Lesson 3 test

1 out of 1 points
Correct
Through research on visual illusions, Gestalt psychologists demonstrated that:
Selected Answer:
B. the mind imposes organization on what it perceives.
Answers:
A. visual illusions can be used as screens for psychological disorders.
B. the mind imposes organization on what it perceives.
C. the mind often fails to perceive a unified whole from a disjointed image.
D. visual illusions allow access to the unconscious mind.
Question 2
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Marilyn often mentions to her friends that she craves a cigarette after meals, even though she has not smoked in more than 5 years. This craving is likely due to:
Selected Answer:
D. psychological dependence.
Answers:
A. physical dependence.
B. the placebo effect.
C. drug tolerance.
D. psychological dependence.
Question 3
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Debbie usually sits quietly and works on crossword puzzles. However, a few times each hour, she begins grimacing and then shouts profanities at the hospital staff. Debbie is exhibiting:
Selected Answer:
A. grossly disorganized behavior.
Answers:
A. grossly disorganized behavior.
B. a catatonic stupor.
C. disorganized speech.
D. negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
Question 4
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Mike lives in Alaska and experiences a period of depression each winter. Mike probably has:
Selected Answer:
A. SAD.
Answers:
A. SAD.
B. unipolar depression.
C. bipolar disorder.
D. dysthymia.
Question 5
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
Humans have distinct cone types to respond to light wavelengths associated with all of these colors EXCEPT:
Selected Answer:
D. green.
Answers:
A. blue.
B. red.
C. yellow.
D. green.
Question 6
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
Situation-related anxiety is:
Selected Answer:
A. a symptom that one of the anxiety disorders probably is present.
Answers:
A. a symptom that one of the anxiety disorders probably is present.
B. normal and adaptive.
C. a defining feature of panic disorder.
D. a defining feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Question 7
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Cocaine comes from:
Selected Answer:
C. the coca plant.
Answers:
A. the ma huang plant.
B. certain strains of sugar cane.
C. the coca plant.
D. poppy seeds.
Question 8
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
Chemical modifications of DNA that can turn genes on and off are termed epigenetic:
Selected Answer:
C. variations.
Answers:
A. proteins.
B. marks.
C. variations.
D. factors.
Question 9
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Prozac, a drug commonly used to treat depression, is a selective:
Selected Answer:
B. serotonin reuptake inhibitor.
Answers:
A. serotonin antagonist.
B. serotonin reuptake inhibitor.
C. serotonin inhibitor.
D. norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor.
Question 10
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
People who report higher levels of pain have enhanced activity in all of these areas of the brain EXCEPT the:
Selected Answer:
A. anterior cingulate cortex.
Answers:
A. anterior cingulate cortex.
B. somatosensory cortex.
C. prefrontal cortex.
D. thalamus.
Question 11
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Second grader Riley tells his friend Gus not to run in the hallway because it is against the school rules and he might be punished. Most likely, Riley is in Lawrence Kohlberg’s _____ stage of moral development.
Selected Answer:
B. preconventional
Answers:
A. preoperational
B. preconventional
C. formal operational
D. conventional
Question 12
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Intelligence scores among identical twins are strongly correlated when the twins are raised in the same household, and are _____ correlated when the twins are separated at birth and raised in different households.
Selected Answer:
A. strongly
Answers:
A. strongly
B. moderately
C. not
D. weakly
Question 13
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Schizophrenic hallucinations can include all of these EXCEPT:
Selected Answer:
B. believing that you are Napoleon.
Answers:
A. hearing voices that no one else can hear.
B. believing that you are Napoleon.
C. seeing things that are not there.
D. feeling as if you’re being touched when no one is there.
Question 14
1 out of 1 points
Correct
About what percentage of American adults are overweight or obese?
Selected Answer:
C. 69
Answers:
A. 49
B. 29
C. 69
D. 89
Question 15
1 out of 1 points
Correct
The finding that homophobic men exhibit more sexual excitement to homosexual activity than men who are not homophobic best illustrates the defense mechanism of:
Selected Answer:
A. reaction formation.
Answers:
A. reaction formation.
B. identification.
C. repression.
D. projection.
Question 16
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Systems of rewards and punishment can backfire because:
Selected Answer:
C. people do not like to feel manipulated.
Answers:
A. most people reject the theoretical views of B. F. Skinner.
B. rewards and punishers tend to cancel out the effectiveness of the other.
C. people do not like to feel manipulated.
D. the effectiveness of rewards has been validated only in animal models.
Question 17
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
The dorsal visual stream is to the ventral visual stream as:
Selected Answer:
B. what is to where.
Answers:
A. who is to what.
B. what is to where.
C. what is to who.
D. where is to what.
Question 18
1 out of 1 points
Correct
When driving down the street, the car immediately in front of you appears quite differently than the car off in the distance. Yet you recognize both as cars, due to:
Selected Answer:
B. perceptual constancy.
Answers:
A. interposition.
B. perceptual constancy.
C. distributed representation.
D. common fate.
Question 19
1 out of 1 points
Correct
An example of secondary insomnia is insomnia _____.
Selected Answer:
D. induced by depression or anxiety
Answers:
A. induced by a drug problem
B. induced by working late hours
C. with no obvious causes
D. induced by depression or anxiety
Question 20
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
The electrical charge of a neuron at rest is largely the result of _____ flowing _____ the neuron.
Selected Answer:
C. sodium; out of
Answers:
A. potassium; out of
B. sodium; into
C. sodium; out of
D. potassium; into
Question 21
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
René Descartes, a French philosopher and mathematician, believed that the mind had its effects on the brain and body through the:
Selected Answer:
C. ventricular system.
Answers:
A. hippocampus.
B. pineal gland.
C. ventricular system.
D. parasympathetic nervous system.
Question 22
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
A medical artist is drawing a representation of the relationship between the somatosensory cortex and the body. What should the drawing of the body look like?
