Listening to Music Emerson College

Baroque
1600-1750 Music becomes Worldly. Kings and Queens become interested. Elaborate and very organized. Bach comes to power. Mainly Organ music
Classical
1750-1820 Mozart and Beethoven come to power
Melody
Notes strung together to make a song (the main focused part)
Rhythm
The pulse of the music
Consonance
light, happier chords
Impressionism
1890-1920 Debucy
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Meter
Patterns of beats
Orchestration
The techniques of writing music for the full range of instruments in an orchestra. Used for marriages, political campaigns.
Form
The musical architecture of the composition
4 Vocals
Soprano, Alto, Tenor, Bass
4 Woodwinds
Flute, Oboe, Clarinet, Bassoon (others are included)
4 Brass
Trumpet, French Horn, Trombone, Tuba
3 Keyboards
Harpsichord, Organ, Piano
Notation
Writing Music Down
Movement
A self-contained, independent section of a larger musical work.
Renaissance
1400-1600 Waining of the power of the Catholic Church, Printing of music began in 1501
Style
Indicates what time period music is played in
Monophonic
Everyone singing at the same tone
Homophonic
Different sections (Voices such as tenor, alto, etc) sing multiple melodies at the same tone
Polyphonic
One singer accompanied by background instruments
Medieval Era
Pre-1400 All Music was sung by male voices in churches
Romantic Era
1820-1920 Music inspired by love. Music in dances, operas, plays, movies. The drama and emotion of love. What does love give you? Also coping with monsters, events, diseases, the Human Condition
20th Century Era
1900-Present Cold war, WWI and II, modern events, and how they affected people to feel and do.
Tempo
The Speed
Examples of Tempo
Lento, Adagio, Adante, Moderato, Allegro, Presto
Dynamics
The signs in the music to make the musicians play the way the directors want (Crescendo, Accent, Staccato, Decrescendo, etc.)
Phrase
The smaller segments
Cadence
The end of a phrase, coming to rest.
Pitch
How high or low a sound is
Dissonance
Dark, deeper, chords
Texture
How much is going on in a room
Tonality
Tuning
Major
Happy music, ex: marriage, anthems
Minor
Sadder/Scary music Ex: Funeral, Haunted Movie, theme to Jaws
Score
The music that the musician plays from (They look at to play). EX: Book or iPads.
Timbre
Pronounced Tamber. The distinct recognizable sound quality of any instrument or voice Ex. An instrument or car screeching
Symphony
Primary type of composition for classical music orchestra
5 features that help identify Gregorian Chant
1. Male voices
2. Morophonic texture
3. Sung in Latin
4. a capella
5. Non-material
-Named after Pope Gregory II. He authorized the organization and use of the chants in the catholic church service.
Melisma
Signing many notes to one syllable. As church music developed, melismas grew stronger.
Organum
Earliest form of polyphony: (music with 2 or more melodies at the same time)
Troubador
Medieval poet/musicians from France
Provencal
The older form of language/dialect used by the troubadours. Elements of old French and Spanish combined.
Hildegard von Bingen
-one of the first important female composers in music history.
-wrote approx. 80 plainchants
-writings on natural history and medicine
-Sciuias: 3 books of her visions (includes poetry and music)
Philippe de Vitry
-(1291-1361)
-French poet, theorist, composer and author.
-Wrote a book called ARS NOVA (New Art)
-Had new ideas in polyphony, notation and rhythm.
Palestrina
-(1525-1594) the last great composer of Catholic Music.
– Wrote 105 masses.
– Renaissance techniques:
1. Paraphrase—”reshape” older material.
2. Imitation—extended music by repeating the same material.
The Council of Trent
-(1545-1563)
-Meetings by the church authorities for General business problems/religious problems/challenges, interpretation and implimation of church laws.
