Life Science BSC1005 Chapter 8, 9, 10

The standard classification system used by biologists today groups and classifies organisms on the basis of similar physical traits. This system was first developed by Carl Linnaeus. At the time of his work, there were other methods for grouping organisms that were based on similar habitats, similar diets, or similar behaviors. Why is Linnaeus’s system the most useful one to biologists today?
Classifying on the basis of shared traits points out the underlying evolutionary relationships among organisms.
What aspect of the geology of the Galápagos was important in producing the diversity of organisms seen by Darwin?
B) the islands are in a chain
In laboratories that study the origin of life, what is the furthest step that has been achieved?
the production of self-replicating RNA
What have scientists learned from experiments designed to test the hypothesis that life arose from nonliving material?
Life could have formed spontaneously on Earth from nonliving material.
What does the fossil record tell us about hominids?
Hominins were a diverse group of primate species of which modern humans are the only surviving group.
What starting material would be required to produce simple organic molecules from nonliving materials?
carbon dioxide(CO2), ammonia(NH4), methane(CH4), and phosphates.
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How do fossils support the theory of common descent?
They are a record of at least some intermediate types of organisms and thus document the process of evolution.
What was Lamarck’s idea about how organisms changed?
He proposed that body parts increased or decreased as a result of extra use or disuse.
Which of the following is an example of microevolution?
HIV evolved resistance to antiviral medications.
Which of the following is what scientists mean when they use the term theory?
a set of findings that are supported by repeated testing
Which of the following types of RNA carries amino
acids to the growing polypeptide chain?
tRNA
A sequence of mRNA, called a codon, reads ACU.
How will the set of nucleotides on the anticodon of
the tRNA read?
UGA
Which of the following regulation techniques will
result in increased gene expression?
lengthening the adenosine nucleotide “tail”
Which of the following statements is accurate?
The plasmid is cut with the same restriction
enzyme as the removed gene.
Which of the following statements concerning
rBGH-treated milk is correct?
The injected cows produce 20% more milk.
There is no evidence of the hormone being
transferred to the milk.
Humans would be able to safely digest the
hormone, just like any other protein in food.
All of the statements are correct.
Which of the following was used to treat SCID
patients?
somatic gene therapy
Which of the following statements is incorrect?
Specialized stem cells divide to make
undifferentiated stem cells.
When scientists try to replace defective human
genes with functional genes they are performing
gene therapy
What is happening in step 1 in this figure?
The nucleus is removed from the egg cell.
When undergoing recombination, _______.
the recombinant plasmid is inserted in
bacterium, making large quantities of
rBGH proteins
In what way is artificial selection different from natural selection?
In artificial selection, human preference is the selecting force; in natural selection, environmental conditions are the selecting force
The evolution of a long neck in giraffes is an example of
directional selection
When a population undergoes strong selection, what happens to it?
Any of the above can happen is response to strong selection
How is tuberculosis transmitted?
by droplets from the respiratory system
What causes the disease tuberculosis?
a particular kind of bacteria
Evolution is:
a process that occurs as a result of differences in reproductive fitness
The phrase “survival of the fittest” is somewhat misleading because A) . B) . C) . D) it implies that humans are the proper end result of evolution. E)
it implies that the best possible organism will evolve
Which of the following is the most direct (or first) result of natural selection on a population?
The frequency of some alleles changes
You notice that some squirrels in your neighborhood have a much darker coat color than most of the other squirrels. Is this darker color an adaptation?
The trait is only an adaptation if it gives the squirrels an advantage in their habitat
Which of the following describes natural selection?
A population of mammals varies in the length of their legs, water levels rise and the habitat becomes swampy, the individuals with shorter legs are better able to swim to food, the population evolves to become shorter-legged
What causes tuberculosis?
bacteria
From 2000 to 2004, what percentage of TB cases did
not respond to standard treatment?
20%
Which of the following is an example of artificial
selection?
horse breeding
Which of the following statements does not cause
natural selection?
survival and reproduction are random
What type of selection results when the average
variant in the population has the highest fitness?
stabilizing selection
True or False: Natural selection can cause new
traits to arise.
False
What is often the result when people stop taking
their antibiotics when they feel better?
A drug-resistant strain is born.
Which of the following statements is not an efficient
way to combat drug-resistant pathogens?
People can evolve resistance to the pathogens.
What type of selection is shown in this figure?
diversifying selection
What will the fly population look like after several
generations?
The frequency of the
mutant allele will increase
The process of copying a sequence of DNA nucleotides into a complementary sequence of RNA nucleotides is called
transcription.
Which type of disease condition would most likely be successfully treated by gene therapy?
disease caused by a nonfunctional enzyme in the body
A sequence of DNA codes for a:
protein
The RNA molecule that carries the sequence of nucleotides needed to determine the order of amino acids in a protein is:
messenger RNA.
Data from the Human Genome Project might help scientists:
all choices are correct
All the following are part of a DNA molecule EXCEPT:
uracil
The undifferentiated cells that can be used in therapeutic cloning are:
stem cells
A DNA molecule consists of:
nucleotides
Genetically modified foods have resulted in:
rice with more Vitamin A
The possibly harmful environmental effects of GM foods include:
all choices are correct
Which of the following types of RNA carries amino
acids to the growing polypeptide chain?
tRNA
A sequence of mRNA, called a codon, reads ACU.
How will the set of nucleotides on the anticodon of
the tRNA read?
UGA
Which of the following regulation techniques will
result in increased gene expression?
lengthening the adenosine nucleotide “tail”
Which of the following statements is accurate?
The plasmid is cut with the same restriction
enzyme as the removed gene.
Which of the following statements concerning
rBGH-treated milk is correct?
-The injected cows produce 20% more milk.
– There is no evidence of the hormone being
transferred to the milk.
-Humans would be able to safely digest the
hormone, just like any other protein in food.
-All of the statements are correct.
All of the statements are correct.
Which of the following was used to treat SCID
patients?
therapeutic cloning
nuclear transfer
somatic gene therapy
germ line gene therapy
somatic gene therapy
Which of the following statements is incorrect?
Stem cells are undifferentiated.
Stem cells are totipotent.
Specialized stem cells divide to make
undifferentiated stem cells.
Stem cells can be used for therapeutic cloning.
Specialized stem cells divide to make
undifferentiated stem cells.
When scientists try to replace defective human
genes with functional genes they are performing
________.
gene therapy
in vitro fertilization
therapeutic cloning
nuclear transfer
gene therapy
What is happening in step 1 in this figure?
The embryo is being
grown in culture.
The egg cell and
mammary cell are
fused together.
The nucleus is
removed from
the egg cell.
The embryo is being
implanted into the
uterus of a third sheep.
The nucleus is removed from the egg cell.
When undergoing recombination, _______.
the plasmid and the cow gene are cut
with different restriction enzymes
the recombinant plasmid is reinserted into
the cow’s cell to increase milk production
the rBGH genes are injected into cows
to increase their milk production
the recombinant plasmid is inserted in
bacterium, making large quantities of
rBGH proteins
the recombinant plasmid is inserted in bacterium, making large quantities of rBGH proteins