Selected Answer:
A. The farther from the brain, the smaller the body part should be.
Answers:
A. The farther from the brain, the smaller the body part should be.
B. Larger body parts should appear as small, and smaller body parts should appear as large.
C. The right side of the body should be considerably larger than the left side.
D. The face, hands, and fingers should be disproportionately large.
Question 23
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Roediger and Karpicke (2006) studied performance on a memory test in two groups of participants. In one group, participants studied the material twice (study-study). In the other group, participants studied the material once and then were tested on the material (study-test). A final test measuring recall was administered in both groups after various retention intervals. Which statement about performance on the final test is true?
Selected Answer:
C. Recall was better in the study-test group at long retention intervals.
Answers:
A. Recall was better in the study-study group at all retention intervals.
B. Recall was better in the study-test group at short retention intervals.
C. Recall was better in the study-test group at long retention intervals.
D. Recall was better in the study-test group at all retention intervals.
Question 24
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Psychoanalysis became quite controversial in American culture because it:
Selected Answer:
C. proposed that behavior was governed, in part, by unconscious sexual desires.
Answers:
A. focused only on observable behavior and ignored the role of cognition.
B. lacked empirical support for its effectiveness.
C. proposed that behavior was governed, in part, by unconscious sexual desires.
D. denied the existence of the mind and human free will.
Question 25
1 out of 1 points
Correct
A motivation of which one is necessarily aware is a(n):
Selected Answer:
A. conscious motivation.
Answers:
A. conscious motivation.
B. intrinsic motivation.
C. need for achievement.
D. extrinsic motivation.
Question 26
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
The process of converting physical signals from the environment into neural signals sent to the central nervous system is called:
Selected Answer:
B. sensation.
Answers:
A. transduction.
B. sensation.
C. synesthesia.
D. perception.
Question 27
1 out of 1 points
Correct
People with Capgras syndrome:
Selected Answer:
D. often believe that one or more family members are imposters.
Answers:
A. often believe that they are in direct communication with God.
B. usually believe that Earth is about to be attacked by aliens.
C. usually experience no emotion.
D. often believe that one or more family members are imposters.
Question 28
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Reinforcers _____ and punishers _____ the future probability of the behavior that led to these respective consequences.
Selected Answer:
B. increase; decrease
Answers:
A. decrease; decrease
B. increase; decrease
C. increase; increase
D. decrease; increase
Question 29
1 out of 1 points
Correct
When she makes a high grade on a test, Cynthia says, “I studied hard and did really well on that test!” When she scores low, she says, “That test was unreasonable and the professor just can’t teach!” Her reactions are an example of:
Selected Answer:
C. the self-serving bias.
Answers:
A. a reaction formation.
B. implicit egotism.
C. the self-serving bias.
D. an internal locus of control.
Question 30
1 out of 1 points
Correct
A failure to retrieve information that is in memory even though you are trying to produce it is known as:
Selected Answer:
B. blocking.
Answers:
A. proactive interference.
B. blocking.
C. transience.
D. retroactive interference.
Question 31
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Objects that cast a greater retinal disparity are perceived as being:
Selected Answer:
D. closer.
Answers:
A. higher in the visual field.
B. in motion.
C. farther away.
D. closer.
Question 32
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
Users of the drug Ecstasy are highly vulnerable to:
Selected Answer:
C. profound memory loss.
Answers:
A. becoming involved in violent crimes.
B. bad trips consisting of nightmarish hallucinations.
C. profound memory loss.
D. heatstroke and exhaustion.
Question 33
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Bob is prejudiced against gay people. His best friend, Walter, is gay, but Bob says, “But he’s different from the others.” This rationalization is an illustration of:
Selected Answer:
B. subtyping.
Answers:
A. stereotype threat.
B. subtyping.
C. perceptual confirmation.
D. the self-fulfilling prophecy.
Question 34
1 out of 1 points
Correct
When rats are given drugs that block long-term potentiation (LTP) they:
Selected Answer:
A. get easily lost in familiar mazes.
Answers:
A. get easily lost in familiar mazes.
B. stop eating and grooming.
C. more easily recall where they’ve been.
D. develop stronger synaptic connections.
Question 35
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Will rubbed his eye and accidentally scratched his:
Selected Answer:
C. cornea.
Answers:
A. lens.
B. pupil.
C. cornea.
D. retina.
Question 36
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Diana wants to see if heat causes happiness. She asks 100 participants to come to the laboratory, and as they walk in, she asks each person to choose a warm booth or a cool booth. On the basis of their choices, participants spend 20 minutes in one or the other booth before rating their levels of general happiness. What’s wrong with Diana’s experiment?
Selected Answer:
C. She didn’t randomly assign participants to the experimental and control groups.
Answers:
A. She didn’t measure a dependent variable.
B. She didn’t choose an independent variable.
C. She didn’t randomly assign participants to the experimental and control groups.
D. She didn’t expose participants to both the warm and cool booths.
Question 37
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Compared to participants who received relaxation and meditation training to deal with stress, participants who received hardiness training experienced _____ in perceived personal stress.
Selected Answer:
D. greater reduction
Answers:
A. about the same reduction
B. slightly less reduction
C. a substantial increase
D. greater reduction
Question 38
1 out of 1 points
Correct
The phase of the general adaptation syndrome in which the body uses energy to draw on its stores of fat and muscle is called:
Selected Answer:
A. alarm.
Answers:
A. alarm.
B. exhaustion.
C. reaction.
D. resistance.
Question 39
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
All of these are features of an internally valid experiment EXCEPT:
Selected Answer:
B. a valid, powerful, reliable measure is used for the dependent variable.
Answers:
A. a correlation is observed between the independent and dependent variables.
B. a valid, powerful, reliable measure is used for the dependent variable.
C. an independent variable is manipulated.
D. the experimental and control groups differ on at least one third variable.
Question 40
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Which psychologist established the structuralism school of psychology in the United States?
