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Leadership & Power

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MCOM200 Management Communication GROUP REPORT 2008 b MCOM231- 08(A) Group Report: Leadership, Power & Influence. {draw:frame} Which form of power has the best influence on effective leadership? Word count: 2,746 Executive Summary Leadership, power and influence is a theme within management that is constantly developing overtime. Leaders are continuously developing new and innovative ways to empower their followers in order to get the best out of them.

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For the purpose of this report, we have decided to look at the assumption that leadership is based on the different types of relationships between people, rather than the skills and abilities of just one person. We know this theory allows for a network of interaction of people from all walks of life, it has the ability to shape these people through the influence and power of the leader. So the objective behind this report was to examine the forms of power and the relationships of these different power forms relative to leader effectiveness.

There are five sources of power that are commonly referred to when describing leadership approaches to their followers. This report outlines these different approaches with supporting evidence gathered from successful New Zealand leaders. They demonstrated the challenges that they have faced and how they have overcome these obstacles through the use of leadership, power and influence. Table of Contents Introduction ………………………………………………………………….. 4 Literature review …………………………………………………………………… 5 Method …………………………………………………………………. Results & Discussion ………………………………………………………………… 8 Conclusion & Recommendations ………………………………………………………. 14 Appendices ……………………………………………………………………………. 15 References ………………………………………………………………………….. 24 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Introduction As a group we have decided on the theme Leadership, Power and Influence as basis for this report with our key focus being that of “Which form of ‘power’ has the best influence on effective leadership? This strand of management is an essential element of any and all organisations and runs right to the core. We were aware that in order for us to be able to understand effective leadership we would essentially need to analyse the multifarious network of power relationships and influence processes in organisations. For the purpose of our report we have decided to specifically look firstly at the concepts of power, influence and leadership as a partnership. Then, at the five different forms of power, commonly used by leaders today.

We will identify and explain each one individually, then go on recognise the role of leadership power exercised by leaders from the Royal Society leadership website (RSNZ) and acknowledge commonalities and differences between them. Research shows that referent power often results in subordinate loyalty to the leader and in most cases this is the most effective form of leadership, however, the effectiveness of any power depends upon the skill and appropriateness with which it is used. Leaders should exercise authority politely and clearly and verify compliance. Yukl, & Taber 1983) All sources of power come with flaws, however, many have aspects of leadership that work well within certain organisations. This report will voice our personal opinion on which source of power we believe to be the most effective at influencing followers in a positive way that enables the leaders to get the most out of those who follow them. Literature Review Of the literature we have reviewed there are common themes and approaches in relation to power and leadership. Many leaders are now finding that there is a diminishing use of power relating to their position/rank. The traditional power that derives from one’s position in a hierarchy has been lost. But in its place, a very different kind of leadership power has begun to emerge. This new power is rooted in a leader’s personal values and convictions…” (Acting from the centre) McShane and Travaglione refer to this type of power as ‘Legitimate power’. It has been said that “today’s leaders must rely on core values to keep the organization centred and balanced” (acting from the centre), perhaps this is why a traditional approach of leaders relying solely on their position to influence followers no longer stands for much today.

Leaders must adopt a strategy that in turn gains the respect of followers by leading through exemplary behaviour and standing for values that are communicated openly and often with others. “John Gillespie, former CEO and vice president of operations at Innovation Luggage, Secaucus, says the following: “I found that if I wanted people to follow me, I had to be the first person to take risks and work without a safety net under me”. (Acting from the centre) It is through actions such as this that leaders gain the respect of followers and in turn gain what is known as ‘referent power’. McShane & Travaglione, 2007, p. 359). Like many other leaders, Don Makie, vice president of quality assurance, has had to face the following question: “how can they (leaders) help others in the organization evolve so that they, too, reflect and embody those values? ” (Acting from the centre) This tie’s in with the ideas of referent and expert power; when followers hold respect for a leader they are more willing to believe in their expertise and ideas, “leaders empower their followers” (Hackman & Johnson, 2009).

Makie believes in this concept of respect and gaining referent power over followers. As a leader he personally looked “for managers who wanted to get on the shop floor, communicate with people and learn”…he believes “you can’t manage change from a distance”. (Acting from the centre) Referent power can be linked to a concept such as ‘value-centred leadership’. “Value-centred leaders look within and guide their actions accordingly”. Acting from the centre) “Essentially, this is about earning the right and respect to lead through direct individual involvement and action” (Kouzers, J. M. , & Posner, B. Z. , 2002). Leaders who put this concept into practice are said to have a leadership style that “is grounded in the beliefs” they hold to “make decisions about people and strategy”. (Acting from the centre) Values are derived knowing they will develop the organization not hinder it. These values should then be turned into actions i. e. walking the talk’, and making it known to your employees that “you’re not offering…a cure-all that represents the “right” way or the “safe” way to do things. You simply have chosen to lead with these values in the face of uncertainty…” (Acting from the centre) An opposing view suggests power is just merely an image. “Powerful people are not born powerful. Rather, powerful people have a talent for dramatizing, communicating, using, and exploiting whatever resources they process. Being powerful is a skill”. The power image) If a leader only has ‘skills’ that make them appear to be powerful, people will eventually see straight through this and they will not view them as legitimate leader nor will they respect them. Therefore this ‘leader’ will not really have any legitimate power to fall back on or use to positively influence followers. Leaders that hold power such as that of the referent, legitimate and expert types can be categorized as being socialized and authentic leaders. “Socialized and authentic leaders…are other-oriented and work to empower followers in an effort to achieve collective goals”. Journal of business ethics) Common themes within this literature favour such leaders that gain the respect of followers and in turn hold power that they use in a positive way. Unlike those leaders who abuse their authortative position, and rely on coercive power to “gain respect through instilling fear”. (The power image) It is appears that those leaders who are ‘socialized and authentic’ achieve much more success as they are able to get followers onside and work toward a common vision. Method

To gather the necessary information required for this report, we were to research online on the RSNZ website, (http:// rsnz. leadership. org) to find the seven video interviews of well-known New Zealand leaders, to hear their discussions and thoughts on leadership. This method required us to watch all seven videos and take notes on the parts we felt may be relevant for our report. In a group of six, it made sense to delegate the tasks of video watching down to easy manageable parts, for everyone to complete in their own time and bring back to the group at a later date.

We had one group member assigned to research and present a discussion on all the different forms of leadership and provide two video examples from the RSNZ website, other members were delegated two interviews each and asked to choose which form of leader their person was and to write about it, giving detailed examples, a final member f the group was responsible for the writing the introduction, executive summary, and literature review and all other bits and pieces to tie the report in as one. When all the assigned roles were completed we meet as a group to piece them together in an appreciate way that followed well together.

Results and Discussion It is important to note that with the constant evolution of our society, leadership has become more significant than ever before. In any organisation that has been created by people there has always been a struggle for power as it is a great element that affects human reality. As civilization becomes more complex and dynamic the traditional conception of power becomes insufficient Leadership is impossible without power since a leader must modify attitudes and behaviours. Yet influencing others does not automatically qualify as leadership; power must be used in pursuit of group goals to merit leadership classification. Hackman & Johnson, 2004, p 136). Influence, on the other hand is “the capacity or power of persons or things to be a compelling force on or produce effects on the actions, behavior, opinions, etc. , of others” (Dictionary. Com, 2008). The success of an influence attempt can be distinguished among qualitatively distinct outcomes, commitment, compliance or resistance. If success results in commitment, then the decision or request has been agreed upon and is carried out or decision implemented effectively.

This is similar to compliance, an outcome in which a subordinate is willing to carry out the task but is more lethargic than enthusiastic about it. The flipside to this is resistance. This occurs when the task is rejected; the subordinate or follower is opposed to carrying out the request or action. This is also referred to as counter-power. The concept of ‘power’ itself is fairly broad. It is a mysterious phenomenon that will be experienced by most at some stage, at least once, in a lifetime. The most basic prerequisite of power is that one person or group believes it is dependent on another person or group for something of value.

Thus power exists when others believe that someone controls resources that they want. (McShane & Travaglione, 2007, p. 356). Power can be defined as: “possession of controlling influence”. It is only the capacity of a person, team or organization to influence others; it is not limited exclusively to leaders and managers. I think it important to mention authority at this stage, this is power vested in a specific position, and is therefore exclusive to that position. Power is not the act of changing others attitudes or behaviour; it is only the potential to do so. Power is derived from five sources: Legitimate, Reward, Coercive,

Expert, and; Referent. Leaders throughout the world are very diverse and with that come many ways to lead, each with their own styles and attributes, sometimes based on one’s culture and other characteristics. There have been many discussions in the past about which the best way to lead is, and which source of power will get the best out of followers and still encourage them to strive to perform better. Expert Power is power that “originates from within the person, not the position, it contrast with legitimate power. It is an individual’s or work unit’s capacity to influence others by possessing knowledge or skills that the others value.

Demonstrating practical knowledge and skills can also build expert power. For this reason, members of an organization often have little legitimate power but a great deal of expert power. ” (McShane & Travaglione, 2007, p. 359). Barbara Kuriger is a leader who exhibits this “expert power”. As “a former member of the Fonterra Shareholders Council, Barbara has chaired the LIC National Council and has had 20 years of involvement with Sharemilker of the year and the Dairy Industry Awards”. (www. dairynz. co. nz) has a lot of experience within the dairy industry due to her involvement and various leadership roles over the years.

It is because of this she holds such power over other individuals in terms of the respect and admiration they may hold for her skills, work ethic and achievements. Barbara affirms that “If you believe in something strong enough and you can convince other people that it’s a good idea then they’ll come on board with that process… ” Maybe a lot of the success Barbara has encountered as a leader has been due to her ability to gain the respect of people through implementing expert power to convince others that what she believes in will work. Another commonly enforced source of power is that of Referent power.

We recognize this power within leaders we can see that others identify with them, like them or otherwise respect them. As with expert power, referent power comes from within the person. It is largely a function of the person’s interpersonal skills and usually develops slowly. It is often associated with charismatic leadership. Charisma can be defined as a form of interpersonal attraction whereby followers develop a respect for and trust in the charismatic individual. (McShane & Travaglione, 2007, p. 359). Graeme Milne is a prominent figure in the New Zealand dairy industry, and a great example of the use of referent power.

He has been involved in the industry as CEO of various organizations like NZ dairy board and Fonterra for over thirty years and has a lot of experience in managing and growing companies in this industry. This power by which he chooses to lead comes from within himself, it is a function of his interpersonal skills developed over the years as CEO and his success he has displayed in these various organizations. His experience and capability has created a sense of respect from his employees who identify with him and like him as their leader. His referent power is also derived from treating his employee’s right.

Graeme believes that management is about managing the resources, and people are the essence of resource management. Therefore if you treat people right by acknowledging their contribution to the success of the organization and giving them credit, you will get the best out of them, and you will be a successful leader by utilizing the best that your employees has to offer. Paul Spicer’s management and leadership style of Norsewear clothing is also that of referent. When asked how he managed the process he says: “when I looked at my background it wasn’t that I had all the answers… nd I often say… not everyone even knows the questions let alone the answers… but I understood the issues and I wanted to share my knowledge… I didn’t dictate the process, so much as shared my dream… and tried to build a team, and you turn what starts off as probably a large percentage of negativity into the positives” (Paul Spicer, 2007). This humble and modest leadership approach demonstrates how Paul would have gained the respect and loyal following of his fellow workers through referent power. Referent power develops over time.

Paul Spicer has demonstrated a desire for referent power from the very beginning. “I always thought if I ever got into a position of authority I would always try very hard to relate to the people that made the difference and be one of them…” (Paul Spicer, 2007). Spicer has followed through with this personal value, when he became CEO of Norsewear he took made this evident. “I started by having a lunch for the whole factory and we’d attend that every month and we’d give an honest appraisal of where we’re at, how we were going, where we felt we were going and what was good and bad about the business…”. All the staffs have freedom to speak…I always thought it was great to have so much input from the team at every level”. (Paul Spicer, 2007) This respect has spread to his employees and into the very essence of the garments Norsewear produces. Spicer believes in his business and products, he emphasises: “They’re items that I think need to be made here. If we were to make this offshore then it would lose all its impact and all its integrity… this is 100% New Zealand made, and is very important”. (Paul Spicer, 2007) Reward power is another form of power demonstrated by leaders such as Sir.

Angus Tait and Kingi Smiler. It is derived from the person’s ability to control the allocation of rewards valued by others and to remove negative sanctions. Managers have formal authority that gives them power over the distribution of organizational rewards such as pay, promotions, time off, holiday schedules and work assignments. (McShane & Travaglione, 2007, p. 358). Reward power relates to the power leaders hold in rewarding their followers E. g. employees. (McShane & Travaglione, 2007, p. 358). Sir Angus Tait paid a girl and persuaded her to leave her university and take a special job.

Reward power is an efficient and effective way to persuade other people, because people will get motivation from the reward and find their own values. Reward power also can set up a tighter relationship between employers and employees. A suitable reward will encourage trust for the leader amongst followers. However, reward power can also bring problems, as people begin to focus on the reward not performance. Some people may also resort to negative means in order to gain a reward. Sir Angus Tait uses reward power effectively through his mutual loyalty with staffs.

Kingi Smiler and John Luxton both combine reward and referent power to empower their employees. Story telling is one way Smiler gives his employees reference. Though the stories enable staff to have a reference point with Smiler, it takes a long time to get collective stories and it is not easy to get every potential follower on board, as everyone has different opinions etc. Referent power is often associated with interpersonal attraction whereby employees develop a value and trust in the charismatic individual. (McShane & Travaglione, 2007). Smiler’s second form of power is that of reward power.

He hereby encourages followers to get involved in different activities outside their business so they gain more experience that they can implement and put into practice. He also offers scholarships to support employees for helping them to shape and encourage their motivation. Such forms of power encourage those who are eager to gain more skills or capabilities. John Luxton was previously working in Public Service and didn’t find working there quite motivating and stimulating; as nobody was bothered about the effort being put by an individual.

People didn’t recognise that he was putting in more effort than what he was being paid. He considers rewarding people for their output very essential. People respond to incentives whether it is monetary incentive or just an acknowledgement by leaders that one is doing a good job. It is not necessary to criticise them when they have done a poor job, but a leader should provide constructive feedback and encouraging them to do a better job next time. Annah Stretton is an Inspirational fashion designer and founder of Annah Stretton Clothing Company, Annah S is an influential figure in the New Zealand fashion industry.

Her strong will and precise nature, has caused her to be labelled a bitch and her “it’ll do” attitude at times hasn’t been received well by workers as they become frustrated and annoyed. A form of leadership style Annah Stretton practices occasionally is ‘sea gull management’; it describes a leader who would fly in and shit on everyone then leaves. “(Tony Hope, 2008). In other words the leader expects their employees to be as capable as they are and can be seen to expect others to do things beyond their capability, and if they are not up to their standard they generally impose negative reinforcements such as reducing status.

This practise can be seen as coercive power, is the ability to apply punishment or to give negative reinforcements. Examples of coercion range from reducing status, salary, and benefits to requiring others to do something they don’t like. In the most extreme form, coercive power translates into brute physical force. (Hackman & Johnson, 2004,). Annah Stretton’s sea gull management can be seen as coercive power because she would expect her employees to do things beyond their capability and has occasionally fired those whom, she believes are not up to the standards she sets for employees within her organisation.

James Milton along with his wife runs their family business Milton Wineries. He recounts his meeting with a winegrower in France. He had a beautiful winery and a well maintained cellar and his staff were quite friendly as well. Milton was amazed at how well the French winegrower managed it and enquired about the secret behind his success. He described his leadership style by the metaphor of carrot, whip and good restaurants. By carrot he meant that his cellar was an inspirational sought after place to work whip and good restaurants.

Good restaurants-At the end of the harvest season he would take his staff to different restaurants in Paris to show how the customers appreciated the wine. Whip referred that he had a clear direction about how he wanted everything done. In order to maintain the superior quality of his product, he used his authority and ordered his employees to do work his way. This leadership style links with legitimate power which is an agreement between organizational members that people in certain roles can request certain behaviours of others. This perceived right comes from job descriptions as well as informal rules of conduct.

Executives have considerate legitimate power, but all employees also have this power based on company rules and government laws. (McShane & Travaglione, 2007, p. 357) Conclusion and Recommendations Leadership involves the use of various forms of power to exert influence over others. Different leaders have different approaches to the use of power depending on the situation and the individual. The report has discovered that out of the five forms of powers, referent power was the best, as it is a form of power derived from the leader himself rather than from his position.

Referent power draws respect from the follows through the charisma of the leader. However, this form of power is developed overtime, and cannot be given through the authorities, thus it differs to legitimate power where the power was given to the person in the position. In our report Graeme Milne was referred to as a leader from the RSNZ website who has demonstrated a good use of referent power. Graeme demonstrated the use of this power in leadership through his experience as CEO over thirty years. Reward power often compliments referent power.

It is important to note that this should not be abused and should be used not as a bribe, but to reinforce desirable behaviours after they occur. (Yukl, & Taber, 1983) Recommendation Based on the report, referent power is the best sustainable form of power to exert over employees. This is effective because once you’ve gained it through hard work and ‘walking the talk’, then your followers should always respect you; and be willing to work towards a common goal. A leader must accumulate and foster expert power and referent power over time by showing himself to be confident, decisive, considerate, and protective of subordinates’ interests. Yukl, & Taber, 1983). In short, it all comes back to the golden rule that you should do unto others that you would have them do unto you. If you are going to lead under “seagull management” then chances are that that there will be a lack of loyalty from your subordinates. Whilst this may still get the job done, it is not the most effective way to get the most out of your followers. Appendices Appendix 1 – Blog 1 …………………………………………………………………………. Appendix 2 – Blog 2 …………………………………………………………………………. Appendix 3 – Blog 3 …………………………………………………………………………. Appendix 4 – Personal Reflection: D. Frederikson …………………………………………. Appendix 5

Personal Reflection: S. Gledhill………………………………………………. Appendix 6 Personal Reflection: L. Norman………………………………………………. Appendix 7 – Personal Reflection: D. Yiyang Zhang ……………………………………….. Appendix 8 – Personal Reflection: D. Pathak……………………………………………….. Appendix 1 Blog 1 ? THE GENUINE ANGEL VS THE WAR CRIMINAL Sarah Gledhill Posted @ 19/08/2008 7:29 p. m. As a group we found Oprah Winfrey to be a superior leader who inspires trust amongst her loyal followers. Like many other leaders before her, Oprah has had an intriguing life, through her many hardships she has overcome obstacles and emerged as a positive and compassionate leader.

It is not hard to see why she has been named “the world’s most powerful woman” by CNN & Time. com Her accomplishments and achievements have had a great impact on a diverse range of followers worldwide. Some of the many ways Oprah touches the hearts of these people is through her talk show, O The Oprah Mag, Oprah. com, plus her involvement in numerous charities, such as the Oprah Angel network. This is a charity “aimed at encouraging people around the world to make a difference in the lives of underprivileged others”; Oprah clearly uses her leadership ability to encourage and inspire others to follow in her footsteps.

Winfrey’s genuine quality and love for helping others is also evident in the creation of the Oprah Winfrey Leadership academy for Girls, in South Africa. Her passion behind this stemmed from a desire “to… give children exposure and opportunity and nurture them to understand their own power and possibility”. (Oprah) With reference to a previous blog (Presley Purcell’s), we agree with this group’s discussion about Branson’s ideas toward leadership. He states that “having a personality of caring about people is important; you can’t be a leader unless you generally like people.

That is how you bring out the best in people. ” This group also acknowledges that Branson views his employees as part of his extended family. Similarly, Oprah expresses this value in regard to the girls attending her academy, describing them as “her daughters”. We believe Oprah demonstrates a down to earth nature when it comes to inspiring trust amongst her followers she is on the same wave length as everyday people; and her “leadership consists of showing average people how to do the work of superior people” (John D. Rockefeller. )

Whilst Oprah is the epitome of an inspiring leader, the president of her country George W. Bush fails to inspire trust amongst his followers. Being the president of the U. S. A Bush is arguably the most powerful leader in the world, yet he fails to gain the support of his countryman since his approval ratings has plunged down to an average of 28-32% in his second term in office. Leadership is as much about spreading values as it is about the use of power, values serve as guides to action, they inform our decisions as to what to do and what not to do.

Values also motivate. They keep us focused on why we’re doing what we’re doing and on the ends toward which we’re striving. To clarify values as a leader you must engage in two essentials. Firstly, you must find your voice, it involves knowing who you are, what you stand for and what you care about, burn with desire to be true to something you hold passionately and lead according to the principle that matters most to you. We agree with the example that Presley Purcell gave in his blog regarding Martin Luther King.

He inspired others to conduct an impossible challenge on racial segregation, the very principles which the nation was fundamentally built on, and continues to operate under, directed by the same group of people who benefited most from exploitation through racial inequality. However, in contrast with MLK stands George W Bush, his speeches were written by his talented speech writers, this is rather controversial as in doing so he was in fact speaking the words of someone else rather than following his own voice.

In Graeme Harrisons interview “Beware of hollow leaders” a hollow leader was considered to be: “someone who has a high reputation and… have got there through tap dancing, by jumping up and down around the subject rather than on the subject, when it really gets down to the hard stuff they go missing”. (RSNZ, 2008) This could be applied to Bush because he commonly enjoys projecting a glossy image of himself and his capability to lead America, but when hurricane Katrina struck New Orleans he was nowhere to be seen for two months, therefore Bush fits the criteria of a hollow leader.

Moreover this is another indication of him not walking the talk because instead of leading the poor Americans out of misery he left them behind to the rage of Katrina. The second essential to clarify values is to affirm shared values, these are common values which your followers share, and it is the foundation for building productive and genuine working relationships. It was said that affirmed shared values cannot be imposed on others, but are formed out of their participation, George Bush has great power being the president of U.

S. but even with his power he cannot convince most of his countryman the need to fight the war in Iraq. Most Americans wanted to put an end to the war, if Bush was to gain the trust of his followers he would need to listen to them as to why they do not agree with the war on Iraq, that way he would be able to work out a set of shared values between them. Word count: 881 Group Tutor: Charlie Gillard. Tutorial time: Thursday 8am-10am. Tutor: Charlie Gillard. Appendix 2 Blog 2 THE DANCING QUEEN vs. THE PRESIDENTAL HOPEFUL. Sarah Gledhill Posted @ 11/09/2008 4:47 p. m. Do the blogging readings make you feel differently about offline leadership? Discuss which conventional leaders might do well in blogging – and which not – and what the explosion of blogs means for contemporary leaders? Together as a group we agreed that when one reads a blog on a person, we carve out an image of that person in real life based on the values and ideas emphasized in the blog.

This has its downfalls as forming a perception on a person based on their blog provides an incomplete picture, in other words the information we see on their blog is very limited; maybe we are only seeing what they want us to see. This can be proven to be a reality when we meet them in real life and get to discover their actual traits and values. We discussed in our previous blog, the issue of ‘hollow leaders’, this may arise in blogging also.

Leaders may make big claims on their blogs about their capabilities but offline provide no evidence that they walk the talk. However, there is the flip side that also must be considered; sometimes blogging can correct our misconceptions of a person. It is well known that everyone tends to stereotype others, most commonly people see an employer as authoritarian, but perhaps if we browsed through their blog and discover their personal thoughts and ideas, our perception would change as a result of this information on their blog.

The blogging readings have made us think differently about offline leadership, because in order to write a good blog the virtues of honesty and trust worthiness are really important which means that the blog entries need to be a true reflection of their leadership style. If one tries to fake the contents by over stating their capabilities then their blog readers would become annoyed and possibly leave negative comments. Like Scoble & Israel suggest “If you are going to blog, be authentic. Keep your conversations naked. Let people know who you are and where you’re coming from”. (Scoble & Israel, 2006).

We originally thought that blogging was another platform where managers can dictate the content of information out flow and influence the way readers think in the same way newspapers can, but the readings have made us realize that blogging is more about people; their comments and feedback make up an important factor of blogging. This makes us believe that blogging is like a moral code of conduct for managers it is a sense of empowerment to subordinates and it is also a means of self analysis, as blogging feedback can direct a manager toward the possible areas for change thus having a direct effect on the offline leadership of a manager.

Although we feel the phenomena of the increase in blogging among business people over the years is an excellent way for companies and their leaders to communicate with employees and followers, we strongly agree with Elaina Sheppard’s blog that trust and honesty cannot all be achieved alone online, leaders must continue to remain a face-to face contact, on a more personal level to remain trust amongst their followers. This point also reiterates what Scoble & Israel suggest as #tip10 of “how to be a successful blogger” “to get out into the real world”.

Sir Richard Branson is a great example of a leader who walks the talk and resembles this honestly and openly through his actions and his blog; he is all about team work and daring to be different. His blog seems as laid back and fun as he himself offline; it easily allows followers to see what he has been doing, gives them room to comment and honestly emphasizes the ‘real’ Branson. (bransonblog. com) From the RSNZ website we found the ‘Team-based innovation’ interview with Peter Hubscher from Montana wines.

It is all about challenges, team work and daring to be different. It encompasses what we believe to resemble Branson in a nutshell. Peter Hubscher is adamant that with team work “the challenge is always how to do it better”. Sir Richard Branson is a real ‘team player’ and by carrying this same approach into his blog he may achieve greater team work through the added interaction blogging may provide. Conventional leaders that might do well in blogging… We see Suzanne Paul to be a conventional leader who might do well in blogging.

Suzanne Paul is a well known icon in NZ and built the country’s most successful direct marketing company, Prestige Marketing, developing and selling such products as Natural glow. Suzanne is also well known on our T. V screens, she has starred in shows such as ‘Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner’, ‘Garage Sale’, ‘How’s Life’ and ‘Dancing with the stars’ where in 2007 she was crowned winner. It is important to acknowledge that the show “dancing with the stars” was based on the votes of which the NZ public see their favourite dancer to be; Suzanne obviously has a great following of NZ citizens behind her.

A leader is also respected for not only how they display themselves through good times but even more so in the way they conduct themselves through their hardships. Suzanne Paul was declared bankrupt, but since then has bounced back very admirably; she seems to have laid her struggles out there for everyone to see and has overcome them. We’d like to add that this quality exhibits what David Wyld has commented on “developing a thick skin” being able to take on the negative comments as well as the positive.

Susan has been slashed by the media, but has been able to turn around her entire reputation, now that takes courage; she is one strong lady with a thick skin. (Wyld, 2008). Suzanne Paul definitely has a story to tell, her “… story is one of inspiration and perseverance…”through blogging she could easily present…“this message in a very entertaining way, drawing on her many hilarious life experiences”. Scobel and Israel’s Tip 8- ‘Tell a story’, works well with Suzanne as “Corporate blogging is all about telling a story, your story”. (www. csnz. co. z) Suzanne Paul would no doubt have a successful blog; she is a business woman with products to sell, and she could get valuable customer feedback via her blog. Conventional leaders which might not do well in blogging… The reading by Wyld. D. C (2008) states that in having a successful blog it is important that bloggers are legit. “You must be the author,’ if your words are to be taken as authentic and interesting by your audience”. We believe John McCain, the U. S presidential hopeful to be a conventional leader that might not be good at blogging.

McCain currently has a blog on his website that is up and running, although it’s not possible to see how much of the blog he himself is responsible for; there is also no interaction from him personally. We agree with the majority of groups before us stating that like John Mc Cain, Helen Clark would fail to be a good blogger, due to insufficient time available to him, through his stressful job priorities he would fail to continuously update his blog posts, leaving you to wonder whether a “ghost writer” has been employed to jump through the hoop for him doing all of the hard stuff.

Admittedly John McCain has said he struggles to cope with the sophisticated technology of e-mailing whilst naming himself as computer e-literate all so. If Somebody like McCain has a blog but isn’t really the face or voice behind it he is neglecting a valuable tool that could deliver passionate and authoritative information to his fellow Americans. Maybe if John McCain used the blog to his full potential this could even strengthen his chances in becoming President. In accordance to Wyld Mc Cain doesn’t appropriately exhibit the qualities that make a good blogger, Tip2 “Do it yourself” and tip 4 “post regularly”.

Thus making him a disappointing un-authentic blogger. What the explosion of blogs means for contemporary leaders… The explosion of blogs comes with many positive and negative aspects for contemporary leaders. We see blogging as a fantastic way to promote one’s ideas or market a product and gain popularity. Whilst researching we came across a blog on Yahoo! ‘Answers by Hillary Clinton, Democratic Presidential Hopeful’. Through the blog she asked all Americans “Based on your own family’s experience, what do you think we should do to improve health care in America? ” This was her way o convince people that she is a people’s leader and a leader ready to listen to the masses. Blogging is also an easy, cheap and convenient method of communication within an organisation. Due to the informal nature of blogging it allows for 360° feedback. As blogging is not a face to face communication subordinates would not be perturbed to comment on their boss’s performance. Blogging can easily create a sense of empowerment amongst followers. Recently one of the superstars in India, Amitabh Bachchan asked his fans on his blog to suggest a name for his upcoming movie.

Imagine how you would feel if your suggestion was accepted. We agreed that blogging can be a great source in resolving problems within organizations. Most of the answers to the problems faced by big organisations don’t lie in the boardrooms; they come from the grass root level. Through blogging the executives can reach out to the grass root level workers and identify the problem and device a solution. Some negative aspects evolving from blogging include: There are many worthless ideas and comments that can create a sense of confusion, conflict and negative feeling amongst readers.

Also, the fact that most blogs are open to comment for anybody on the net can be cause for trouble. Bloggers can easily disguise their identity and post irrelevant, personal, adverse comments. Once it’s on the net, it is very difficult to delete it. As discussed by David in the lectures, many a time certain ill intentioned people can post comments which can taint the reputation of an individual or an organisation and can cost them millions. Blogging can be can be quite a time consuming activity and it is important for employees to update blogs regularly to avoid them from becoming out of date.

But doing so can mean less working time and lower productivity. Wordcount: 1716 Tutor: Charlie Gillard. Tutorial: Thursday 8am-10am. Group Members: Appendix 3 Blog 3 ? WHAT WE LEARNT Posted @ 2/10/2008 9:48 a. m. This blog will illustrate our individual and collective learning throughout this course. We will also demonstrate how the lectures, tutorials and RSNZ interviews have provoked thought and reflection within us, not only on leadership as a theme but also within ourselves.

One aspect of the teachings that stood out for us as a group was the idea that a leader must have the following characteristics: logic, trust and passion. First, leaders should exercise their logical ability. A leader must have a clear objective and well-organized steps, ensuring a mutual confidence with followers. When people know what they should do, they work efficiency and effectively. Second, trust is necessary. As human beings, our many relationships depend on the trust. When there is trust placed in the team leader, it makes it easy for the team as a whole to strive for success as much as possible.

The third is passion. If a leader tries doing a project without passion, it will hard for the team to be creative thinkers. Passion is a good way to motivate other people. Iris found this concept to be relevant to her personally in her transformation into a leader. “When I was doing my readings it occurred to me that if I wanted to go anywhere in leadership, if I display qualities of logic, passion and trust, I would be able to inspire those around me and go further as a leader. “Leadership consists of showing average people how to do the work of superior people” (John D.

Rockefeller. ) This quote springs from the idea that anyone can be a leader; everyday ordinary people can do the extraordinary. “I like the example David used in lecture, time and time again, about the 9/11 attacks on The United States of America, where it was the cleaners, the fire fighters, who took charge and lead thousands of American’s out of the twin towers at the time of the attack. This just shows , anyone can be a leader- these people had dedication and will power to get out alive and help those around them, they may have not had the highest status of power, but they ed, and I feel their courage and determination is a remarkable and astonishing thing. “- Sarah. Here are these people, who may be seen as ‘ average lower-class’, they still managed to take charge and lead, their actions were seen as heroic that day and they will forever be seen as astonishing people who helped save the lives of thousands. The material in this course has highlighted, to all of us as a group, certain universal leadership principles which resonate within us all, urging us to become the leaders that we know exists within us.

Principles like: “Leadership comes from the front and the middle of the pack”, “A leader communicates vision by embodying it, personifying it, and by living it out”. Principles like the these have caused us to view leadership in a completely different light, thinking not only about the stereotypical leaders that everyone cites when asked to name leaders, these include, Nelson Mandela, Sir Edmund Hillary, Martin Luther King Jnr. etc.

It seems as though when most people think of leaders they tend to think more about the positive leaders. “When I begun this course, I was one of them. When I thought “leader” I automatically thought “good”. People like Osama Bin Laden and Hitler never crossed my mind, But it is people like these who are often some of the most successful leaders, they put themselves out there in such a way that they managed to inspire a huge following that inspires change throughout the entire world. ” – Leah I agree with Leah, that when I had previously thought about leaders, I had thought about, only the good ones also, people tend to fail to recognise or consider, those not so good, people in the world, who may be seen as “terrible leaders”, they may be terrible, or expressing bad idea’s, essentially though, there are people who follow them and they can be called leaders. ” – Sarah “I disagree. An important value for leaders is to be ethical. People like Hitler and Osama were involved with unethical practises and in my opinion do not qualify as leaders; however, it may be argued that they are great people anagers and orators, but not leaders. This reiterates another leadership principle that “Everyone influences someone. The question is what you will influence them to do? ” Whether the influence is good or bad doesn’t really seem to make a difference. You just have to believe in yourself, believe in your cause and display this belief with passion. This passion needs to be infectious. It needs to spread through the crowds in such a way that you will make believers out of the people in the crowds too.

There is a common argument about whether leaders are born and not made, this is particular was a concept of debate for members in our group for some time. “A lot of what I learnt stayed at the forefront of my mind for sometime. I was always one to believe that some people had it and some people don’t, the whole leaders are born not made argument, but listening to David in the lectures, he managed to change my mind somewhat, while I still believe that some people are born with natural leadership attributes, I now am swayed to the thought that these can also be taught and learnt, as with confidence, “fake it ‘till it’s real”. – Leah It was a common occurrence in lectures for David to tell us to “Get curious” about ourselves. Kouzes & Posner (2007) encourage leaders to ultimately find their voice. They emphasise that, “before you can become a credible leader- one who connects “say and do”- first you have to find your voice”. This seems obvious but so many leaders fail to do this and therefore fail to lead. We think very few leaders in this course and in general know exactly what they stand for and have found their ‘inner voice’. “David repeatedly told us to figure out why we do things the way we do.