-Result: Among many new rules, the words of mass were to be set to music in a way that the people could understand Latin Music.
Madrigal
-a small vocal work for 4-8 voices.
-no accompaniment
-in English or Italian
-by a renaissance composer.
Fabritio Caroso
-Italian dance master, courtier and author of famous books.
-“IL Ballarino” (Dancing Master, 1581)
-“Nobilita de Dame” (the Nobility of Ladies)
-Advice for ladies and gentlemen on etiquette and dress
books also included dance patterns
-Illustrations of the order of the steps and music for some of the dances.
Recitative
Half-singing, half-speaking the worlds instead of doing spoken language.
Aria
Solo song in an opera. Emotional mood of the character is reflected in the music and words.
Oratorio
Large work for soloists (most often 4), chorus and orchestra. Usually with a biblical story.
Equal Temperament
A system of tuning developed in the 1600s and widely accepted after.
Modulation
To change the key in a musical composition.
Movement
Self contained section of a total work. Help to keep variety.
Concerto
Music for solo instrument accompanied by orchestra.
Gabrieli
-(1553-1621)
-Director and organist at St. Mark’s.
-Famous for ceremonial music, especially for chorus and brass instruments.
-Antiphonal style—back and forth for musical style. adding dynamic markings.
-Also specifying which instruments would play the music.
Purcell
Wrote “Dido and Aeneas”: Plot summary:
Aeneas gets a message from what he thinks is God, is actually witches trying to break him and Dido up. Dido and Arenas meet and fall in love. Aeneas thinks he has to leave now, Tells Dido, they fight. Dido says go and leave, he leaves, she gets upset and kills herself, not before singing Dido’s Lament—”When I am laid in Earth.”
Castrato
A singer of the 16th-18th centuries who sang in the soprano or alto voice range.
3 famous makers of stringed instruments during the Baroque Period
1. Amati
2. Guarneri
3. Stradivari
Vivaldi
(1678-1741): the four seasons, features violin soloist, accompanied by string orchestra.
Bach
-extremely large output of compositions
-made the Brandenburg Concerto: solo group: flute, violin and harpsichord. Special: harpsichord has a very long solo near the end of the movement.
Suite
-A collection of dances composed for instrumental performance only.
-Titles of each section will be a dance type with a certain meter, temp change and character.
-The average number of dances in a suite was 6.
Handel
-Water music: written to accompany King George I as he traveled down the Thames River on the royal barge.
-Only music with horns in it.
Italian Tempo Designations (slow, medium, fast)
Slow: Lento
Medium: Moderato
Fast: Presto
Gregorian Chant
Kyrie
Ave Maria, o auctrix vitae
Hildegard Von Bingen
Ce fut en Mai
Monniot d’ Arras
Pope Marcellus Mass: Gloria in excelsis Deo
Palestrina
As Vest was from Latmos Hill descending
T. Weelkes
O Magnum Mysterium
G. Gabrieli
Dido & Aeneas: Dido’s Lament “When I am laid in Earth”
H. Purcell
Messiah: For Unto Us a Child is Born
G.F. Handel
The Four Seasons: Winter 3rd Movement
A. Vivaldi
Brandenburg Concerto #5: first movement
J.S. Bach
Prelude and Fugue in G major BWV 541
J.S. Bach
Water Music: Minuet & Trio
G.F. Handel
F. J. Haydn
String quartet op.76 no.3 “Emperor” 2nd movement
W.A.Mozart
-The Magic Flute: Queen of the Night – Revenge aria
-Piano concerto in G major K.453 3nd movement
L. van Beethoven
Symphony no. 3 in E flat 1st movement
F. Schubert
Gretchen at the Spinning Wheel
F.Chopin
Nocturne in D flat major op.27 no.2
F. Liszt
Transcendental Etude: Mazeppa
H. Berlioz
SYMPHONIE FANTASTIQUE: Dream of a Witches Sabbath
B. Smetana
MA VLAST: The Moldau
G.Verdi
LA TRAVIATA: Sempre libera
R.Wagner
GOTTERDAMMERUNG (Twilight of the Gods): Act III: Brunnhilde’s Immolation
P.I. Tchaikovsky
SWAN LAKE: Theme