Selected Answer:
B. Edward Titchener
Answers:
A. G. Stanley Hall
B. Edward Titchener
C. William James
D. John Watson
Question 41
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
You are at Niagara Falls, staring at the downward rush of the water for several seconds. When you then look at the nearby trees and rocks, they will seem to be:
Selected Answer:
D. moving downward.
Answers:
A. oscillating upward and downward.
B. spinning in a circular motion.
C. moving upward.
D. moving downward.
Question 42
1 out of 1 points
Correct
The heritability coefficient of intelligence is roughly:
Selected Answer:
A. .5.
Answers:
A. .5.
B. .7.
C. .8.
D. .6.
Question 43
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
Which statement about emotionally intelligent people is FALSE?
Selected Answer:
B. They know what kinds of emotions a particular event will trigger.
Answers:
A. They can identify, describe, and manage their emotions.
B. They know what kinds of emotions a particular event will trigger.
C. They use their emotions to make better decisions.
D. They exhibit high levels of neural activity when solving emotional problems.
Question 44
1 out of 1 points
Correct
fMRI scans measure _____ in the brain.
Selected Answer:
D. oxygenated hemoglobin
Answers:
A. electrical activity
B. radioactive glucose
C. tissue density
D. oxygenated hemoglobin
Question 45
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
Education typically produces _____ in intelligence.
Selected Answer:
C. large increases
Answers:
A. small increases
B. no changes
C. large increases
D. moderate increases
Question 46
1 out of 1 points
Correct
The _____ are structures mainly involved in orienting an organism in its environment.
Selected Answer:
B. tectum and tegmentum
Answers:
A. reticular formation and amygdala
B. tectum and tegmentum
C. thalamus and hypothalamus
D. cerebellum and pons
Question 47
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Mind wandering is the experience of stimulus-_____ thoughts.
Selected Answer:
A. independent
Answers:
A. independent
B. repetitive
C. dependent
D. triggered
Question 48
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
The modern view that the subjective experience of having a mind is the result of brain activity can be traced to which philosopher?
Selected Answer:
D. Descartes
Answers:
A. Hobbes
B. Plato
C. James
D. Descartes
Question 49
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
Jerry is asked to think of a word that rhymes with “motor.” Jimmy is asked to think about how a motor works. The next day, both men are asked, “Hey, what was the word that you heard yesterday that rhymes with ‘voter’?” _____ will be more likely to recall “motor” because _____.
Selected Answer:
A. Jimmy; semantic judgments almost always result in better encoding than rhyme judgments.
Answers:
A. Jimmy; semantic judgments almost always result in better encoding than rhyme judgments.
B. Jimmy; the retrieval context was sufficiently dissimilar from the encoding context.
C. Jerry; rhyme judgments almost always result in better encoding than semantic judgments.
D. Jerry; the encoding context matched the retrieval context.
Question 50
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Response is to stimulus as the:
Selected Answer:
A. pressing of the brakes is to a red traffic light.
Answers:
A. pressing of the brakes is to a red traffic light.
B. ringing of the alarm clock is to rolling out of bed.
C. firing of a gun at the start of the race is to running.
D. scurrying of a white rat at his feet is to fear in Little Albert.
Friday, January 15, 2016 4:40:42 PM EST
Recent research has indicated that two dimensions of mind perception are:
Selected Answer:
A. planning and memory.
Answers:
A. planning and memory.
B. agency and self-control.
C. experience and agency.
D. feeling and experience.
Question 2
1 out of 1 points
Correct
_____ detect how much of a neurotransmitter has been released into the synapse and signal the neuron to stop releasing the neurotransmitter if an excess is present.
Selected Answer:
B. Autoreceptors
Answers:
A. Reuptake inhibitors
B. Autoreceptors
C. Nodes of Ranvier
D. Vesicles
Question 3
1 out of 1 points
Correct
After a few minutes of being in the elephant house at the zoo, the foul smell no longer affects you. This is due to which process?
Selected Answer:
C. sensory adaptation
Answers:
A. ORN antagonism
B. sensory accommodation
C. sensory adaptation
D. the valence-centered approach
Question 4
1 out of 1 points
Correct
The tendency to seek evidence to confirm the self-concept is called:
Selected Answer:
C. self-verification.
Answers:
A. self-analysis.
B. the self-fulfilling prophecy.
C. self-verification.
D. self-relevance.
Question 5
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Light waves corresponding to colors in the visual spectrum are typically measured in terms of:
Selected Answer:
C. nanometers.
Answers:
A. millimeters.
B. picometers.
C. nanometers.
D. micrometers.
Question 6
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
Family therapy is particularly effective when:
Selected Answer:
A. a parent is suffering from a psychological disorder.
Answers:
A. a parent is suffering from a psychological disorder.
B. all members of the family are adults.
C. adolescent children are involved.
D. the parents are divorced.
Question 7
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Kelly has been feeling very sad for a month. Her sadness is so pronounced that she has not showered for days on end, sometimes has forgotten to eat, and has not been interested in doing anything. Kelly probably has:
Selected Answer:
D. unipolar depression.
Answers:
A. double depression.
B. SAD.
C. dysthymia.
D. unipolar depression.
Question 8
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Short-term memory can hold:
Selected Answer:
A. approximately seven meaningful items.
Answers:
A. approximately seven meaningful items.
B. an unlimited amount of information.
C. a seven-digit telephone number but not a list of seven words.
D. information for no more than 3 minutes.
Question 9
1 out of 1 points
Correct
The genetic influence on intelligence is illustrated by the finding that:
Selected Answer:
D. identical twins reared apart are more similar than fraternal twins reared together.
Answers:
A. unrelated siblings raised together are more similar than related siblings reared apart.
B. identical twins living together are more similar than identical twins living apart.
C. parents and biological children living together are more similar than parents and biological children living apart.
D. identical twins reared apart are more similar than fraternal twins reared together.
Question 10
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Environmental factors that are experienced by all relevant members of a household are called the:
Selected Answer:
D. shared environment.
Answers:
A. nonshared environment.
B. heritability coefficient.
C. collective unconsciousness.
D. shared environment.
Question 11
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Which of these will NOT increase the effectiveness of analogical problem?
