Mall Culture Critical Essay
Ch-1.Overview Of Malls 1.1.
Shopping Malls In Mumbai The tremendous hike in the number of shopping malls in Mumbai is the direct result of globalization. In its march towards the ‘Global Village’, the shopping malls are providing Mumbai with the gusto to move still further. The shopping malls can be said to be the outcome of the class conscious citizens who prefers sophisticated environs for shopping. In fact, the mushrooming of the international brands in India, has also created the need of multifarious shopping malls to emerge. Mumbai’s shopping mall – emerged amidst the bustle of the city.
It exhibits a wide range of accessories from clothing to foot-wear, crockery to books; the shopping malls of Mumbai contains all and sundry of the household chores. Now-a-days, with the growing trend of window shopping, the shopping malls always stay vibrant with many kinds of people pouring into the malls throughout the day. Children come to the shopping malls to enjoy – as the malls keeps the latest versions of the video-games, teenagers come here to keep abreast with the prevalent trend; whereas the adults come here to really shop for their necessities.
Being the major center of commerce, the shopping malls of Mumbai are the best place to study the crowd of a city or a town. Here we can find people trying different kinds of outfits in front of the mirror, or loitering throughout the mall in search of a favorite commodity. In the shopping malls , we find people from different backgrounds joining in for the same cause, viz. shopping! Shopping malls in Mumbai are known as the paradise of style and fashion. From dress materials, accessories swim suites, to branded apparels and life style equipments, these shopping malls cater to the multi-pronged needs of the customers.
To update about and provide the people of Mumbai the trendiest deliverables the shopping malls come with an endless line of daily use products as well as goods that are exclusively made for special occasions. The shopping malls of Mumbai are of different nature. While some are life style stores, some others are superstores. The most prominent shopping malls that don the fashion fiesta of Mumbai are: ? R mall in Mulund – a just blend of entertainment, shopping and dining, the place houses multiplex, pub, restaurant, Pizza Hut and a kids’ gaming station ?
Inorbit mall in the western suburb – a shopping site dealing with cosmetics, appliances, garments and furniture, the place houses a four-screen multiplex | ? Hypercity mall in Malad Link road – with a super market and computer and computer accessories shops the two storied mall is famous for tech equipments ? Atria mall in Malad – a five-storied structure, the mall is the place of national and international brands, gaming section, bowling alley and food joints ? Crossroads mall – with a sprawling 1, 50, 000 sq ft of area, the centre houses four buildings and is popular for expensive branded apparels ?
Phoenix mall – the place is full of big names like McDonalds, Pantaloons, Provogue, Adidas and Reebok ? Nirmals in Mulund – apart from Pantaloons and Shoprite Hyper, the place accommodates many small retail shops ? Metro-Junction in Kalyan – dealing in an infinite range both Indian and non-Indian brands this one has food zone, parlors and music stations With plans of many more upcoming centers, Mumbai is surely all set to become a bustling hub of magnificent and awesome shopping malls. Ch-2. Methodology Issues 2. 1. Research Objectives To conduct in-depth study on consumers’ buying behaviour in a mall.
To know the relation between income pattern and shopping in the mall. To know what the average consumer prefers to buy today. To gain an insight and get into the psyche of the consumer. To prepare report based on a field survey of 50 people, mostly in Ulhasnagar city. To be practical in the field of Marketing Research. To become a part of this industry in future. * To gain information regarding consumers monthly income, general buying preferences, visiting preferences and expectations regarding anything specific in the mall. 2. 2. Research Object Hypothesis
A Hypothesis is a specific statement of prediction. It describes in concrete terms what we expect will happen in our study. We define a proposition as a statement about observable phenomena (concepts) that may be judged as true or false. When a proposition is formulated for empirical testing. It is called as HYPOTHESIS. Hypotheses have also been described as statements in which we assign variables to cases. There are two types of hypotheses: 1. Descriptive Hypotheses 2. Relational hypotheses Descriptive hypothesis: Descriptive Hypothesis states the existence, size, form or distribution of some variable.
Descriptive Hypotheses format has many benefits: * It encourages researchers to crystallize their thinking about the likely to be found. * It encourages them to think about the implications of a supported or rejected finding. * It is useful for testing statically significance. Relational Hypotheses: These are statements that describe a relationship between two variables with respect to some cases. In this hypothesis we have two interpretations. The first interpretation indicates a co relational relationship; the second indicates an explanatory, or causal, relationship.
Correlation Hypotheses state that the variables occur together in some specified manner without implying that one causes the other. Such weak claims are often made when we believe there are more basic causal forces that affect both variables or when we have not developed enough evidence to claim a stronger linkage. In research, a hypothesis serves several important functions: * It guides the direction of the study. * It identifies facts that are revelant and those that are not. * It suggests which form of research design is likely to be most appropriates.
It provides a framework for organizing the conclusions that result. Null Hypothesis:- The simplistic definition of the null is as the opposite of the alternative hypothesis, H1, although the principle is a little more complex than that. The null hypothesis is a hypothesis which the researcher tries to disprove, reject or nullify.The ‘null’ often refers to the common view of something. Alternative hypothesis:- Is what the researcher really think is the cause of a phenomenon. An experiment conclusion always refers to the null, rejecting or accepting H0 rather than H1.
Despite this, many researchers neglect the null hypothesis when testing hypotheses, which is poor practice and can have adverse effects. H0:- Shopping in Mall ; consumer Income are not related. H1:- Shopping in Mall ; Consumer Income are related. 2. 3. Description Of Concept A shopping mall or shopping centre is one or more buildings forming a complex of shops representing merchandisers, with interconnecting walkways enabling visitors to easily walk from unit to unit, along with a parking area – a modern, indoor version of the traditional marketplace. Shopping Malls are gradually taking places of Parks for younger generation.
They go hand in hand, sit in some cafe and spend time. For companies, it allows to feature their brand and lure the younger generations to aspire for their products. The concept of Shopping malls is quite popular in India as one gets everything from top to bottom under one roof , with an excellent ambience of style and elegance , having potential to make one feel to shop . 2. 4. Scope Of Study The following report is an in-depth study on consumers’ buying behaviour in a mall. Primary data, which is the feedback received directly from the consumers, is collected, sorted and converted into statistical form.
The outcome so obtained is then analysed and possible conclusions are drawn. These conclusions help in knowing what the average consumer prefers to buy today. Conversely it helps in understanding what his dislikes are too. Whether the product to be launched gains acceptance in the mind of the consumer depends to quite an extent on the Research Report. It helps us gain an insight and get into the psyche of the consumer so we can design more and more products and services which are best suitable to his needs. Not only will this help in making more profits but also in enhancing consumer loyalty – a boon in today’s competitive world.
The findings of the report are based on a field survey of 50 people, mostly in Ulhasnagar city. Although it may not give an exact idea of the buying behaviour of every consumer, it does give a peek into the mind of the general preferences of the conservationalist, the average and the spend-thrift consumer. 2. 5. DATA COLLECTION Data refers to a collection of natural phenomena descriptors, including the results of experience, observation or experiment, or a set of premises. This may consist of numbers, words, or images, particularly as measurements or observations or a set of variables. PRIMARY DATA: Primary source is used to collect initial material during the research process. Primary data is the data that the researcher collects himself using methods such as surveys, direct observations, interviews as well as logs. Primary data is reliable way to collect data because the researcher will know where it came from and how it was collected and analyzed since he did it himself. Primary sources of information allow the learner to access original and unedited information. A primary source requires the learner to interact with the source and extract information.
Primary data can be gathered by following methods: 1. Surveys 2. Questionnaires 3. Observations 4. Experiments We have collected the primary data with the help of Questionnaire. Questionnaire are usually are in written format that the respondent completes. * SECONDARY SOURCES: The Secondary Sources of data includes books, magazines, journals, internet news articles ; also various websites. These books were collected from various libraries like our college library, Indian Merchant Chambers and also the British Library. The journals ; publications were also collected from the same sources.
Some sort of secondary data was also gathered by visiting to Retail Stores where I was provided with various brochures ; magazines. * 2. 6. Research Method ; Technique FIELD INVESTIGATION / SURVEY METHOD Meaning Survey means a planned attempt to collect required information from representative sample of the relevant population. Field investigation means collecting first hand information by actually visiting markets or meeting consumers and dealers who are directly related to marketing activities. Data collected for the first time through field survey is called primary data.
Here, data collected through suitable questionnaire and interview a limited number of people selected from large group. Customer, creditor and supplier are major source of primary data. The primary data collected are superior to secondary data. Primary data are also necessary when the secondary data are incomplete. Primary data needed to be collected from different sources such as survey, observation and experimentation. The primary data are reliable. However, problem in primary data is its cost, both in term of money and time required for collection. Primary data are of two types:- ) Census:- It refers to the collection of data from the entire population. In India population census is taken after every 10 years. b) Sample:- sampling is an internal part of data collection through surveys. Sampling is used to collect primary data when sources of data are too many to be exhaustively handled. A sample is only representative portion of the population. Methods of field investigation/market survey a) Mail surveys . b) Telephone surveys. c) Personal interview. d) Consumer panels. Field investigation is one of the widely used MR methods. Field investigation is important as they are more accurate and unreliable.
Here, direct communication is a established with the consumers and information is collected by asking relevant question. Naturally the information collected is accurate, first hand and factual. The conclusion drawn from such data are more accurate and reliable. ; Technique A survey was undertaken in some of the busiest areas in Ulhasnagar – Banks, Colleges, Coaching Classes, Retail Stores (Reliance Fresh, Patel Low Price), Gajanand Market, Siru Chowk, Sec-17, Shivaji Chowk and Camp No 4 ; 5. Consumers were approached directly and presented with a questionnaire hich was designed to gain information regarding their monthly income, general buying preferences, visiting preferences and expectations regarding anything specific in the mall. Once all this data was collected, it was then sorted out and statistically analysed. A graph of each aspect contained in the questionnaire was made so as to get an exact percentage of the findings. Conclusions, based on the outcome, hereby obtained were drawn and decisions were taken about the probable buying behaviour of the average consumer. 2. 7. Types Of Research Exploratory research:-
The objective of exploratory research is to gather preliminary information that will help problems ; suggest hypothesis. Exploratory research is a type of research conducted because a problem has not been clearly defined. Exploratory research helps determine the best research design, data collection method ; selection of subjects. Given its fundamental nature exploratory research often concludes that a perceived problem does not actually exist. Through exploration we develop concepts more clearly, establish priorities, develop operational definition ; improve final research design.
Exploratory research is useful for the study of marketing problems about which sufficient information/details are not available. Exploratory study needs to be flexible in its approach. This genre of research simply allows the marketer to gain a greater understanding of something that he/she doesn’t know enough about. For example, just because we know that 3G phones exist, it doesn’t necessarily mean that we understand how they work. Exploratory research can help in this instance. Differing mainly in design from descriptive research, exploratory research is used principally to gain a deeper understanding of something.
The design is far more flexible and dynamic than that of descriptive research. Ch. 3. Significance Of Study Research originates with a question or problem, require clear articulation of a goal. It follows a specific plan or procedure ; often divide main problem into sub-problem. It is guided by specific problem, question, or hypothesis. It excepts certain critical assumptions, procedure require collection at interpretation of data and is cyclical in nature, research is systematic process of collecting ; analysing information in order to increase our understanding of the phenomenon about which we are concerned or interested.
The research is done on consumer behaviour and income pattern of the people and shopping at malls. The research signifies the importance of consumer perception and attitude while shopping at mall depending upon the income pattern under changing lifestyle. The research has been done towards the changing societial behaviour of the people. Consumer orientation to marketing research means making research activities pro-consumers rather than pro-manufacturer. It also means giving more importance to consumers and their satisfaction, expectations, needs, etc. and not merely to sales promotion and profit to the manufacturer.
Such orientation is essential as consumer is the centre of all marketing activities and his satisfaction is the base or basic consideration in modern business. The consumer orientation to MR is the result of modern concept of marketing which is basically different from the traditional concept of marketing. It is consumer oriented and service oriented. As a result in the marketing research activities special attention is now given to consumers. All research activities are for making marketing useful, agreeable and acceptable to consumers. This is what is described as consumer orientation of MR.