name and explain 3 characteristics/developments in music of the Classical Period
1. Inspired by ideals of ancient Rome and Greece.
2. Emergence of musical forms with more definition
3. Focus on craftsmanship.
Patronage System
-a composer or musician would be hired (as a servant) by a royal or aristocratic family.
-Compose/and or perform as ordered by their employer.
Symphony
a large work for orchestra in 3-4 movements. Most important form or orchestra music.
Concerto
a musical composition for a solo instrument or instruments accompanied by an orchestra
Chamber Music
music played for 2-9 players. Each player has their own music.
Opera Buffa
Type of Italian Opera
Sonata Form
3 Sections:
1. Exposition
2. Development— prime feature: Modulation
3. Recapitulation
Hayden
-String Quartet op, 76 no.3 “The Emperor”
-Melody is first performed as a song on the emperor’s birthday.
Mozart
“K” means “Kochel” who was the person who categorized Mozart’s songs
Beethoven
2 Famous Symphonies:
#3: Eroica
Fidelio (opera)
Describe/ explain the special “innovation” that happens between the 3rd and 4th movement of his most famous (the 5th) symphony.
In the 5th Symphony (in C Minor) from the 3rd to 4th movement the strings and timpani build to…..(something big)
Ludwig Van Beethoven (1770-1827)
(Biography portion)
-Childhood:
Emerging Talent; Pianist and composer.
Vienna: performs as a virtuoso composer
Early successes as a composer
-Early Period: (1770-1802)
Personal distress: hearing
Famous Letter
Oct. 6 1802— The Heiligenstadt Testement.
-Middle Period:
Distinctive composing style emerges
Wrote symphony “Eroica”
Wrote symphonies 4-8
1 Violin concierto, string quartets. piano sonatas
Made his income from publishing and his patrons.
-Late Period:
Illness, family crisis, legal battles
Composes 9th Symphony
Income from commissions
Sick in 1825, 1826.
Died 1827.
H. BERLIOZ
Symphonie Fantastique Dream of a Witches Sabbath
Idee Fixe
— a recurring melody in a musical composition.
– Berloiz uses it in all 5 movements, and it ties the story together and unifies the whole musical composition.
Coloratura
A type of singer that can sing really high (Soprano)
Lied
German Art Song. Music for a solo vocalist, with piano accompaniment.
Virtuoso
A uniquely talented performer.
Etude
a musical exercise to develop your speed and skill. Very difficult.
Nocturne
Right hand plays the melody, left plays the accompaniment (on a piano)
Leitmotiv
Musical theme used to identify a person, event, emotion, symbol or ideal.
Nationalism
Your music reflects pride in your country
Smetana
MA VLAST – The Moldau
-???
N. Paganini
-he was an Italian Violin Virtuoso
-famous work was 24 Caprices for solo Violin
Chopin
-Polish Piano virtuoso and composer.
-composed works mainly for solo piano
-Famous Works: Etudes 2 sets of 12, 24 preludes
Clara Schumann
-Female piano
-taught by her domineering father, Friedrick Wieck (Pianist and Teacher)
-Clara recognized as a young prodigy.
-Robert Schumann is another one of her father’s students. -They fall in love and want to run away together. Eventually do, but face difficulties balancing duties as a wife, mother and artist; couldn’t handle it all.
Schubert
Song Cycle— a collection a Lieder that tell a story
1. “The Lovely Maid of The Mill”
2. “The Winter Journey”
SCHUBERT: GRETCHEN AT THE SPINNING WHEEL
Gretchen is sitting at a spinning wheel. She’s singing. About a mournful relationship
Guiseppie Verdi
2 Famous Operas of his:
1. Macbeth (1847)
2. Otello (1893)
R. Wagner
– The Ring Of Nibelung:
– cycle of 4 operas
– Epic story of the Gods: power, love, greed, betrayal, and ultimately the downfall of the Gods.
R. Wagner Opera: The Ring of he Nibelung
Read paper
Symphonic Poems
1 piano sonata, piano concertos, orchestral works
FRANZ LISZT
German composer famous for Symphonic poems
“Also Sprach Zarathustra”
Poem written by Nietzche.

“We were night walkers, let us become day walkers.”

Gustav Mahler
German conductor and composer, famous for large scale symphonies; vocal music, including art songs and music for voice and orchestra.

His compositions often reflect his religious/philosophical concerns, emotional issues and life experiences. His music tries to explore his concerns and thoughts about mortality, belief, human joy in nature, and a hope for spiritual resolution and comfort in the hereafter.

Impressionism
(1890-1920), French. Uses unusual scales like the “whole tone scale” and “pentatonic scale”
2 ways in which ‘impressionism’ is presented in music
1. Whole Tone Scale— Sounds like a mix of major/minor (no half steps in it)
2. Pentatonic Scale— sounds oriental/exotic.
Parallel Chords
groups of notes all moving in the same direction
Meter
songs that have no “firm” beat
Compound Meter
patterns of more than 5 beat
Claude Debussy
French composer and Pianist. Famous for new use of form: Tonality— “new” sounds for the orchestra/piano.
Works of Claude Debussy
Orchestra: Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun; Nocturnes; La Mer

Piano: Preludes; Etudes; Suite Bergamasque; Children’s Corner.

Verismo
The trend of “realism” in late 19th century Italian opera.
Features “everyday” characters (lower social class), dicey situations; drama often that involves love, betrayal, jealousy, often death/murder; featured in music 1890-early 1900s.
2 Italian composers and the operas they wrote at the beginning of the Verismo style
1. Pietro Mascagni (1863-1945)
Opera: Cavalleria rusticana (Rustic Chivalry) 1890.

2. Ruggiero Leoncavallo (1858-1919)
Opera: Pagliacci (The Strolling Players) 1892

Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924) Italian Composer
made “La Boheme” (The Bohemian Girl)
Characters of “La Boheme”
Rodolfo: A poet
Mimi: a seamstress/maker of silk flowers
Marcello: a painter and friend of Rudolfo
Musetta: Marcello’s girlfriend

Storyline:
– Rudolfo and Mimi were in love, hit a rocky point, broke up
– Marcello and Musetta are in love.

Expressionism
German style of art, literature, music and theater. During late 19th/early 20th century.
Sprechstimme
speaking/singing approximate pitches rather than traditional singing of exact pitches.
Aleatory
The composer gives the performer elements of the composition but the exact nature of the performance moment can be determined by the choices of the performers.
Prepared Piano
A variety of non-musical materials (metal, glass, weather stripping, cloth, specified by composer) are placed in/on the strings to obtain special non-traditional sounds from the instrument.
Minimalism
Style of composition that focuses on the use of musical patterns with little or no variation in rhythm, dynamics, instruments, tempo, mood.
The Rite of Spring
Choreography by the dancer Vaslav Nijinsky; scenery/costumes by Nicholas Roerich.
Premiered May 1913 in Paris, performed by the Ballets Russes dance company.
Audience reaction to “The Rite of Spring”
Some people were positive and excited by the production, others were deeply outraged and upset, to the point of booing loudly and arguing with other members of the audience.

In the dancing – the strange non-traditional (“ugly”) costumes; The “naturalistic” untraditional choreography (non graceful positions, jumping, being on the ground)

In the music – the audience was upset by what sounded like rhythmic “chaos”, often strong dissonances, strange use of the orchestra (examples: instruments playing at extreme pitches, playing with harsh sounds rather than “nice” ones).