Selected Answer:
C. The analogical problem differs in superficial similarity from the original problem.
Answers:
A. More than one analogous problem is available for use in solving the original problem.
B. A deliberate hint is provided to use the solution to the analogous problem in solving the original problem.
C. The analogical problem differs in superficial similarity from the original problem.
D. The analogical problem has a known solution.
Question 12
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
When presented with information that is inconsistent with their attitudes or beliefs, people generally ask themselves which question?
Selected Answer:
C. What would be the social repercussions if I change my mind on this issue?
Answers:
A. Is this information flawed or limited in some way?
B. Is this evidence stronger than the evidence consistent with my beliefs?
C. What would be the social repercussions if I change my mind on this issue?
D. Is there any evidence here that would make me reconsider my opinion?
Question 13
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
The defining feature of consciousness which separates it from unconsciousness is:
Selected Answer:
B. activation-synthesis.
Answers:
A. experience.
B. activation-synthesis.
C. forebrain activity.
D. wakefulness.
Question 14
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Another term for correspondence bias is:
Selected Answer:
C. the fundamental attribution error.
Answers:
A. the actor-observer effect.
B. the primacy effect.
C. the fundamental attribution error.
D. dispositional confirmation.
Question 15
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
Who is at greatest risk for burnout?
Selected Answer:
B. a medical doctor who typically works 12-hour shifts but loves spending time with his family on his days off
Answers:
A. an emergency room physician who also is very competitive tennis player at her country club
B. a medical doctor who typically works 12-hour shifts but loves spending time with his family on his days off
C. a high school teacher who bases her self-worth on how well her students succeed
D. a college professor who decides to teach an extra course in order to increase his paycheck
Question 16
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Memories are:
Selected Answer:
C. constructed by the brain.
Answers:
A. recorded into the brain.
B. duplicated by the brain into perceptual experiences.
C. constructed by the brain.
D. transformed by the brain into elemental sensory components.
Question 17
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
Presented as a continuum, which Big Five personality factor ranges from social to retiring?
Selected Answer:
A. neuroticism
Answers:
A. neuroticism
B. openness to experience
C. agreeableness
D. extraversion
Question 18
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Aggression is defined as behavior where the purpose is to:
Selected Answer:
B. harm another.
Answers:
A. impulsively take something from another person.
B. harm another.
C. take premeditated action to achieve a goal.
D. use physical violence to achieve a goal.
Question 19
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
Semantics refer to the _____ structure of a sentence.
Selected Answer:
C. morphological
Answers:
A. syntactical
B. phonetic
C. morphological
D. deep
Question 20
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Deep structure refers to the _____ of a sentence.
Selected Answer:
D. meaning
Answers:
A. grammar
B. morphology
C. wording
D. meaning
Question 21
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Errors of perception, memory, or judgment in which subjective experience differs from objective reality are called:
Selected Answer:
D. illusions.
Answers:
A. memory lapses.
B. Freudian slips.
C. Gestalts.
D. illusions.
Question 22
1 out of 1 points
Correct
You are volunteering at a psychiatric ward for the summer. On your first day, a man comes up to you and says you have very pretty eyes and asks your name. You thank him and give him your name. For the next four days, the same man approaches you, says you have pretty eyes, and asks for your name. After a week, you ask a doctor on the ward about this man, and the doctor tells you that the man suffers from:
Selected Answer:
B. anterograde amnesia.
Answers:
A. retroactive interference.
B. anterograde amnesia.
C. proactive interference.
D. retrograde amnesia.
Question 23
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Ideally, a measurement should have validity, reliability, and _____ in order to be useful to scientists.
Selected Answer:
D. power
Answers:
A. consistency
B. accuracy
C. definition
D. power
Question 24
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Researchers wanted to see if adults were actually afraid of the dark by exposing them to different levels of light in a room while measuring their heart rates. In this experiment, what are the heart rates of the participants?
Selected Answer:
C. dependent variable
Answers:
A. experimental group
B. control group
C. dependent variable
D. independent variable
Question 25
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
The distinctive characteristic of REM sleep is the presence of:
Selected Answer:
C. delta-wave brain activity interspersed with hypnic jerks.
Answers:
A. low-frequency brain waves large in magnitude.
B. sawtooth brain wave activity resembling beta waves.
C. delta-wave brain activity interspersed with hypnic jerks.
D. sleep spindles and k-complexes.
Question 26
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Gary’s ex-girlfriend enters the bar with her new boyfriend. According to the alcohol myopia theory, Gary might:
Selected Answer:
C. become overly emotional and make a scene.
Answers:
A. experience inattentional blindness and fail to perceive her new boyfriend.
B. casually say, “Hi” and go back to conversing with his friends.
C. become overly emotional and make a scene.
D. purposefully keep some distance so that his ex will be out of sight.
Question 27
1 out of 1 points
Correct
The strengthening of synaptic connections that result in more efficient processing of information in the brain is known as:
Selected Answer:
A. long-term potentiation.
Answers:
A. long-term potentiation.
B. transfer-appropriate processing.
C. neural networks.
D. flashbulb memory.
Question 28
1 out of 1 points
Correct
_____ are released by white blood cells and stimulate the vagus nerve, producing a sickness response.
Selected Answer:
A. Cytokines
Answers:
A. Cytokines
B. Monoamines
C. Catecholamines
D. Glucocorticoids
Question 29
1 out of 1 points
Correct
In studying the correlation between the amount of time children watch violence on television and children’s levels of aggressiveness, researchers found that a lack of adult supervision could be a third variable. To control for the third variable, researchers observed children who experienced different amounts of supervision. They made sure that for every child observed who watched a lot of violence on television and was supervised X% of the time, they also observed another child who did not watch a lot of violence on television and was supervised X% of the time. This method is called:
Selected Answer:
B. matched pairs.
Answers:
A. manipulation.
B. matched pairs.
C. third-variable correlation.
D. matched samples.
Question 30
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
Not providing a reinforcer every time a response occurs:
Selected Answer:
A. may negatively reinforce the behavior.
Answers:
A. may negatively reinforce the behavior.
B. may strengthen the behavior.
C. will extinguish the behavior.
D. will negatively punish the behavior.
Question 31
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Mary lives with her identical twin Carrie, her older brother Larry, her parents Harry and Teri, and her grandfather Jerry. Consider the percentage of genes shared by Mary and Teri. This percentage is the same as those shared by:
Selected Answer:
C. Carrie and Larry.
Answers:
A. Mary and Jerry.
B. Mary and Carrie.
C. Carrie and Larry.
D. Harry and Teri.
Question 32
1 out of 1 points
Correct
The main reason that humans are one of the few species to have long, committed relationships is that:
Selected Answer:
B. human infants are born before they are fully developed and thus need a lot of care.
Answers:
A. we are the most socially complex of all species and thus need a partner to help us perform many socially important tasks.
B. human infants are born before they are fully developed and thus need a lot of care.
C. societal pressures to choose and remain with a mate are enormous.
D. the stability of a monogamous relationship allows us to focus on our jobs and careers.
Question 33
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
Compared with dispositional attributions, situational attributions tend to be:
Selected Answer:
C. equally complex.
Answers:
A. less complex.
B. more complex.
C. equally complex.
D. used more often.
Question 34
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
Recent research has shown that a testosterone-based odor activated the _____ in homosexual men and _____.
Selected Answer:
A. thalamus; heterosexual women
Answers:
A. thalamus; heterosexual women
B. hypothalamus; homosexual women
C. thalamus; heterosexual men
D. hypothalamus; heterosexual women
Question 35
1 out of 1 points
Correct
The ethical analysis and reporting of scientific results is regulated by:
Selected Answer:
B. the honor system.
Answers:
A. federal grant agency systems.
B. the honor system.
C. institutional review boards (IRBs).
D. national review boards (NRBs).
Question 36
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
Jeff is 33 years old, intelligent, and outgoing. In college, he majored in English and was very concerned with current political issues. Which of these BEST describes Jeff?
Selected Answer:
B. Jeff is a bank teller who writes nonfiction stories, does crossword puzzles, and is active in his local government.
Answers:
A. Jeff is a bank teller and writes nonfiction stories.
B. Jeff is a bank teller who writes nonfiction stories, does crossword puzzles, and is active in his local government.
C. Jeff is a bank teller.
D. Jeff is a bank teller who writes nonfiction stories and does crossword puzzles.
Question 37
1 out of 1 points
Correct
The myelin wrapped around an axon serves:
Selected Answer:
C. to increase the efficiency of transmission of the neuron.
Answers:
A. as a special immune defense for the neuron.
B. as a resistor that slows the speed of transmission of the neuron.
C. to increase the efficiency of transmission of the neuron.
D. no functional purpose.
Question 38
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
PET imaging has revealed that auditory hallucinations are accompanied by the activation of the:
Selected Answer:
D. amygdala.
Answers:
A. Broca’s area.
B. hippocampus.
C. right prefrontal cortex.
D. amygdala.
Question 39
1 out of 1 points
Correct
People in a mob situation are more likely to stray from their own moral values, illustrating the phenomenon of:
Selected Answer:
C. deindividuation.
Answers:
A. diffusion of responsibility.
B. prejudice.
C. deindividuation.
D. conformity.
Question 40
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Behavior by two or more individuals that leads to mutual benefit is called:
Selected Answer:
A. cooperation.
Answers:
A. cooperation.
B. altruism.
C. reciprocity.
D. social exchange.
Question 41
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
Which of these domains of intelligence tend to decrease the least with age?
Selected Answer:
B. reasoning under time constraints
Answers:
A. verbal reasoning
B. reasoning under time constraints
C. reasoning about spatial relationships
D. abstract reasoning
Question 42
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
According to evolutionary psychology, jealousy:
Selected Answer:
C. hinders the ability to attract but facilitates the ability to keep a mate today.
Answers:
A. hindered reproduction in our ancestors through a decrease in “jealous genes.”
B. aided reproductive success in our ancestors.
C. hinders the ability to attract but facilitates the ability to keep a mate today.
D. facilitates reproductive success today.
Question 43
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
The WAIS consists of _____ core subtests.
Selected Answer:
C. 13
Answers:
A. 10
B. 34
C. 13
D. 7
Question 44
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
When a neuron is at rest, there is a high concentration of _____ ions outside the cell relative to the inside.
Selected Answer:
B. positively charged potassium
Answers:
A. positively charged chloride
B. positively charged potassium
C. negatively charged protein
D. positively charged sodium
Question 45
1 out of 1 points
Correct
For most people, cognitive abilities are at their sharpest in:
Selected Answer:
A. early adulthood.
Answers:
A. early adulthood.
B. adolescence.
C. late adulthood.
D. middle adulthood.
Question 46
1 out of 1 points
Correct
A type of neuron that carries information from the cerebellum to the rest of the brain and spinal cord is a:
Selected Answer:
B. Purkinje cell.
Answers:
A. bipolar cell.
B. Purkinje cell.
C. nucleus.
D. motor neuron.
Question 47
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
A college student taking introductory psychology decides to test Piaget’s theories of mental development on his 10-year-old sister who loves hot dogs and is very hungry. He shows her two hot dogs. Then, while she is watching, he breaks one of the hot dogs in half. He asks if she would like one hot dog (the intact hot dog) or two hot dogs (the hot dog cut in half). Consistent with Piaget’s findings, the girl probably will:
Selected Answer:
C. select the hot dog cut in half.
Answers:
A. state that both choices are the same.
B. become confused and have trouble deciding.
C. select the hot dog cut in half.
D. select the intact hot dog.
Question 48
1 out of 1 points
Correct
All of these are known benefits of relaxation therapy EXCEPT reduced:
Selected Answer:
D. levels of GABA.
Answers:
A. cortisol levels.
B. stress.
C. blood pressure.
D. levels of GABA.
Question 49
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
Belief-neutral reasoning is to belief-laden reasoning as:
Selected Answer:
C. theoretical reasoning is to discursive reasoning.
Answers:
A. abstract processes are to previously encoded memories.
B. left frontal lobe is to right frontal lobe.
C. theoretical reasoning is to discursive reasoning.
D. frontal lobe is to parietal lobe.
Question 50
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
Which teen is most at risk for becoming pregnant?
Selected Answer:
B. Maribel, who lives in England
Answers:
A. Nita, who lives in Denmark
B. Maribel, who lives in England
C. Marcy, who lives in the United States
D. Sufi, who lives in the Netherlands

1 out of 1 points
Correct
The scientific method was first formalized by:
Selected Answer:
D. Bacon.
Answers:
A. Descartes.
B. Newton.
C. Galileo.
D. Bacon.
Question 2
1 out of 1 points
Correct
One type of photoreceptors that detect color, operate in daylight, and permit us to focus on fine detail is called:
Selected Answer:
C. cones.
Answers:
A. rods.
B. area V1 neurons.
C. cones.
D. retinal ganglion cells.
Question 3
1 out of 1 points
Correct
In one alcohol myopia study, men watched a video of women behaving either friendly or unfriendly. One group of men watched the videos after consuming alcohol and a second group watched the videos sober. The men were then asked if they would make an aggressive sexual advance to the women in the videos. Which outcome is MOST likely?
Selected Answer:
D. The intoxicated men were more likely than the sober men to make an aggressive sexual advance to the friendly women.
Answers:
A. The intoxicated men were more likely than the sober men to make an aggressive sexual advance to the unfriendly women.
B. Both groups of men were equally likely to make an aggressive sexual advance to the friendly women.
C. Both groups of men were more likely to make an aggressive sexual advance to the unfriendly women than the friendly women.
D. The intoxicated men were more likely than the sober men to make an aggressive sexual advance to the friendly women.
Question 4
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Formal operational thinking is characterized by the ability to:
Selected Answer:
A. reason about abstract concepts.
Answers:
A. reason about abstract concepts.
B. show egocentrism.
C. display reversibility.
D. deal with physical facts.
Question 5
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
Which expression is a sentence?
Selected Answer:
D. the dogs, who were barking very noisily
Answers:
A. the dogs
B. dogs bark
C. dogs
D. the dogs, who were barking very noisily
Question 6
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
Jeffrey Gray’s ideas on arousability include the notion that the _____ system suppresses behavior in response to the anticipation of _____.
Selected Answer:
D. behavioral activation; reward
Answers:
A. behavioral repression; punishment
B. behavioral inhibition; punishment
C. behavioral regulation; reward
D. behavioral activation; reward
Question 7
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Approximately what percentage of U.S. veterans of recent operations in Iraq met criteria for PTSD after their deployment?
Selected Answer:
C. 12
Answers:
A. 22
B. 42
C. 12
D. 32
Question 8
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Kerrie wants to understand how perceptions, beliefs, and memories activate different regions in the brain. Which field of psychology would you suggest Kerrie explore?
Selected Answer:
B. cognitive neuroscience
Answers:
A. cognitive psychology
B. cognitive neuroscience
C. evolutionary psychology
D. structuralism
Question 9
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Which component of the neuron houses the chromosomes, the genetic blueprint of an individual?
Selected Answer:
C. nucleus
Answers:
A. dendrite
B. ribosome
C. nucleus
D. axon
Question 10
1 out of 1 points
Correct
The avoidant personality type differs from the schizoid personality type in that the:
Selected Answer:
A. avoidant personality type yearns for social contact, whereas the schizoid personality type does not.
Answers:
A. avoidant personality type yearns for social contact, whereas the schizoid personality type does not.
B. schizoid personality type clings to people and fears losing them, whereas the avoidant personality type does not.
C. schizoid personality type engages in magical thinking, whereas the avoidant personality type does not.
D. avoidant personality type suspects that people have sinister motives, whereas the schizoid personality type does not.
Question 11
1 out of 1 points
Correct
_____ refers to how things seem to the _____ person.
Selected Answer:
D. Phenomenology; conscious
Answers:
A. Phrenology; conscious
B. Phenomenology; unconscious
C. Phrenology; unconscious
D. Phenomenology; conscious
Question 12
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
_____ twins develop from two separate fertilized eggs and share _____ percent of their genes.
Selected Answer:
D. Dizygotic; 100
Answers:
A. Monozygotic; 100
B. Dizygotic; 50
C. Monozygotic; 50
D. Dizygotic; 100
Question 13
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Which statement about the relationship between SES and intelligence is FALSE?
Selected Answer:
D. Low SES children are exposed to fewer toxins than high SES children so their intelligence does not differ
Answers:
A. Poverty can actually impair brain development.
B. At age 3, high-SES children know about 50 percent more words than low-SES children.
C. Summer vacation from school lowers intelligence in low-SES children but not high-SES children.
D. Low SES children are exposed to fewer toxins than high SES children so their intelligence does not differ
Question 14
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Compared to that of hawks and other raptors, the visual acuity of humans is:
Selected Answer:
B. much less.
Answers:
A. much greater.
B. much less.
C. slightly less
D. about the same.
Question 15
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
The genes of a child will have most in common with the genes of a(n):
Selected Answer:
C. parent.
Answers:
A. sibling.
B. fraternal twin.
C. parent.
D. identical twin.
Question 16
1 out of 1 points
Correct
The key function of cortisol is to:
Selected Answer:
B. increase blood glucose levels for use by the muscles.
Answers:
A. increase blood lipid levels for use by the muscles.
B. increase blood glucose levels for use by the muscles.
C. induce the release of ACTH from the pineal gland.
D. decrease the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system.
Question 17
1 out of 1 points
Correct
One day when Max was bowling, his shoelaces came untied and he bowled a strike. From then onward, Max always bowled with his shoes untied. This action is an example of:
Selected Answer:
C. superstitious behavior.
Answers:
A. classical conditioning.
B. negative reinforcement.
C. superstitious behavior.
D. intermittent reinforcement.
Question 18
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Dolphins are trained to do amazing tricks MOST likely through a process called:
Selected Answer:
D. shaping.
Answers:
A. habituation.
B. classical conditioning.
C. trial and error.
D. shaping.
Question 19
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
A grammar rule contains which two categories of rules?
Selected Answer:
A. noun phrases and verb phrases
Answers:
A. noun phrases and verb phrases
B. morphological and syntactical
C. deep structure and surface structure
D. phonological and morphological
Question 20
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Which statement about the problem of other minds is true?
Selected Answer:
D. It cannot be proven if anyone else besides you even experiences consciousness.
Answers:
A. By studying another person in tremendous detail, psychologists ultimately will be able to truly know that it is like to be that person.
B. You can quickly assess if your roommate is or is not an unconscious zombie by asking her how she feels.
C. The “consciousness meter” of anesthesiologists has produced tremendous insight into the conscious experiences of other minds.
D. It cannot be proven if anyone else besides you even experiences consciousness.
Question 21
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
In a series of studies by Delgado and colleagues, participants chose between receiving one dollar or giving their partner three dollars. If given money, the partners could choose to split it with the participants or keep it. Prior to the study, participants read descriptions of their partners that described them as either trustworthy or untrustworthy. Delgado and colleagues found that participants based their decision to give money to their partners largely on:
Selected Answer:
D. the direction of the discrepancy between the descriptions and how the partners actually behaved.
Answers:
A. the written descriptions.
B. what the partners actually did in the game.
C. the consistency with which the partners acted according to the written descriptions.
D. the direction of the discrepancy between the descriptions and how the partners actually behaved.
Question 22
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Which lobe of the cerebral cortex is mainly involved in processing auditory information?
Selected Answer:
A. temporal
Answers:
A. temporal
B. frontal
C. parietal
D. occipital
Question 23
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
Family studies suggest some hereditary component to panic disorder, with _____ percent of the variance in liability for developing panic disorder attributed to genetic influence.
Selected Answer:
C. 20-30
Answers:
A. 30-40
B. 10-20
C. 20-30
D. 40-50
Question 24
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Marian reports seeing vampires outside her house every evening; no one else has reported vampires or anything else in the area. Marian has not been under the influence of any substances when she has made these sightings. Marion is experiencing:
Selected Answer:
A. hallucinations.
Answers:
A. hallucinations.
B. a stupor.
C. delusions.
D. grossly disorganized behavior.
Question 25
1 out of 1 points
Correct
If we think of the brain as a machine that uses old information to produce new information, then _____ intelligence refers to the way the machine runs, and _____ intelligence refers to the information it uses and produces.
Selected Answer:
A. fluid; crystallized
Answers:
A. fluid; crystallized
B. practical; creative
C. creative; fluid
D. crystallized; practical
Question 26
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
The reason why putting a Band-Aid on a toddler’s stomach might reduce her tummy-ache but not reduce the gastrointestinal distress of an adult is that:
Selected Answer:
C. toddlers are more susceptible to classical conditioning than adults.
Answers:
A. adults have more pain receptors in their intestines than toddlers.
B. toddlers have less active anterior cingulate cortices than adults.
C. toddlers are more susceptible to classical conditioning than adults.
D. adults do not have the conscious expectation that the Band-Aid will work.
Question 27
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
The tendency of a previously extinguished behavior to reoccur following a rest period is called:
Selected Answer:
B. generalization.
Answers:
A. acquisition.
B. generalization.
C. spontaneous recovery.
D. sensitization.
Question 28
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Carrie is working with a patient to uncover the patient’s early experiences as well as trying to bring unconscious anxieties and conflicts into awareness. Carrie is using which approach to work with her patient?
Selected Answer:
D. psychoanalytical
Answers:
A. humanistic
B. Gestalt
C. cognitive
D. psychoanalytical
Question 29
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Callie visited a dance club where the songs were “oldies but goodies.” Although she had not gone dancing in more than 20 years, Callie remembered the lyrics to most of the songs. This was MOST likely because:
Selected Answer:
B. the information was stored in her long-term memory.
Answers:
A. she used an acoustic encoding strategy.
B. the information was stored in her long-term memory.
C. semantic memories are more easily recalled than procedural memories.
D. the hippocampus ages more slowly than the rest of the brain.
Question 30
1 out of 1 points
Correct
“You scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours” illustrates the principle of:
Selected Answer:
A. reciprocal altruism.
Answers:
A. reciprocal altruism.
B. social exchange.
C. social cognition.
D. equity.
Question 31
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
Sensorineural hearing loss may be caused by damage to the:
Selected Answer:
B. eardrum.
Answers:
A. hair cells.
B. eardrum.
C. ossicles.
D. Wernicke’s area.
Question 32
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
Rescorla and Wagner theorized that a stimulus will only become a CS when it is _____ the US.
