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Leadership Styles

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AN EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF DIFFERENT LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT STYLES, ON GRADE 12 LEARNERS’ PERFORMANCE IN SELECTED SCHOOLS, IN THE PHILIPPI AREA, CAPE TOWN. BY M HOHO THESIS IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE DEGREE MAGISTER TECHNOLOGIAE IN THE FACULTY OF BUSINESS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC MANAGEMENT AT THE CAPE PENINSULA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY SUPERVISOR: PROFESSOR IW FERREIRA SEPTEMBER 2010 DECLARATION I, Mzimasi Hoho, declare that the contents of this thesis represent my own unaided work, and that the thesis has not previously been submitted for academic examination towards any qualification.

Furthermore, it represents my own findings and not necessarily those of the Cape Peninsula University of Technology.

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Signed: …………………… Date: ……………………… -2. ABSTRACT This research study investigates the impact of different leadership and management styles on Grade 12 learners’ performances in Philippi high schools in Cape Town. The literature that was consulted, explains the nature of performance, performance management, characteristics of good and bad leaders, characteristics of good and bad managers, emotional intelligence, strategic management and different leadership styles.

All the above topics were explained in full; the multifactor questionnaire was used to determine the leadership and management styles of principals within their schools. Information was gathered using three instruments, from a sample of seven principals (Leaders) and 150 educators (Raters). Firstly, a set of interview questions for the leaders was compiled, to determine their experience, management and leadership qualifications. This was to ascertain whether the performance of Grade 12 learners in their various schools is directly proportional to their qualifications.

Secondly, the multifactor Leadership Questionnaires, which were completed by the leaders (principals), were used to determine leadership and management styles of leaders in the respective schools. The principal rated himself or herself to determine the kind of a leader or manager he or she is, by answering a set of closed questions. Thirdly, the multifactor Rater Questionnaires, which were completed by the raters (Educators and School Management Team), were used to determine leadership and management styles of leaders in the respective schools.

The educators rated their principal to determine the kind of a leader he or she was, by answering a set of closed questions. -3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Genuine appreciation and gratitude are expressed to all who have assisted me in the completion of this study. A number of persons played an important role in this research project, namely: 1. Professor IW Ferreira of the Department of Research at the Cape Peninsula University of Technology, for his support and assistance till the end of this study. May God be with you Sir and your family. 2.

The school managers and educators of schools who agreed to participate in this research study and by: ? allowing this research study to be conducted in their schools. ? generously giving their time in the research interviews and in the completion of questionnaires for the research study. 3. Ms Corrie Uys (CPUT Statistician), for her willingness and altruistic attitude in terms of assisting in the statistics analysis. 4. Ms Kasturi Behari-Leak for proof reading and editing this document. 5. The W estern Cape Education Department (Research Division) for approving this research topic. . All authors, researchers, educationists and all the other referencing material that has been used during this research study. -4. DEDICATION This research is dedicated to the

‘Most High, Jesus Christ’, the Son of the living God for giving me the strength, power, endurance and wisdom to finish this research study. This is the testimony to the word of God that says, “I can do all things through Christ who strengthens me” (Philippians 4:13). It is also dedicated to: ? my beloved wife Boniswa and our pretty daughter Ayabulela, who were by my side throughout. ? y family (both from my wife’s side and mine), especially my mother and mother in law. ? to all the members of my family and in-laws – this is a piece of work that must encourage you to keep on studying for the next generation’s brighter and better future. -5. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY 1. 1 Introduction 15 1. 2 Problem statement 18 1. 2. 1 18 Sub-problems 1. 3 Key questions 21 1. 4 The research objectives and/or research goals 22 1. 5 Delimitation of the research area 22 1. 6 Research methodology 23 1. 6. 1 Literature Search 23 1. 6. Empirical Survey 23 1. 6. 3 Statistical Analysis 24 1. 6. 4 Interpretation and explanation of statistical results 24 1. 7 Clarification of concepts 24 1. 8 Preliminary list of resources 24 1.

9 Summary 24 CHAPTER TWO: HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT STYLES AND THEIR RESPECTIVE IMPACT ON PERFORMANCE 2. 1 Introduction 26 2. 2 The concept of Leadership 27 2. 2. 1 The nature and extent of leadership 27 2. 2. 2 Different leadership styles 30 2. 2. 3 The characteristics of a good or bad leader 32 2. 3 Emotional intelligence 32 2. 4 The concept of management 34 2. 4. The nature and extent of management 34 2. 4. 2 Different levels and kinds of managers 35 2. 4. 3 Disciplines of management 35 2. 4. 4 The characteristics of a good or bad manager 36 -6. 2. 5 Differences/similarities between leadership and management

36 2. 6 The concept of performance 37 2. 6. 1 The extent and nature of performance 37 2. 6. 2 Performance management 38 2. 7 Management and leadership as determinants of performance 40 2. 8 Summary 40 CHAPTER THREE: A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN SCHOOLS, AND THE REGULATORY FRAMEWORK GOVERNING SCHOOLS 3. Introduction 41 3. 2 The history of school education in South Africa: A brief historical overview 43 3. 3 Philosophical and theoretical underpinnings of school management and leadership 46 3. 4 The nature and role of public policy 47 3. 4. 1 Definition of Public Policy 47 3. 4. 2 Policy Analysis 47 3. 4. 3 Policy Approaches 49 3. 5 The socio-economic and political factors on school leadership and management 51 3. 6 The impact of school governance on leadership and management of schools 52 3.

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7 School management and leadership on service delivery 53 3. 7. 1 Strategic Management 53 . 7. 2 Vision 55 3. 7. 3 Values 56 3. 7. 4 Mission 56 3. 7. 5 Tirisano 57 3. 8 The regulatory framework governing schools 57 3. 8. 1 The South African Constitution Act 108 of 1996 57 3. 8. 2 Batho Pele Principles Hand Book – A service delivery hand improvement guide 1998 58 3. 8. 3 Public Service Act 103 of 1994 59 3. 8. 4 Resolution 9 of 2000 59 -7. 3.

8. 5 The South African Schools Act 84 of 1996 60 3. 8. 6 The South African Qualification Authority Act 58 of 1995 60 3. 8. 7 The National Education Policy Act 27 of 1996 60 3. 8. 8 The Further Education and Training Act 98 of 1998 0 3. 8. 9 Educators’ Employment Act 76 of 1998 61 3. 9 The Adult Basic Education and Training Act 52 of 2000 61 3. 10 Summary 61 CHAPTER FOUR: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS 4. 1 Introduction 63 4. 2 Research methodology and design 64 4. 2. 1 Literature review 64 4. 2. 2 Empirical survey 70 4. 3 Approaches to research 70 4. 3. 1 Quantitative approach 70 4. 3. 2 Qualitative approach 71 4. 3. 3 Triangulation 71 4. 4 The normative survey method 71 4. 4. 1 Collecting Data 71 4. 4. 1. 1 Interviews 71 4. 4. 1. 2 Questionnaires 71 4. 4. 2 Total Research Population 72 4. . 3 The Sample 73 4. 4. 4 Response Population 73 4. 5 Statistical analysis 73 4. 5. 1 Interpretation of Research Findings 73 4. 5. 2 Presentation (Articulation) of Research Findings 94 4. 6 Summary 96 CHAPTER FIVE: RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUDING REMARKS 5. 1 Introduction 97 5. 2 Recommendations 98 5. 3 Concluding remarks 101 -8. BIBLIOGRAPHY GLOSSARY 102 10 LIST OF FIGURES Figure. 1. SMT monogram 42 LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Basic leadership styles with their corresponding development skills 31 Table 2: Differences between management and leadership 37 Table 3: Policy approaches 50

Tables 4: Grade 12 average pass rate 73 Table 5: Principals’ qualifications 74 Tables 6 – 27: Frequency Tables on the responses of all participants 75 Tables 28 – 47: Crosstabs on responses of educators versus principals 82 Tables 48. 1 – 53. 2: Crosstabs on Chi-square test 90 APPENDIX/APPENDICES Appendix A: Research topic (cover page) 106 Appendix B: Letter to participants 107 Appendix C: Letter of approval from WCED 109 Appendix D: Questionnaire 111 Appendix E: Media Statement by the National Minister of Education on 2007 Grade 12 results 119 Appendix F: Media Statement by the WCED Minister on 2009

Grade 12 results 125 Appendix G: Minister of Basic education’s address at NAPTOSA conference in September 2010 129 Appendix H: Minister of Basic Education’s address at South African Principal’s Association in Cape Town in September 2010 136 Appendix I: WCED Education Districts 142 -9. GLOSSARY (i) ? Definitions and explanations of terms: Apartheid system – it is a system of government, established by the then Nationalist Party in 1948, which dedicated itself to securing the social, economic, and political privileges of the white minority at the expense of Africans, Coloureds and Indians. Bantu education – the 1953 inferior education system which was adopted by the Afrikaner minority government in South Africa for the Africans (Blacks). ? Batho Pele – Sotho translation for ‘people first’. ? C2005 – the 2005 set of national curriculum guidelines which were to be implemented in primary and secondary schools. ? District – a geographical unit as determined by the relevant provincial legislation or prevailing provincial practice. ? Dysfunctional schools – schools that have obtained a zero to twenty percent pass rate in their Grade 12 final overall results. Education – any education and training provided by an education institution, other than training as defined in Section 1 of the Manpower Training Act, 1981 (Act No. 56 of 1981). ? Education Department – the department of government that is responsible for education. ? Education institution – an institution that provides education, whether early childhood education, primary, secondary, further or higher education, other than a university or technikon; also an institution providing specialised vocational, adult, distance or community education. – 10 . ?

Educator – any person, who teaches, educates or trains other persons or who offers professional educational services such as professional therapy and education psychological services at a school. ? Government – the group or organisation governing a country. ? Grade – it is the standard (level) the learner is at in learning the part of an educational programme which s/he may complete in one school year. ? High school – an institution that takes learners from Grade 8 to Grade 12 (final class of the schooling system). ? Independent schools (Private schools) – schools that are owned by private individuals/companies.

These schools are not owned by the state. ? Laboratories – rooms or buildings equipped for scientific experiments or research. ? Learner – any person enrolled in a school or any person receiving education according to the terms of South African Schools Act. ? Libraries – rooms or buildings where a collection of books are kept. ? Literacy – the ability to read and write. ? Metro – abbreviation for metropolitan which is a central unit area treated for some purpose (e. g. transport and planning) and divided into districts. ? Minister – a person at the head of a government department. ?

Ministry – a government department headed by the minister. ? Mission – strategic intent to deal with the problem or a question in hand. ? National Basic Education Ministry – a ministry for primary school education and secondary school education systems. – 11 . ? Numeracy – ability to count and calculate. ? Performance – a notable action or achievement. ? Policy – specifies the basic principles to be pursued in attaining specific goals. ? Primary school – an institution that takes learners from grade R to grade 7. ? Principal/Head master – an educator/person appointed as the manager and leader of a school. Province – a region/inhabitant area as established by Section 124 of the South African Constitution. ? Public schools – schools owned by the state. ? School – an institution that enrols learners in one or more grades from Grade R (Reception) to Grade Twelve. ? Stakeholder – an organisation or body with direct and continuing interest in the education institution, programme, phase or sector in question. ? Tirisano – Setswana word for ‘working together’. ? Under performing schools – schools that have obtained less than 60% in their Grade 12 final overall results. ?

Values – standards or principles considered of importance. ? Vision – imaginative insight into a subject or problem. – 12 . (ii) Definitions and explanations of acronyms/abbreviations: ? ABET – Adult Basic Education and Training ? ACE – Advanced Certificate in Education ? AIDS – Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ? ANC – African National Congress ? DET – Department of Education and Training (erstwhile) ? FET – Further Education and Training ? GET – General Education and Training ? HIV – Human Immunodeficiency Virus ? HOA – House of Assembly ? HOD – Head of Department MEC – Member of Executive Council ? NAPTOSA – National Professional Teachers’ Organisation of South Africa ? NEP – National Education Policy ? OBE – Outcomes Based Education ? SASA – South African Schools Act ? SGB – School Governing Body ? SMT – School Management Team – 13 . ? TBVC – Transkei, Ciskei, Venda and Ciskei (erstwhile) ? WCED – Western Cape Education Department – 14 . CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY 1. 1 INTRODUCTION The standard of education in South Africa has been deteriorating, particularly in the Black townships.

This is the result of an inferior education system, which was imposed on Blacks by the previous apartheid government. It reached its pinnacle when Hendrik Verwoerd officially introduced Bantu Education in 1953. Black people were given inferior education so that in the workplace, they could not occupy positions of power. This degraded Black people into second class citizens. Since the adoption of apartheid in 1948, the standard of education for Blacks has been poor; there was always a lack of necessary equipment in Black townships such as textbooks, playgrounds, libraries, etc (Ladd et. l. , 2004:1 – 2). Apartheid’s legacy to education is the poor quality of schools. Its policies deprived Black schools of resources, such as textbooks, toilets, classroom and qualified teachers. As of 1991, the shortfall in classrooms surpassed 29,000 in Black primary schools and 14,000 in Black secondary schools (Ladd et. al. , 2004:55). Black learners were crowded into classrooms holding as many as 50 or more per classroom, while other racial groups enjoyed smaller classes. This practice is happening in schools currently.

According to research, as of 1996, the majority of Black schools had no electricity; 25% had no access to water; and 15% had no sanitation facilities (Ladd et. al. , 2004:55). School security is also a problem in township schools currently. In 2009, School Principal Ms. Dziba, of Sithembele Mathiso High School (a Black township school in New Crossroads, Cape Town), was murdered on school premises. In the mid-1990s, a person was qualified to teach if she or he had a senior certificate plus three years of additional teaching. According to an educator audit in 1995, almost 24. % of all teachers (particularly in Black township schools) were underqualified to teach on the basis of the above criterion (Ladd et. al. , 2004: 55). The leadership within many Black schools was poor because the only requirement for becoming a school principal was seven years of teaching experience. – 15 . One may find that principals in Black schools lack the training and skills needed to improve the schools they run. In recent years, the present government came up with the introduction of the prerequisite leadership and management course for any educator who aspires to be a principal (Ladd et. l. , 2004:55 – 57). Since the abolition of apartheid in 1994, this predicament continued, and was compounded by changes in the education system. The first challenge that the democratic government faced was to unite different departments from the apartheid regime into a single democratic entity. After apartheid, South Africa’s aim to establish an equal state education across all racial groups was important. It was significant because of disparities caused by the apartheid regime while the need to change and address the disparities was driven by equality and fairness (Ladd et. l. , 2004). The present ANC government managed to unite the different departments into a single democratic entity, for example, schools are controlled by the South African Schools Act 84 of 1996. There is still a need to address the disparities amongst schools in terms of school resources such as, human, financial and physical. In addressing past disparities, the post apartheid government used the available human resources to fill up the vacant leadership and management posts in schools (Ladd et. al. , 2004:83).

It is argued that the global world needs people with national and international skills; this has posed a serious challenge in terms of how South African schools are managed. The appointment of educators, without the proper, requisite skills of leadership and management, in some South African schools led to disaster and failure, particularly in Black schools (previously disadvantaged), as educators were not equipped with leadership and management skills (Ladd et. al. , 2004:75). The schools, particularly high schools in the Philippi area of Cape Town Metro, are not immune to this challenge. 16 . Philippi is an area with the capacity for 20 000 households, but is occupied by 45 000 households, approximately 18 000 of which are informal settlement dwellings (Published on the Web by IOL on 2002-12-12 05:38:00). The area consists of people who have been displaced from surrounding areas of Cape Town, as well as workers or job seekers, mostly from the Eastern Cape. The social fabric of the area is poor because of the following factors: ? High unemployment rate. ? Teenage pregnancy. ? Drugs and alcohol abuse amongst the youth that result in gangsterism and high crime rates. Poor leadership and management. ? High poverty and HIV (Published on the Web by IOL on 2002-12-12 05:38:00). The area consists of seven secondary schools (Published on the Web by IOL on 2002-12-12 05:38:00). According to the records in the Metro South District, under which the area of Philippi falls, the average Grade 12 pass rate for these high schools has been fluctuating from 40% to 80% over the past five years. Some of these schools are classified as dysfunctional schools and some as underperforming schools.

Dysfunctional schools are schools that obtained 20% or less in their Grade 12 final results. Underperforming schools are schools that obtained less than 60% in their Grade 12 final results. This research study focuses on the impact of the human resource skills in terms of filling up vacant leadership and management posts in schools. It also investigates whether the appointment of school managers with management and leadership qualifications is directly proportional to the positive Grade 12 results, particularly in high schools in the Philippi area of Cape Town.

The research methodology will concentrate on a literature search, followed by an empirical survey and statistical analysis with appropriate recommendations. – 17 . 1. 2 PROBLEM STATEMENT An evaluation of principals’ leadership and management styles as well as their qualifications, as determinants of Grade 12 learners’ performance, particularly in secondary schools in the Philippi area, Cape Town. 1. 2. 1 Sub-problems Below are problems that are experienced in almost all communities in South Africa. The research shows that they are predominant in most black townships.

Their negative impacts affect schools in these communities, as they hamper their academic progress. The principals’ leadership and management styles in affected schools are stretched or tested as these problems will cause the principals to put more effort in terms of their leadership and management towards positive results. ? Poor performance of Grade 12 learners The performance of Grade 12 learners in secondary schools has been deteriorating over the years. This is illustrated by the following statement ‘Western Cape Education authorities have revealed a massive drop in the 2009 provincial grade 12 results.

Overall the Western Cape fared best of the provinces, with a total pass rate of 75. 7%, but this was 2. 9% lower than 2008” (Cape Argus Newspaper Article, 7 January, 2010). ? Lack of leadership and management skills among school managers in Black township schools The contributing factor in the decline of Grade 12 results is the lack of management and leadership at schools. This was confirmed by the current Minister of National Basic Education, Ms Angie Motshekga, when she commented on the poor National Grade 12 results of 2009.

According to her, “management in our schools is often weak and lacks leadership and commitment” (Cape Argus Newspaper article, 7 January 2010). This research study will look at this issue critically and objectively. ? Learners’ involvement in drugs, alcohol and gangsters Learners’ low interest in education & learning, their involvement in drugs, alcohol, gangsterism, and substance abuse; as well as their inappropriate behavioural conduct are problems that contribute to learners’ poor performance. 18 . According to Ladikos & Olivier of the Institute of Criminological Sciences in UNISA; Nesser, and Zietsman of the Department of Criminology in UNISA, on their preliminary findings on “Views of Learners’ on drugs and related matters” revealed that South Africa is in a state of rapid transformation; this transitional condition is providing an enabling environment for forbidden activities and social change that can have unexpected consequences.

They argue that “community pressures in South Africa today – like the crime crisis, unemployment, a generally insecure environment and a new ‘freedom’ that in some cases provides few real opportunities – all prompt many young people to search for ways to “escape” or alleviate the tension” (Communication Research Study Guide: 2002 2004, Department of Communication, University of South Africa). In addition to the usual problems of puberty, incipient sexuality, emotional, intellectual and physical development and risk taking, a world where drugs, alcohol, weapons and tobacco are widely available is present at schools” (Communication Research Study Guide: 2002 – 2004, Department of Communication, University of South Africa). In November 2004, at the Ravensmead Secondary School, a 16-year-old learner Lee-Roy Samuels died after an 18-year-old fellow learner shot him. It is alleged that the 18-year-old learner who had brought a firearm onto the school premises was showing it to friends when a shot went off, critically injuring Lee-Roy.

The ownership and circumstances of how he acquired the weapon were sketchy (Provincial Government of the Western Cape, 10 November 2004/http://wced. wcape. gov. za). ? Poor quality teaching and learning Another factor that can contribute to poor Grade 12 results is poor quality teaching and learning offered by educators. According to Ms Angie Motshekga, “we need to do more to ensure that we improve the quality of teaching through the strengthening of the curriculum skills of our teachers, particularly in their methodology and content knowledge.

The results also show that we need to improve the support to schools”(Cape Argus News Paper Article, 7 – January 2010). – 19 . ? Learners’ low literacy and numeracy skills in township schools Numeracy and literacy levels among primary school learners are a huge problem that poses a challenge to the National Department of Education. This impedes the culture of teaching and learning at high school level. According to the 2007 survey, which looked particularly at Grade 3 children, the overall score obtained in literacy was 36%, with 35% for numeracy.

The survey was conducted among more than 54 000 Grade 3 pupils from more than 2 400 primary schools. The achievement of pupils in numeracy and literacy varied in relation to the language of instruction, with English- and Afrikaans-speaking pupils fairing better. English and Afrikaans speaking children’s numeracy scores were at 48% and 49% respectively, while literacy scores were at 43% and 48%. “African language mother tongue speakers had lower average scores. For example, for Siswati and Xitsonga learners, the average numeracy scores were 24% and 20% respectively.

The literacy score for both Siswati and Tshivenda speakers was 26%. The language issue impacts learner performance in literacy and numeracy. Only about 10% of pupils surveyed performed well with a score of 70% or more. ? Unemployment and poverty amongst townships parents The youth’s inability to find work that is equivalent to their qualifications leads to idleness and frustrations that can result in crime. This applies to older members of the community who cannot find work because of lack of basic skills required in the new job market.

It is argued that unemployment and drunkenness have led to increased cases of violence. Darkness in the townships at night, due to poor street lighting and few houses with electricity, aggravate the situation. This has a negative impact to those learners who want to go to the libraries to study and those who form study groups to move freely from their homes to their study points. Darkness is a breeding ground for all bad things, as people with bad motives hide in the shade of darkness to perform their evil deeds to others e. g rape, murder etc.

If their homes don’t have electricity, then they cannot study at night. This hinders education in these communities (South African Journal of Education: Copyright © 2009, Vol 9 No. 42, 23 – 29). – 20 . ? Poor service delivery in black townships Poor service delivery in Black townships is the order of the day in South Africa. Communities have been showing their frustration and anger regarding the above matter, by staging protest marches. These protest marches are accompanied by the burning of tyres, road blockages and other acts of vandalism.

These are real bread and butter issues that need to be addressed by the present government. Mr Malusi Gigaba of the ANC and Buti Manamela of the Young Communist League stated their viewpoints regarding the above matter as follows: (i) Malusi Gigaba’s: “we can serve our people better. Some of the service delivery protests have not been so much about service delivery itself, but service delivery issues have been raised to highlight a much deeper challenge in our municipalities that relates to the political leadership of the councils.

What the community is complaining about, to the point of committing criminal acts of vandalism and rioting, is that basically their leadership had turned their backs on their mandate and had forgotten their leadership responsibility” (ANC media statement, http://www. anc. org. za, 21 October 2009). (ii) Buti Manamela’s: “let us restore the prestige of Black Education. We need to create an equal education system for all South Africans, Black and white. This should start with addressing the infrastructure backlog in the township and rural areas. It means that we need to meet the target of no child studying under a tree.

It means that all schools should have proper sanitation and ablution systems. It means that all schools must have sporting facilities, libraries and computer laboratories. It means that we need to have safety and security in our schools (ANC media statement, http://www. anc. org. za, 21 October 2009). 1. 3 KEY QUESTIONS ? W hat has Grade 12 learners’ performance been at Philippi secondary schools over the past five years? ? W hat are the management and leadership styles of principals and what impact do these have on the Grade 12 learners’ performance? – 21 . ?

W hat are the management and leadership qualifications of the principals and what impact does this have on the Grade 12 learners’ performance? ? Does management training impact positively on grade 12 learners’ performance? 1. 4 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES AND/OR RESEARCH GOALS Research objectives are linked to the research goals of a study, that is, what the study is aiming to achieve, solve, expose or determine. In the case of this research study, the main research objectives of the study are: ? to perform a literature search to become familiar with existing theory on the topic. ? o perform an empirical survey to measure current attitudes towards management training of school principals. ? to determine the Grade 12 learners’ performance in Philippi secondary schools over the past five years. ? to determine whether leadership and management styles of School Management Teams have an impact on Grade 12 learner’s performance. ? to determine the impact that School Management Teams, with leadership and management qualifications, have on Grade 12 learners’ performance, in comparison to the School Management Teams that do not have management and leadership qualifications. . 5 DELIMITATION OF THE RESEARCH AREA The research was limited to Philippi secondary schools in the Metro South Education District (MSED) of Cape Town (Refer Appendix I, page 140). The total population group was 8 principals and 142 staff members (educators) of the schools concerned. The target population was 8 principals and 130 educators. The response population was 7 principals and 101 educators of the concerned schools. – 22 . 1. 6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The following research methodology was adopted: 1. 6. 1 Literature search

The collection and study of relevant books, journal articles, academic papers, official reports, and government policies, such as legislation, minutes of meetings, newspaper articles, unpublished research and other applicable published and unpublished material was undertaken. This involved, synthesising and analysing the above information relating to the research topic (notes compiled by Ferreira, December 2005). 1. 6. 2 Empirical survey The word ‘empirical’ means, “guided by practical experience”. It constitutes a second data stream in a research project.

A research project is augmented by an empirical survey of a representative sample of a given research population and where the practical area pertaining to the research is investigated by various means of data collection, for example a questionnaire (notes Ferreira, December 2005). A research population was categorised into three components: ? total research population – can be any pre-determined percentage of a scientifically acceptable representative sample of the TOTAL target population. ? total target population – this is the possible research population. final response population – represents a given percentage of the TARGET population, whose responses will be the subject of the statistical analysis (notes compiled by Ferreira, December 2005). An empirical survey was conducted among the target population in the form of a (usually self-administered) questionnaire comprising dependent and independent variables, structured as part of a quantitative research approach, representing a closed-ended format and predetermined in collaboration with a registered statistician (notes compiled by Ferreira, December 2005). 23 . 1. 6. 3 Statistical analysis Appropriate response percentage was determined, in collaboration with a registered statistician, by determining relative values from the empirical data and transferring such values in a codified form to a computer data base. The data thus analysed was interpreted by utilising selected statistical methods and analytical instruments. A description of the analysis methodology design is provided in Chapter Four of this research design (Notes compiled by Ferreira, December 2005).

Since the research was conducted using a quantitative survey approach, the relevant numerical evaluation scale was fully described. 1. 6. 4 Interpretation and explanation of statistical results After receiving the statistical analysis of the empirical data from the registered statistician, the results were interpreted meaningfully by the researcher and the findings, in terms of the various analytical instruments, were expressed and described by the researcher using tables followed by a brief textual explanation of each and every analysis event.

A brief reference to the various statistical analysis instruments envisaged was provided. In the separate chapter on research design, tables were used to clarify descriptions of findings (notes compiled by Ferreira, December 2005). 1. 7 CLARIFICATION OF CONCEPTS The clarification of a relevant list of terms and concepts that are used in this research report is provided. 1. 8 PRELIMINARY LIST OF RESOURCES The bibliography from the beginning and during the research process is provided. It is the essential component of the research which increases as the research progresses.

A comprehensive bibliography will be provided at the end of the research proposal. 1. 9 SUMMARY The management and leadership skills in Black township schools are an embedded challenge that has its roots in the past. The notion of oppression by the Apartheid Government led to the majority of South African population, which is comprised, of Black people to lack crucial skills that are necessary in a job market. – 24 . South Africa as a nation is notable for its huge overall inequality in the distribution of resources because of apartheid system. Whites benefited more than Blacks through the system.

This resulted to the performance of the majority of learners, most particularly in Black townships schools to perform below par when compared to white schools (Ladd et. al, 2004:34). It is necessary for the present government to resolve this situation. Provision of good service delivery as well as addressing some of the challenging issues in Black communities, such as the unemployment rate, housing and other sanity issues can enhance the quality of education in Black townships (Ladd et. al, 2004:35). The recent attempt by the Education Department to introduce the Principals’ Leadership Course for any educator, ho wants to be a principal, is perhaps a step in the right direction. The main aims of this research design will be to: ? determine the performance of Grade 12 learners’ in Philippi secondary schools over the years, ? determine the difference in Grade 12 learners’ performance at schools with managers who do not have management and leadership qualifications and those that do have management and leadership qualifications, and ? determine whether leadership and management qualifications of school managers in Philippi have an influence on Grade 12 learners’ performance.

The target population was principals and educators at Philippi secondary schools. This involved a literature search, an empirical survey, statistical analysis (by a qualified statistician), interpretation of the findings, clarification of concepts, summary for each chapter and the bibliography. The research followed a quantitative survey approach. In the next chapter, management and leadership are explained using various sources, and their similarities and differences highlighted. – 25 . CHAPTER TWO HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT STYLES AND THEIR IMPACT ON PERFORMANCE . 1 INTRODUCTION According to Kouzes (2003:193), an effective manager is a leader. Leading is not simply giving orders. Three ways for a person to become a leader are knowledge, charisma and delegated authority (Kouzes, 2003:297). The basics of leadership have been the same for centuries. That means that its content has not changed though its context has changed drastically. For example, as a leader one needs to have influence, vision and values, which are the core aspects of a leader, which are the same now as they were at the start of the leadership concept.

The context under which leaders work changes drastically with time, for example the heightened uncertainty of life e. g. natural and non-natural disasters, globalisation, economic changes (global economy), social change (social capital), financial change (financial capital) and technological change, affect the way leaders lead (Kouzes, 2003:301). A good manager manages things (status quo) while a good leader influences and impacts people. In spite of intensive research efforts it has proven difficult to isolate specific personal traits shared by leaders (Ehlers et. al. 2007: 217). According to recent research, any person who is in a high position needs to have traits of a good manager and a good leader. The combination of good leadership and management skills always leads to successful organisations (good performance of the workers). It is important to note that leadership is not better than management or a replacement for it. Leadership and management complement each other, and expertise in both is necessary for successful strategy implementation and survival in the contemporary working situation/environment (Kouzes, 2003:315). – 26 . . 2 THE CONCEPT OF LEADERSHIP The leadership concept will be explained according to the following sub-headings: 2. 2. 1 The nature and extent of leadership For years, leadership has been defined as an influence process. It was believed that when one was trying to influence the thoughts and actions of others towards goal accomplishment, in either personal or professional life, one was engaging in leadership. In recent years, the definition of leadership has changed to the capacity to influence others by unleashing their power and potential to impact the greater good.

This was changed because leadership is not about goal accomplishment and results only. Goal orientated leadership tends to produce short-term results. Leadership is a high calling (long term results), which is not just about personal gain or goal accomplishment, but has a higher purpose (Kouzes, 2003:415). Leaders tend to be successful for a short stint if they focus only on goal accomplishment. What tends to be left behind is the condition of the human organisation (morale and job satisfaction of both employees and clients alike).

For the success of any organisation, both customer and employee development is of equal importance to performance (Kouzes, 2003:420). Leading at a higher level, therefore, is a process which can be defined as the process of achieving worthwhile results while acting with respect, care, and fairness for the well-being of all involved (Kouzes, 2003:435). Leaders exhibit certain different characteristics. This varies from profession to profession. Though each leader is unique, there are shared practices or patterns that can be learned.

Leadership is ultimately about creating a way for people to contribute to making something extraordinary happen. This means that leadership is not about leading people and expecting them to follow you as a leader. It is about engaging and letting the people that you are a leader of, contribute towards the shaping of the organisation that they form part of (Kouzes, 2003:513). – 27 . Shaw as explained in his book, ‘The Four V’s of Leadership’ believes that leadership comprises of: a) Vision – this enables one to be very clear of what he/ she wants to become or achieve. It can be achieved when one makes an honest self-assessment introspection). The starting point is to first identify where one is at present and conduct honest self assessment considering the previous (backwards) and future (forwards) lives, zooming in particularly on one’s greatest joys, pleasures, successes and failures. This helps one to identify one’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT analysis). One should build on one’s strengths; use one’s weaknesses as stepping-stones forward (keep looking forward); and let one’s vision be bold and realistic. This means that one must consider the SMART factor when constructing one’s vision: ? simplicity, measurability, ? accuracy, ? realisticity, and ? time frame b) Values – these are beliefs or behaviours that are of particular importance to an individual in the way he/she lives his/her life and interacts with other people (Shaw, 2006). They are as a result of beliefs, moral judgements, intellectual assumptions and experience. Values originate from our families’ teachings, culture, religion and practical experience. They relate to outcomes, set standards, interrelations and how time and resources are being used. The above applies to both human beings and the organisations that they are leading too.

According to Shaw (2006:56), personal values have a powerful influence on the way we operate in our work. Some of the crucial values in one’s life are: (i) Integrity: being open and honest (ii) People: valuing and developing people (iii) Customers: adding value in helping customers achieve their objectives (iv) Team work: working with all stakeholders to achieve the organisation’s objectives (v) Innovation: challenge and invention – 28 . Shaw’s work (2006: 40 – 45) further affirms that no organisation can be successful without a carefully chosen set of values, that will always keep the organisation focused.

By implication this suggests that, for any organisation to be successful, its values should always be consistent or in line with the organisation’s vision and mission. This applies also to our schools. c) Value added – this refers to bringing a distinctive contribution that makes a significant difference to personal or organisational outcomes (Shaw, 2006:47). An organisational resource is valuable if it adds value. It is valuable if it helps the organisation to exploit the external opportunities (Ehlers et. al. , 2007:87). Shaw (2006: 90) suggests the following ways of adding value: i) Provision of a specific piece of specialist information. (ii) Bringing a specialist skill that provides a perspective or takes a particular task onto another level. (iii) Enabling a group of people to work together. (iv) Seeing clearly the next steps and giving some direction to a discussion or a piece of work. (v) Identifying very clearly the outcomes that are necessary. (vi) Providing the encouragement and goodwill that enables people to work together effectively. (vii) Enabling individuals to learn and grow through the experience that they are going through.

Added value can be summarised as encouraging others and being positive about what the organisation has set itself to achieve. It is not a ‘cut and dry’ matter; it needs reflection time during which honesty and frankness should prevail. That means that it is not an event but a process. d) Vitality – this is an energy which enables one to maintain a positive outlook across the different spheres of life (Shaw, 2006:123). Science tells us that our energy fluctuates due to factors such as exhaustion. This applies to all workers in an organisation; as leader one needs to take care of energy levels and enthusiasm of his or her co-workers. 29 . Shaw (2006:125) suggests the following tips for leaders and managers in helping others to feel energised: (i) To understand what energises individual members of staff. (ii) To take into account what one requests the member staff to do. (iii) To have open feedback arrangements, where there is a clear understanding of the impact of energy levels of individual people. (iv) Observing individual energy levels of the workforce and understanding the reasons for them. (v) Usage of acts of recognition or small celebrations to those who have done good jobs or performed well. vi) To have a clear plan for the future in terms of maintaining and enhancing the energy levels of staff. The above suggest that the leader or manager needs to build personal relationships with their staff. This is a relationship or friendship that goes outside the ambit of the work situation. Factors that are outside the work situation that can make an employee’s energy depreciate are social challenges at home, church, etc. 2. 2. 2 Different leadership styles For a very long time, people thought there were only two leadership styles – autocratic and democratic.

This resulted in a great deal of bickering over these two extremes, insisting that one style is better than the other. For example, democratic managers were accused of being too soft and easy, while their autocratic counterparts were often called too tough and domineering (Kouzes, 2003:201). One cannot agree more with Ken Blanchard in his book, ‘Leading at Higher Level’, when he says that it is important to match leadership style to development level. This matching strategy is the essence of ‘Situational Leadership’, a leadership model originally developed by Ken Blanchard and Paul Hersey at Ohio University in 1968.

This revised Situational model was referred to as Situational Leadership II, that has endured an effective approach to managing and motivating people because it opens up communication and fosters a partnership between the leader and the people the leader supports and depends on. The model can be summed up by the familiar phrase, ‘different strokes for different folks’ (Kouzes, 2003:223). – 30 . Situational Leadership II is based on the beliefs that people can and want to develop and there is no best leadership style to encourage that development. One needs to tailor his/her leadership style according to the situation.

According to Situational Leadership II model, there are four basic leadership styles with their corresponding basic development skills, which are shown in the table below (Kouzes, 2003:231) Table 1: Basic leadership styles with their corresponding development skills. According to Kouzes, (2003:260) the basic leadership styles, with their corresponding skills can be tabulated as follows: Leadership style Basic development skill 1. directing enthusiastic beginner 2. coaching disillusioned learner 3. supporting capable but cautious performer 4. delegating self-reliant achiever

The enthusiastic beginner is highly committed and possesses low competence skills. He/she needs direction. Directing leadership style is appropriate for such person. The disillusioned learner shows low commitment and a few low competence skills. Someone at this stage needs coaching to bring back both commitment and the missing competence skills. The coaching leadership style is appropriate for such a person (Kouzes, 2003:279). The capable but cautious performer shows moderate to high competence but shows variable commitment. Someone at this level needs support. A supporting leadership style is needed for such a person.

The self-reliant achiever shows high commitment and high competence. This is a person that can be relied on. Delegation is appropriate for this kind of a person, therefore a delegating leadership style is appropriate for such a person. The above supports the notion that in any working environment, leadership styles should be tailored according to the situation (Kouzes, 2003:289). – 31 . 2. 2. 3 The characteristics of a good or bad leader Kouzes (2003:315) argues that a good leader leads by empowering, teaching, developing, and educating the people he/she is leading. He/She has an art of combining results and heart.

He/she is concerned with the matters of the heart. Human beings have feelings, a sense of worth and a destiny. A good leader has the special skill of combining aggressive personal ambition, independence of thought, and individual resourcefulness on one hand with thinking always in terms of co-operation, communication, concern for others, doing things together, motivating people, interesting them in growth, and enlisting their help, on the other. Specifically a good leader is a person who is truly effective in achieving worthy results in any field, no matter what the obstacles and with unfailing regard for human beings.

A good leader is a person of unimpeachable character; an individual who can be thoroughly trusted. Good leaders are also good listeners, flexible, secure in the knowledge that they alone do not have answers (Blanchard, 2007:205). The converse of the above qualities of a good leader will constitute a bad leader. 2. 3 EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE According to Ehlers and Lazenby in their book, “Strategic Management” (2007:34), one of the most significant contributions to the field of leadership and management traits is the research of Daniel Goleman in 2004.

In their book they highlight Goleman’s finding that effective leaders are similar in one very important aspect, namely, that they all have a high degree of emotional intelligence. Goleman’s research in more than 200 large, global companies found a direct link between emotional intelligence and measurable business results. The above research finding applies to all effective leaders of any organisation or institution, including schools. This means that school leaders need to demonstrate emotional intelligence in their leadership traits for success in their schools.

Emotional intelligence includes aspects such as: ? Self-awareness – this is the extent to which an individual is aware of his or her emotions, strengths, weaknesses, needs and drives. It also reflects the extent to which an individual is aware of and understands his or her own goals. – 32 . Leaders with high degrees of self-awareness are able to assess themselves realistically, are self-confident, and often have a self-deprecating sense of humour (Ehlers & Lazenby, 2007:218). ? Self-regulation – This refers to the extent that people are in control of their emotions, feelings and impulses.

Self-regulating individuals are reasonable, thoughtful, self-reflecting, comfortable with ambiguity, open to change and able to create an environment of trust and fairness (Ehlers & Lazenby, 2007:218). ? Motivation – this is a common trait of all effective leaders. Leaders have the desire to achieve for the sake of achievement, rather than for big/huge salaries or status. Motivated leaders have a lot of energy, are optimistic even during setbacks, have passion for their work, thrive through challenges, and like constant learning (Ehlers & Lazenby, 2007:218 – 219).

Self-awareness, self-regulation and motivation are self-management skills (Ehlers & Lazenby, 2007:218). ? Empathy – this is the extent that a leader can thoughtfully consider employees’ feelings in the process of making decisions. This is where a leader is able to sense and understand his/her team’s viewpoints. He/she has a deep understanding of the existence, importance and complexity of cultural and racial differences (Ehlers & Lazenby, 2007:219). ? Social skills – It is the kind of emotional intelligence that is about: – friendliness with the purpose of leading people in the desired direction, – eing able to network and interact with anybody, regardless of their background, – being capable of managing teams, and – being able to build relationships throughout the entire organisation (Ehlers & Lazenby, 2007:219). Empathy and social skills focus on an individual’s ability to manage relationships with other people. – 33 . 2. 4 THE CONCEPT OF MANAGEMENT The management concept can be explained as follows: 2. 4. 1 The nature and extent of management Management is the process of planning, organising, leading and controlling the resources of the organisation to achieve stated organisational goals as efficiently as possible (Smit et. l. , 2002:11). According to Smit et. al. , (2002:115), the general management function includes an examination of the management process as a whole. General management embraces the overall function through which top management develops strategies and formulates policies for the whole organisation. It also cuts through all other functions, because functions such as planning and controlling are performed not only at top level, but also in each functional area, such as marketing, financial, production or operations, human resource and purchasing. A manager, irrespective of his level, plays the following roles (Smit et. al.

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