ARNOLD SCHOENBERG (1874-1951) German composer
Composed orchestral works, operas, chamber music, and works for piano. Worked in Vienna, later taught at UCLA in California His compositions from 1908-1923 are mainly atonal (no key center as in traditional major or minor tonal music).
formulated the radical 12 tone system of composition around 1921.
LISTENING: PIERROT LUNAIRE (Moonstruck Pierrot, 1912)
Text based on 21 brief poems by Albert Giraud; poems contain allusions to madness, alienation, uncertainty, compulsion.
Social Realism
Russian governmental control of the creative arts under Soviet leader and dictator JOSEPH STALIN (ruled from 1922 till his death in 1953), who ruthlessly imposed standards on writers, composers, artists etc. The policies of Socialist Realism were in effect starting 1932 and continued for about sixty years.
Russian Artists during Stalin Rule
Artists during this time were expected to put forth works that glorified Socialism and the party line of a happy, cooperative, and successful country where all citizens were unified to work for the greater good.
Joseph Stalin
estimates vary on the many millions of people who were “eliminated” including creative people, Jews, homosexuals, his political enemies and any suspected opposition.
DMITRI SHOSTAKOVICH (1906-1975) Russian composer
He was denounced by the government in 1936, due to objections to his opera Lady Macbeth of Minsk. Then again in 1948; his music was banned, he was forced to publicly repent and his family had certain “privileges” withdrawn. There were also further periodic banning of his works.
CHARLES IVES (1874-1954)
American composer
Works for orchestra, piano, chamber, vocal. Many of his works reference his personal American experience
GEORGE GERSHWIN (1898-1937)
composer, pianist. Famous for songs, Broadway shows, work in Hollywood
Gershwin aimed to combine Classical forms, as well as Classical compositional and
performance discipline, with the rhythmic appeal of American popular music, and the harmonies/sounds of blues and jazz.
TERRY RILEY (b.1935)
composer, piano, tabla, tambura, voice
Musical studies in California and with master Pandit Pran Nath (classical Indian voice). European travels, faculty at Mills College in 1971 teaching Indian classical music.
“IN C” (written in 1964)
the performers are given some elements of the composition and the exact performance is based on some of their choices. Composition using 53 musical phrases; phrases may be repeated any number of times. No set time duration; Riley mentions average performances 45 – 90 minutes.
LEONARD BERNSTEIN (1918-1990)
American conductor, composer, pianist, teacher
First American music director for the New York Philharmonic Orchestra 1958 Famous for concerts for young listeners; music programs on television.
GEORGE CRUMB (b.1929) American composer
Modern, avant-garde, uses alternative notations and scores (sometimes referred to as “graphic notation” – looks more like a “picture”)
BLACK ANGELS for electric string quartet (1970)
Written by George Crumb. Subtitled Thirteen Images from a Dark Land, Black Angels was inspired by the Vietnam War, if not directly, at least by way of the anguished mood that the war instigated.
PHILIP GLASS (b.1937) Composer, performer
Works in all forms (orchestral, piano, chamber music, film scores); very prolific (*Now prefers not to be referred to as a Minimalist composer but one who uses “repetitive” elements)
Operas by Philip Glass
1. Einstein on the Beach — Albert Einstein as a historic figure, no actual plot

2. Satyagraha *translated from Hindu as “firmness of truth” Opera is about Mahatmas Gandhi as a young man in South Africa and his response to injustices against himself and other Indians there. This chronicles his spiritual evolution to the principle of non-violence and working to get equal rights with new tactics.

John Adams
On The Transmigration of Souls 2002
A “soundscape” for orchestra, voices, and tape; the words being sung come from signs and posters near Ground Zero after 9/11. The work received a Pulitzer Prize in 2003.
Yo Yo Ma– virtuoso cellist, founder of THE SILK ROAD PROJECT
The Silk Road Project was begun in 1998; the goal is to provide and promote collaboration between artists and institutions from the Eastern and the Western traditions.
TAN DUN
Chinese composer. Composes Classical music with influences from his Chinese heritage.
“Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon” (2000) 2 Main instruments used:
Features Chinese instrument called an ERHU as solo with a traditional Western orchestra (strings)
El SISTEMA
Special music education program in Venezuela; now has branches in multiple American
communities. Had a orchestra that traveled around the world and received great praise.
Claude Debussy (Listening portion)
Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun
G. Puccini (Listening Portion)
MADAME BUTTERFLY: Un bel di
Igor Stravinsky (Listening Portion)
The Rite of Spring (opening)
Arnold Schoenberg (Listening portion)
PIERROT LUNAIRE: Valse de Chopin
D. Shostakovich (Listening Portion)
Symphony no. 5 4th movement
Charles Ives (Listening Portion)
The Unanswered Question
Terry Riley (Listening Portion)
In C
George Crumb (Listening Portion)
BLACK ANGELS: Danse macabre
Philip Glass (listening portion)
SATYAGRAHA: Kuru Field of Justice
George Gershwin (Listening Portion)
Rhapsody in Blue (opening)
Tan Dun (Listening Portion)
Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon: Farewell