Selected Answer:
B. sometimes paired with
Answers:
A. similar to
B. sometimes paired with
C. perceived as
D. a reliable indicator of
Question 33
1 out of 1 points
Correct
People suffering from the same disorder as patient HM most probably would not be able to:
Selected Answer:
C. remember the plot to the movie that they watched a few hours ago.
Answers:
A. play a song learned long ago on the piano.
B. recognize their immediate family members.
C. remember the plot to the movie that they watched a few hours ago.
D. remember the names of their high school classmates.
Question 34
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Allison has been diagnosed with an eating disorder. Her eating disorder seems to be related to her overcontrolling parents, perhaps being her way of having some control. What kind of therapy would be MOST helpful to Allison and her parents?
Selected Answer:
B. family
Answers:
A. group
B. family
C. humanistic
D. interpersonal
Question 35
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
Which statement about siblings with significantly different IQs is true?
Selected Answer:
D. Despite differing in intelligence, siblings will earn approximately the same income.
Answers:
A. The less intelligent sibling will earn approximately half the income as the more intelligent sibling.
B. Despite differing in intelligence, the siblings will receive approximately the same number of years of education.
C. The less intelligent sibling will tend to have a faster reaction time on basic tasks than the more intelligent sibling.
D. Despite differing in intelligence, siblings will earn approximately the same income.
Question 36
1 out of 1 points
Correct
The learning process involves the _____ of new knowledge, skills, or responses as a function of _____.
Selected Answer:
D. acquisition; experience
Answers:
A. gradual accumulation; education
B. development; time
C. growth; maturity
D. acquisition; experience
Question 37
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Marjorie is a graduating senior with an undergraduate degree in psychology. She wants to become a clinical psychologist. Which statement regarding Marjorie’s education is true?
Selected Answer:
A. Marjorie still needs approximately 5 years of graduate school.
Answers:
A. Marjorie still needs approximately 5 years of graduate school.
B. Marjorie still needs approximately 2 years of graduate school.
C. Marjorie still needs approximately 6 years of medical school.
D. Marjorie requires no more education to be a clinical psychologist but must pass state licensing boards.
Question 38
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
According to _____, information conveyed by odorant chemicals first leads to its identification and this identification may then elicit an emotional response.
Selected Answer:
A. parts-based object recognition
Answers:
A. parts-based object recognition
B. the object-centered approach
C. the valence-centered approach
D. the place code
Question 39
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
Sir Francis Galton studied _____ and concluded that intelligence is largely determined by _____.
Selected Answer:
A. poor families; environment
Answers:
A. poor families; environment
B. identical twins; heredity
C. eminent families; heredity
D. identical twins; environment
Question 40
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
Checking your e-mail is reinforced with receiving important e-mails at unpredictable times according to which schedule of reinforcement?
Selected Answer:
B. fixed interval
Answers:
A. variable ratio
B. fixed interval
C. variable interval
D. continuous
Question 41
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
The stigma associated with mental disorders may explain why most people with diagnosable psychological disorders, approximately _____ percent, do not seek treatment.
Selected Answer:
B. 70
Answers:
A. 90
B. 70
C. 80
D. 60
Question 42
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Being fully awake is to quiet resting as:
Selected Answer:
D. beta-wave activity is to alpha-wave activity.
Answers:
A. theta-wave activity is to beta-wave activity.
B. beta-wave activity is to delta-wave activity.
C. sleep spindles are to rapid eye movements.
D. beta-wave activity is to alpha-wave activity.
Question 43
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Jose is terrified that someone is going to break into his house; he checks his locks dozens of times each day and sets up traps to detect the presence of intruders when he is away. It is likely that Jose has:
Selected Answer:
A. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Answers:
A. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
B. social phobia.
C. panic disorder.
D. agoraphobia.
Question 44
1 out of 1 points
Correct
_____ refers to the purpose for or psychological cause of an action.
Selected Answer:
B. Motivation
Answers:
A. Emotion
B. Motivation
C. Cognition
D. Expression
Question 45
1 out of 1 points
Correct
Memories are made by:
Selected Answer:
A. combining existing information in the brain with new information from our senses.
Answers:
A. combining existing information in the brain with new information from our senses.
B. recording information coming in from our senses.
C. creating exact duplicates of perceptual experiences in the hippocampus.
D. transforming perceptions into sensory experiences.
Question 46
1 out of 1 points
Correct
When recalling the morning of September 11, 2001, Rob is able to describe what he was doing and saying at the moment the principal of his middle school opened the classroom door to advise the class to turn on the television. Rob’s ability to describe the day’s events in detail is an example of:
Selected Answer:
B. a flashbulb memory.
Answers:
A. transience.
B. a flashbulb memory.
C. blocking.
D. a semantic memory.
Question 47
1 out of 1 points
Correct
The correlation between a person’s score on a standard intelligence test and his or her academic performance is roughly _____ across a wide range of people and situations.
Selected Answer:
D. r = .5
Answers:
A. r = .3
B. r = .7
C. r = .9
D. r = .5
Question 48
1 out of 1 points
Correct
The actor Christopher Reeve died from complications related to:
Selected Answer:
B. spinal cord injury.
Answers:
A. Parkinson’s disease.
B. spinal cord injury.
C. multiple sclerosis.
D. Alzheimer’s disease.
Question 49
0 out of 1 points
Incorrect
Standards of ideal female beauty over thousands of years show that the ideal size _____ and the ideal hip-to-waist ratio _____.
Selected Answer:
A. changes; changes
Answers:
A. changes; changes
B. remains constant; changes
C. changes; remains constant
D. remains constant; remains constant
Question 50
1 out of 1 points
Correct
The outermost layer of the retina consists of:
Selected Answer:
B. retinal ganglion cells.
Answers:
A. bipolar cells.
B. retinal ganglion cells.
C. rods and cones.
D. the cornea.