Research activities are now made pro-consumer rather than pro-manufacturer. The importance of consumer is now accepted not only MR but also in all aspect of business management. In fact consumer is the most important person in business. He is the king and should be treated accordingly. All production and marketing activities are for meeting his needs and also for raising satisfaction and welfare. He is the cause and purpose of business activities. Finally, modern business is not profit oriented but consumer-oriented or service-oriented. All these arguments are equally applicable to MR. n other words, MR activities move around the consumer and his satisfaction. Ch. 4. Review Of Literature 1. Ampa had initiated an extensive research study with Hansa Research, one of India’s most respected market research agencies. The study covered consumer preferences and acceptance of the mall. The research findings: * An overwhelming 91% of all respondents would like to visit the mall * 70% said they would make a purchase on their first visit. * Indian consumers point out that accessibility, wide product and brand range, entertainment and eating options and parking are the key parameters for choosing a mall.
Ampa Mall meets all these requirements. 2. As per the report of AC Nielsen’s Retail and Shopper Trends 2004 the shopper’s bhavioue in India is as follows: * Indian shoppers spend an average of INR2500 on food, groceries and personal care items every month * Convenience stores are booming in most markets, as the number of such stores exceeds 80,000. Ch. 5. Data Analysis & Interpretation Poll Results 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 20-25 25-30 30-35 35 & above Age Demographics From the above graph, we can observe that out of 50 people visiting a mall: * 19 are in the age of 20-25 12 are in the age of 25 – 30 * 9 are in the age of 30 – 35 * 10 are in the age of 35 and above. Interpretation: Majority of people are in the age of 20 – 25 in the weak days which can be college students people in the remaining age group includes nomal working persons attracting them on weakends. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 10th Passed HSC Passed Graduate Post Graduate Educational Background From the above graph, we can observe that out of 50 people visiting a mall: * 11 people are 10th passed * 17 people are HSC passed * 18 are graduate 4 are post-graduate Interpretation: It is observed that people who are more educated have preferences and tastes which are quite different from others who are less educated. It is observed that 10th passed and HSC passed people tend to copy the lifestyle led by most of the well-educated people. This is because of the simple reason that with education comes class. From the above graph, we can observe that out of 50 people visiting a mall: * 10 people are students * 19 people are from service class * 15 people are from business category 6 people are not specified Interpretation: * 10 out of 50 people are students are the often visitors the malls and are mostly attracted towards clothes and accesories. * 19 out of 50 as they are from service class, they visit mall during national holidays or weakends. * 15 out of 50 have the potential of becoming profit-earning consumers for the mall. * 6 out of 50 are from the others category, so their behaviour is unexpected. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 No. of People Below 5000 5000-15000 15000-25000 25000 and above Income (Rs. ) Monthly Income
From the above graph, we can observe that out of 50 people visiting a mall: * 9 people have a monthly income below Rs. 5000 * 12 between Rs. 5000 – Rs. 15000 * 15 between Rs. 15000 – Rs. 25000 * 14 have Rs. 25000 and above Interpretation: * 9 out of 50 people cannot afford to make any significant purchases in a mall. * 12 out of 50 can afford to buy goods affordable to the lower middle-class. * 15 out of 50 have the potential of becoming profit-earning consumers for the mall. * 14 out of 50 have the ability to pay for expensive goods. 1Women Men 0 10 20 30 40 Gender Demographics
From the above graph, we can observe that out of 50 people visiting a mall: * 29 are men * 21 are women Interpretation: Contrary to popular belief, men are doing the shopping in today’s world! From the above graph, we can observe that out of 50 people visiting a mall: * 49 visit mall * 1 refused to visit mall Interpretation: Maximum numbers of people visit a mall. Frequency of Visit 22 13 7 5 3 Monthly Quarterly Fortnightly Weakly Others From the above graph, we can observe that out of 50 people visiting a mall: * 22 visit monthly * 13 visit quarterly * 7 visit fortnightly 5 visit weakly * 3 not specified Interpretation: Maximum numbers of people visit a mall on a quarterly and monthly basis. Purpose of Visit 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Shopping Watching Movies Get Together Window Shopping Others From the above graph, we can observe that: * 34 go for shopping * 13 go for watching movies * 11 for get-togethers * 6 for window Shopping * 4 for other reasons Interpretation: Maximum number of people visit a mall for shopping purposes. A staggering second comes watching movies. It has also been observed that there are people who visit for multiple purposes.
This is the target audience, the people who are useful from the profit-making point of view. Products Shopped For 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Clothes & Accessories Electronics Groceries Others From the above graph, we can observe that out of 50 people visiting a mall: * 26 shop for clothes and accessories * 10 shop for electronic goods * 4 for groceries * 21 for other items. Interpretation: Clothes and accessories clearly top the list in consumer buying preference in a mall. Other items such as toiletries, chocolates, canned foods, wafers etc. are preferred by a considerable amount of people.
Electronic goods and groceries are not much of a hit in a mall. 0 05 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Branded Goods Unbranded Goods Buying Preference From the above graph, we can observe that out of 50 people visiting a mall: * 40 shop for Branded Goods * 10 for Non-Branded Goods Interpretation: The average consumer prefers buying Branded Goods as far as he/she can. Since the standard of living has risen, people associate brands with status in society. If this consumer is provided with recognised brands within his budget, it can be a very profitable business.
This is what Peter England tried to do. 0 05 10 15 20 25 Reasonable Unreasonable No Comments Prices Charged From the above graph, we can observe that out of 50 people visiting a mall: * 24 people think prices are reasonable * 18 think they are unreasonable * 8 can’t say. Interpretation: As far the prices are concerned, it is observed that a majority of people think that prices charged in a mall are reasonable. Though it is purely subjective, at the end of the day the average consumer must feel that he/she has got more than his/her value for money. Only then can malls flourish.
From the above graph, we can observe that out of 50 people visiting a mall: * 30 people feel they get value for money * 11 feel they don’t * 9 Can’t Say Interpretation: Majority of people feel they get value for money in a mall. The satisfaction level of shoppers, is therefore, highest in a mall. From the above graph, we can observe that out of 50 people visiting a mall: * 43 would visit a mall even if it’s far away from their residence * 5 would not * 2 Can’t Say. Interpretation: It is best for malls to spring up within the city itself and not on the outskirts.
People are too busy to travel back and forth in their hectic work schedule. Cash Credit Payment From the above graph, we can observe that out of 50 people visiting a mall: * 40 prefer to pay in cash * 10 in credit Interpretation: Consumers still prefer buying goods on cash basis than using credit. This shows that if the mall intends to make use of credit services they can offer discounts based on the various credit companies and also the various banks that they can have a tie up with. This will further increase profits and also the reputation and goodwill of the mall.
Yes No Can’t Say 0 10 40 50 One-stop shop? From the above graph, we can observe that out of 50 people visiting a mall: * 46 say it is a one-stop shop * 2 say it’s not * 1 Can’t Say Interpretation: The majority consumer feels he can get almost everything he wants at a mall. Still the mall can go ahead and take the extra effort in finding out the needs of the customers and try to satisfy them. Timing Convenience 0 05 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Yes No From the above graph, we can observe that out of 50 people visiting a mall: * 45 feel timings are convenient. 4 feel they are not. Interpretation: Timings of the mall are suitable to the working person. But on the whole, if the timing is extended a little further it would be better suited to the common man. From the above graph, we can observe that out of 50 people visiting a mall: * 47 are satisfied with the service provided in the mall * 3 are not satisfied with the services of mall. Interpretation: Mall has been successful in providing class service to the customers hence providing them worth for their money.
From the above graph, we can observe that out of 50 people visiting a mall: * Majority of people prefer to visit Metro – Junction Mall, whereas Eternity is the least preferred Mall. * Nirmals has emerged as the second preferred mall after Metro-Junction Mall. Interpretation: Metro is most preferred because it is nearest mall to the respondents selected in sample. It is best for malls to spring up within the city itself and not on the outskirts. People are too busy to travel back and forth in their hectic work schedule. . Ch. 6. Findings ; Suggestions 1. CHI-SQUARE TEST
A CHI-SQUARE TEST is a test in which the test statistic has a chi-square distribution when the null hypothesis is true, or any in which the probability distribution of the test statistic can be made to approximate a chi-square distribution as closely as desired by making the sample size large enough. There are many forms of CHI-SQUARE TEST. Its properties were first investigated by KARL PEARSON. It tests null hypotheses that the frequency distribution of certain events observed in a sample is consistent with a particular theoretical distribution. The events considered must be mutually exclusive and have total probability 1.
