Lifespan: Chapter 12

identity vs. identity
Erickson’s view that adolescence is the period where teenagers seek to determine what is unique and distinctive about themselves; “trying on different roles”
-those who are successful set a course that provides foundation for future psychosocial development and develop an accurate sense of who they are
-those who fail go off course and may adopt socially unacceptable roles as a way of expressing what they do NOT want to be or have issues forming and keeping relationships
psychological moratorium
period during which adolescents take time off from the upcoming responsibilities of adulthood and explore various roles and possibilities
James Marcia
did not think that Erickson was specific enough regarding identity vs. identity stage & took it a step further with 4 categories of adolescent identity
identity achievement
adolescents that commit to a particular identity following a period of crisis (ex: alcohol); they got over the bump in the road and became successful
identity foreclosure
adolescents who prematurely commit to an identity without adequately exploring alternatives; grew up in neighborhood where everyone was a lawyer, doctor, nurse, cop, etc. so they’re going to be one of those jobs; their job was decided for them
– most at risk for mid-life crisis
identity in moratorium
adolescents who haven’t committed themselves
“will grow up when they grow up”
identity diffusion
adolescents that have a million possibilities, but cannot commit to one; flighty-they shift from one thing to the next
– ex: may finish college w/ degree but still don’t know what to do
reference groups
groups of people we compare ourselves to; present a set of norms/standards against which adolescents can judge their abilities & social success
cliques
groups of 2 to 12 ppl whose members have frequent social interactions w/ one another
crowds
groups of more than 12 ppl that have similar characteristics but may not interact w/ one another (ex: “jocks” & “nerds”)
popular adolescents
children who are mostly liked
controversial adolescents
children who are liked by some peers & disliked by other
rejected adolescents
children who are actively disliked and whose peers may react to them in an obviously negative manner
neglected adolescents
children who receive relatively little attention from their peers in the form of either positive or negative interactions; overlooked by almost everyone
bridge issues
issues from adolescence to adulthood (ex: food dysregulation disorders, chemical addiction, gambling addiction, sex addiction, emotional problems= all begins w/ loneliness)