Living Environment Topic 4 – Unit 7 Reproduction and Development

asexual reproduction
A reproductive process that involves only one parent and produces offspring that are identical to the parent
cloning
a technique used to make identical organisms
development
the changes that occur from the fertilized egg to a complete individual; occurs by mitosis and differentiation of cells
differentiation
process in which cells become specialized in structure and function
egg
Female sex cell
embryo
An organism in the earliest stage of development
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estrogen
a hormone produced by the ovaries that controls female sexual development and the reproductive process
expressed
the way that an unseen gene is seen in an organism as an actual physical trait
fertilization
the joining of a sperm cell and an egg cell
fetus
the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
gamete
Sex cell; sperm or egg
gene expression
the result of activated genes
meiosis
A two-stage type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that results in cells with half the chromosome number of the original cell.
mitosis
A process of cell division that divides the cell’s nucleus into two new nuclei, each of which has a complete set of genetic material (chromosomes) from the parent cell
ovaries
female organ that produces egg cells (gametes) and produces estrogen and progesterone
placenta
A structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from the mother’s bloodstream and bodily wastes to pass out to the mother.
progesterone
Hormone partly responsible for preparing the uterus for the fertilized ovum
recombination
the process by which genetic material from the sperm and egg (gametes) result in a unique combination of genes
sex cell
egg or sperm
sexual reporduction
kind of reproduction when the offspring share traits with each parent but are not identical to either one
species
a group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring
sperm
Male sex cell
testes
male reproductive organ, which produce sperm and testosterone
testosterone
male sex hormone
uterus
The thick, muscular, pear-shaped organ in the female mammal in which the embryo develops.
zygote
The fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo.