Natural selection is illustrated by changes in the coloration of the Peppered Moth resulting from _______.
The gollypod, a fictitious aquatic animal, breaks out in a cold sweat whenever exposed to the sun. This reaction is most likely ______.
A reflex is ________.
a relationship between an event and a simple response
Modal action patterns are induced by events called ______.
The person who demonstrated that the marching of tropical army ants is not intelligent behavior is ______.
The cowbird deposits its eggs in the nests of other birds. This is most likely a ________.
modal action pattern
The rooting of pigs (for worms, larvae, and truffles) is an example of a
The list of alleged human instincts ______.
has gotten shorter over the years
The best title for the figure below is _________.
fearfulness and heredity
The chief advantage of learning over natural selection as a means of adapting to change is that learning _______.
Lee Cronk wrote an article on how evolved behavior can prove nonadaptive when the environment changes. The article was called ________.
Old Dogs, Old Tricks
Natural selection is often _______.
behind the times
Most mutations _______.
are not helpful to survival
Learning is evolved _________.
The author of your text evidently believes that _______.
learning is a way of adapting to change
_____ changes when learning occurs.
Behavior refers to anything a person or animal does that can be
Steven says that he was very nervous when he first attended college classes, but now he feels quite relaxed. Steven’s loss of anxiety is most likely an example of _______.
Teenagerus Americanus, a two-legged ape indigenous to North America, breaks out in a cold sweat whenever exposed to elevator music. This reaction is most likely ______.
Experience refers to ________.
changes in the environment
A thumbtack stuck in a bulletin board several feet away is less likely to affect your behavior than a thumbtack placed on the chair on which you are sitting. Even though both examples involve a thumbtack, the second is more likely to qualify as a ________.
The figure below most likely illustrates _______.
Zing Yang Kuo found that 86% of kittens that saw their mothers kill rats later killed rats themselves. He found that _____ of kittens that never saw their mothers kill rats later killed rats themselves.
Hart and Risley did a longitudinal study of the influence of the home verbal environment on children from different socioeconomic backgrounds. They found that _______.
children whose parents talked to them a lot later scored higher on IQ tests
Learning is a biological mechanism.
Malthus’ book, An Essay on the Principle of Population, had a strong influence on Darwin.
In Darwin’s day, the laws governing inheritance were not generally known.
The evolution of most species is now complete.
All reflexes contribute to survival.
Reflexes are generally less variable than modal action patterns.
Darwin believed that there were no human instincts.
A major problem with natural selection as an adaptive mechanism is that it is slow.
Natural selection helps the individual adapt to changes in its environment.
Natural selection helps the species adapt to change, not the individual.
The cross-breeding of closely related species is called hybridization.
Some people have genes from Homo neanderthalensis.
Your text views learning as a change in the brain that is represented in behavior.
It is sometimes difficult to say whether an event is behavior or physiology.
The author of your text excludes thoughts and feelings from the realm of behavior.
The word stimulus always refers to events in an organism’s surroundings
Learning always involves the acquisition of new behaviors.
The evidence from biology suggests that the first “eyes” were not eyes at all, but_______.
The brown-headed cowbird puts its eggs in other birds’s nests. This is an example of a ______.
modal action pattern/fixed action pattern/instinct
The chief limitation of natural selection as a means of adapting to change is that ___________.
it is slow/takes place over generations/helps the species but not the individual
_______, like natural selection, is a biological mechanism for adapting to change.
Learning is a change in behavior due to ________.
A stimulus is an environmental event that is capable of affecting _______.
Repeated exposure to a stimulus that evokes a reflex response results in ________.
The dispute over the relative importance of genetics and learning is often called the ________ debate.
The person who suggested that to learn how nature works, we must “sit down before fact as a little child,” and “be prepared to give up every preconceived notion” was ______.
T. H. Huxley
Harry teaches an advanced painting class. His goal is to teach students to paint more creatively. Harry will probably measure learning as a change in response _________.
Marjorie drives a school bus. Sometimes the kids get rather noisy. She decides to play music the kids like through speakers on the bus, but whenever the kids get too noisy she turns the music off. When they quiet down, she turns the music back on. In this way, she hopes to get the kids to make less noise. Marjorie is probably going to measure learning as a change in response _________.
The figure below shows learning as a change in ___________.
The figure below shows learning as a change in __________.
In a cumulative record, learning is indicated by a change in response _______.
A teacher who looks for an increase in the number of correct performances per minute is using _______ as a measure of learning.
In the cumulative record below, the rate of behavior is ________.
A person who says, “Everyone knows that….” is referring to _______.
The figure below shows the results of an experiment comparing the effects of two teaching methods. Phyllis was taught by method A; Gertrude was taught by method B. This study is an example of _______.
a between-subjects design
Any variable an experimenter manipulates is a(n) ________ variable.
Any variable that is allowed to vary freely is a(n) __________ variable.
The figure below shows the results of an experiment on the effects of heat on aggressive social behavior. Each rat experienced three temperatures. There was a sharp increase in the rate of aggressive behavior in all rats when the temperature went above 90. This study is best described as ________.
a within-subject experiment
The kind of experiment that is most likely to require statistical analysis is a(n) _______.
In within-subject experiments, each subject’s performance is compared with his or her performance during a ______.
In group-design experiments, researchers often use _________ to reduce differences among participants.
The kind of study that is most likely to involve a large number of subjects is one with a ________.
Using an ABA reversal design is rather like using a ______.
The first person to use a single-subject reversal design was probably ____________.
Experiments done in natural settings are called _______.
Experimental research on behavior is often said to be artificial. To compensate for this problem, researchers do ________ .
An _____________ is something an organism tries to escape or avoid.
One problem with computer simulations as a substitute for animal research is that ___________.
no one knows what behavior to program until the research has been done
Balster suggests that inhumane treatment of research animals is __________.
A computer simulation that is useful for teaching certain principles of learning is called _________.
Sniffy the Virtual Rat
One highly readable little book on research methods mentioned in your text is called _________.
Psychological Research: An Introduction
The natural science approach assumes that things are caused only by natural events.
Speed and rate are different terms for the same measure of learning.
A cumulative record shows the total number of responses that have occurred in a given period of time as well as the rate at which they occurred.
B. F. Skinner was the first person to record data cumulatively.
Research results with humans usually parallel those with animals.
A change in the form that behavior takes is called a change in ________.
Response _______ refers to the time that passes before a response occurs.
Your text describes four basic sources of evidence: anecdotal, case study, descriptive study, experimental study. The least reliable of these is ______.
A flat cumulative record indicates that the behavior is ________.
One thing researchers can control better with animal subjects than with human subjects is _________.
genetic history/environmental history/learning experiences
Pavlov became interested in psychic reflexes around ________.
Pavlov’s main interest initially was ______.
Pavlov was a ________.
________ said that Pavlov was one of the greatest geniuses of all time.
H G Wells
George Bernard Shaw said that Pavlov was __________.
the biggest fool he knew
Many people think of scientists as dull people without feelings, but Pavlov said that science requires ______________.
Pavlov is best described as ________.
an experimenter from head to foot
Ivan Pavlov is best known for his research on the ________.
The author of your text uses the terms unconditional reflex and conditional reflex, but he notes that most authors use the terms _______ and _______ reflexes.
conditioned and unconditioned
Pavlov said that the salivary glands behaved as though they had ________.
What fascinated Pavlov most about his salivating dogs was that _________.
the dogs began to salivate before receiving food
In studying “psychic secretions,” Pavlov focused his attention on the ________.
events in the dog’s environment
Pavlov called reflexes present at birth ________.
The term ___________ response refers to an innate reflex response to a stimulus.
__________ stimuli are typically events that are important to survival.
The notation that best describes the Pavlovian procedure is _______
John, “Mr. Anxiety,” finally musters up the courage to ask the beautiful and popular Carole to go to the movies. She finds the idea so ridiculous that she laughs out loud the instant he has gotten the question out. John’s face turns the color of a steamed lobster. In classical conditioning terms, John’s experience is an example of ________.
A week later John (see above item) bumps into Carole on campus, feels his face turn red and recalls with embarrassment their earlier encounter. Carole has become a _______.
CS for blushing
Pavlovian conditioning is also called ________ conditioning.
J. M. Graham and Claude Desjardins established a(n) ______ as a CS for sexual arousal in rats.
The experiment in which a dog learned to salivate at the sight of a black square after it had been paired with a CS for salivating is an example of _________ conditioning.
The experiments of Staats and Staats with nonsense syllables are examples of ____________ conditioning.
Higher-order conditioning is probably most important to ___________.
One way to determine if conditioning has occurred is to present the CS alone. Each such presentation is called a(n) ______ trial.
Of the following conditioning procedures, the one that is least like the others is ________.
Oafish Bill (John’s twin brother; see items above) has heard nothing of John’s unfortunate encounter with Carole, and he decides to ask her out. Just as he approaches her she bursts into laughter, apparently in response to a joke someone just told. Bill immediately pops the question and she politely declines, having decided to join a convent at the end of the semester. A week later Bill bumps into Carole on campus but feels no particular embarrassment. The pairing of Bill’s request for a date and Carole’s laughter is most likely an example of ________.
Two students, Edward and Edwina, serve as subjects in a conditioning experiment. The CS is a
buzzer; the US is a mild electric shock; the UR is a change in the electrical conductivity of their skin called the Galvanic Skin Response. Both subjects undergo 50 trials, but the experimenter feels sorry for Edwina so periodically he lets her off without a shock. The results will indicate that _______.
the CR is stronger in Edward
The rate of conditioning is affected by the degree to which the US is ___________ the occurrence of the CS.
In Pavlovian conditioning, ISI refers to ______.
A _________ stimulus is one that consists of two or more stimuli presented simultaneously.
In general, the more intense a US, the __________.
faster conditioning proceeds
An experimenter presents a flash of light and a bell simultaneously followed by food. Conditioning proceeds satisfactorily, but when the experimenter presents the light and bell separately, he finds that the bell is an effective CS, but the light is not. The experimenter has demonstrated _______
When exposure to a stimulus prior to pairing with a US interferes with conditioning, the phenomenon is called ________.
Of the following, the one that does not belong with the others is ________.
In so far as the rate of learning is concerned, the most important pairings of the CS and US are those that come _________.
at the beginning of training
The time between conditioning trials is called the _______.
Braun and Geiselhart found that eyelid conditioning generally proceeded slowly with _______.
If, following conditioning, a CS is repeatedly presented without the US, the procedure is called ________.
In the figure below, the data point at the extreme right illustrates _________.
Spontaneous recovery is associated with _______.
Each time a buzzer sounds, a puff of air makes a rabbit blink. Soon the rabbit blinks when it hears the buzzer. George believes that this means the buzzer takes the place of the air puff. George is an advocate of ________.
stimulus substitution theory
The equation, ΔVn = c (λ- Vn -1), is associated with the _______________ of Pavlovian conditioning.
Pavlov won the Nobel Prize for his research on conditioning.
Pavlov’s work paved the way for Darwin’s theory of evolution
A key feature of Pavlovian conditioning is that the CS and US appear together regardless of what the
animal or person does.
The procedure of pairing a neutral stimulus with a well-established CS is called higher-order
One way to test for the effects of conditioning is to use test trials.
If a CS is presented several times alone, and is then repeatedly paired with a US, conditioning proceeds more rapidly than if the CS had never been presented alone.
According to the Rescorla-Wagner model, blocking occurs because when the second (blocked) CS is
presented, most of the learning that can occur has already been “used up” by the first CS.
The Rescorla-Wagner model has been very influential, but it does not explain latent inhibition.
Conditional reflexes are so named because they ____________.
depend on many conditions
Each pairing of a CS and US is one _______.
In _______ conditioning the CS and US overlap
. In ____________ conditioning, the CS and US occur at the same time.
A CS that consists of two or more stimuli is called a _________ stimulus.
Generally, the _____ (more/less) intense a stimulus, the faster conditioning occurs.
If two stimuli are paired and then one becomes a CS, the other will become a CS more rapidly than it
otherwise would have, a phenomenon called sensory ________.
The first conditioning trials are typically _____ (more/less) effective than later trials.