The first step in chi-square test is to calculate the chi-square statistic. The chi-square statistic is calculated by finding the difference between each observed and theoretical frequency for each possible outcome, squaring them,dividing each by the theoretical frequency, and taking the sum of the results. X2 = ?? (Oi – Ei) 2 /Ei Where, Oi = an observed frequency; Ei = an expected frequency, asserted by the null hypothesis; ? = the number of possible outcomes of each event. The chi-square statistic is compared with tabulated value of chi-square. Income/Purpose| Shopping| Others| Totals| Lower-Middle Class| 5| 16| 21|
Higher- Middle Class| 20| 29| 29| Total| 25| 25| 50| Table-1: Table-2: | Observed| Expected| (O — E)| (O — E)2| (O — E)2/ E| LM-Shopping| 5| 15. 5| -10. 5| 110. 25| 7. 11| LM-Others| 16| 15. 5| 0. 5| 0. 25| 0. 01| HM-Shopping| 20| 14. 5| 5. 5| 30. 25| 2. 08| HM-Others| 9| 14. 5| -5. 5| 30. 25| 2. 08| Total| 50| -| | | 11. 28| x2 = 11. 28 ; critical value (3. 841) H0:- Rejected H1:- Accepted We now have our chi square statistic (11. 28), when the computed x2 statistic exceeds the critical value in the table for a 0. 05 probability level, then we can reject the null hypothesis of equal distributions. Since our x2 statistic (11. 8) exceeded the critical value for 0. 05 probability level (3. 841) we can reject the null hypothesis that the ‘Income Pattern ; shopping in mall are not related’ and accept the alternative hypothesis ‘Income pattern and shopping in mall are related” 2. Suggestions * Understanding the consumer dimensions * Multi brand shops should be present in every mall. * Customer loyalty programs should be highlighted * Attractive offers and promotions * Assortment of the shops should be taken care of. * Specialists should be hired by the developers. Average earning consumers in the age group 25-40 earn between Rs. 000 – Rs. 25000, comprising mostly of graduates visit a mall maximum times on a monthly basis. The visit is mainly for shopping comprising of clothes and accessories and other items, prefer buying branded goods, would not visit a mall if it’s far away from place of residence or work and prefer to pay in cash rather than credit. Hence we can conlude that to the greater extent ‘Income Pattern of People ; Shopping in the mall is dependent’ We thank Prof. Geeta Gangwani for giving us an opportunity to learn the basic fundamentals of Market Research and put them into practice in such a fruitful project.
Her guidance from time to time is appreciated. 1. Magazines and publications: * Marketing Research (N. G. Kale ; M. Ahmed). ——Vipul Publications * Research Methods in Business (J. K. Sacdeva, N. k. Shreevarahan) ——Himalaya Publications 2. Internet sites: * www.. imriresearch. com * www. marketresearchworld. net * www. visionarymarketing. com * www. businessdictionary. com * www. Hotpropertyindia. com * www. http://www. sixsigma. in/chi-square-test. html. QUESTIONAIREPoll Instruments Name: – Age: – 20-25 25-30 30-35 35 & above Educational Background: – 0th passedHSC Passed GraduatePost Graduate Profession: – Student Service Business Others, Please Specify Monthly Income: – Below 5000 5000 – 15000 15000 – 25000 25000 and above Gender:- Male Female Contact No:-_________________ Address:______________________________________________________ Q. 1] Do you visit Mall? Yes No Q. 2] How often do you visit a mall? Weekly Monthly Fortnightly Quarterly Others- Please Specify _______________ Q. 3] You would visit a mall for………… Shopping Window shopping
Get together Watching movies Others – Please specify_____________________________________ Q. 4] What product do you shop for in a mall? Clothes ; accessories Electronics Grocery Others Q. 5] Do you prefer buying ……… Branded GoodsUnbranded Goods Q. 6] What do you think about the prices charged in a mall? ReasonableUnreasonable No comments Q. 7] Do you think you get value for money in a mall? Yes No Cant Say Q. 8] Would you travel to a mall even if its far from your place of resident? Yes No
Can’t say Q. 9] Do you prefer to shop on cash basis or credit basis? Cash Credit Q 10] Do you agree that the mall is a one-stop shop? Yes No Can’t say Q11] Do you think the timings of the mall are convenient for you? Yes No Q12] Are you satisfied with the services provided in the mall? Yes No Q. 12] List malls in the order of preference.. 1Metro Junction 2R-Mall 3Eternity Mall 4Nirmals