of reinforcement theory to motivate employees?
A) measure desired behaviors and evaluate the effectiveness of the program
B) describe desired performance in broad, general terms
C) limit the possibility of obtaining rewards only to a small percentage of employees
D) avoid providing frequent positive consequences for specified desired behaviors
B) describe desired performance in broad, general terms
The direction of a group’s influence on the motivation of an individual in that group will likely depend on ________ of the group.
A) the norms
B) the cohesion
C) the mission
D) the valence
A) the norms
From a manager’s perspective, in-group influence ________ when the in-group’s norms oppose organizational norms.
A) decreases motivation
B) increases motivation
C) neutralizes motivation
D) eliminates motivation
A) decreases motivation
Scholarly research has defined ________ as the degree of general importance that working has in the life of an individual at a point in time.
A) expectancy
B) self-efficacy
C) work centrality
D) positive reinforcement
C) work centrality