This prompted a different area of thinking within myself. “Now I am beginning to question my behaviour, my view points and certain ways that I prefer to manage tasks. ” – Donna. This leads us to self disclosure. This is important to leaders, and made us realise that in order for your followers to trust you and support you, you must be open to them about yourself, let them know your background, your goals, your strengths and weaknesses. Letting them understand you, helps to create a greater communication link between you and your employees.

Over time this would create relational depth. In the leadership videos Graeme Milnes mentioned that “no matter what, you don’t know everything, so be humble, and know what you know and what you don’t know”. Through this we realised that leadership is more about revelation and acknowledging the value of your staff. As Graeme Milne said “successful leaders are those who would value the ability of their followers, acknowledge their own strength and weakness, and disclose the problems they are facing”.

A good leader does not need to know everything, but does need to know that they are not perfect and would need the help of their workers to get things done. If you divulge the problem you are facing and acknowledge that you can not do it alone and need their help then your workers would respond by coming together and solving the problem for you by filling in your weakness. Whereas if you do not make the problem known and pretend to be the perfect leader and keep all the information and credit to yourself then your workers would think that since the leader believes he or she is so perfect what does he or she need them for?

So the difference between a good leader and a bad leader is that when they fail, a good leader who discloses information and acknowledges the value of their staff would see workers jumping in to help. Whereas a bad leader who tends to keep all the information and credit to himself would lose respect among workers, who would in turn not be so eager to help. “This has made me realise that great and successful leaders are not born to be who they are, they only become great leaders through the support of your followers, and this is done through self disclosure, information disclosure and also acknowledging the value of their workers. – Daniel “Communication is an integral part of leadership. It is a process and not just a distinct event. Communication is a circular two way process and leaders should be open to feedback from all sources. I have personally learnt that as leader you need to LISTEN. ” – Devarsh David made clear in lectures the importance of Emotional Intelligence (EI). The display of the right mood to match the situation is an art that has to be first understood and then learnt. It is a very powerful tool of leadership.

Generally speaking, this is an art, which we pick up normally in the course of life but very few of us have learnt to use this art as a tool. Certain situations are very clear; such as visits to the hospital, where one is expected to show concern, or take the instance of a visit to a home where a death has taken place. These are obvious situations and we learn from society the correct mood to display and say the right things that are to be said. From the leadership angle, by following a few established principles one should be able to get much more out of colleagues and followers than we normally do.

Any team can be swayed to better performance by the correct display of positive leadership. “EI is not about being nice, but confronting someone with truth, not letting it all hang out or dumping but expressing it appropriately. ” – Devarsh In general, the idea of looking down the tunnel and seeing a possible leadership role at the end is quite daunting. In an interview from the RSNZ website, Sir Angus Tait says that “if you can measure the difficulties that lie ahead and there will be many.

In many instances you’ll never start. Therefore… don’t look to deeply just say I’m going to do that; and proceed to do it”. This quote is one that we find inspiring. It makes us feel that we too, can be leaders. The readings and tutorial exercises have taught us a great deal, about what it takes to become leaders. The concepts, of “finding your voice”, and “affirm shared values”, are two hugely influential parts of leadership, that we will now try to consider in our own personal lives when taking on a leadership role.

As a group, we feel as though we have learnt a lot of valuable lessons throughout the course, not just about the leadership qualities expected in the workforce, but also about ourselves and what we have learned and discovered on the leadership front thus far. Whilst a lot of the concepts brought to a front throughout this paper aren’t exactly entirely new concepts, the way in which they were presented to us however, have caused to us pause and re-evaluate our own leadership qualities and places where we can improve ourselves. Word Count: 1911 Group Members: Tutor: Charlie Gillard. Tutorial time: Thursday 8am-10am. Tutor: Charlie Gillard.

Appendix 4 – The main concept I have grasped from this paper is how leaders empower their followers. (Hackman & Johnson, 2009). I always thought leaders had some degree of power that arose from their rank of position; I never considered that leadership really is regardless of your position. It is about who you are and what you are doing. Whilst power naturally evolves with leadership roles, I have learnt that the biggest source of power a leader can use and ‘feed’ from is the energy created when everyone around them becomes a leader also. Skills within this concept come first and foremost from finding out who one is as a person/leader. . e. ‘finding your voice’ (Kouzes & Posner, 2007) This is essential for leaders as once this is ‘found’; where they are going and what they want to achieve is clear. Being able to communicate your vision and beliefs often and genuinely acting upon such statements, is also essential for getting followers to side with you as a leader. “If you are clear about your values, and your actions are aligned, it makes all the hard work worth the effort”. (Kouzes & Posner, 2007) I am determined to develop these skills into my leadership roles by ensuring I stand for my values and be clear and open about who I am and what I want to do.

This then can be shared with others by bringing them on board and empowering them as individuals and leaders all working toward a common goal. Donna Fredrikson Appendix 5 – This course has been a very eye-opening and enlightening experience. From day one I thought I had a fair understanding of leadership and what it entails, but after engaging with the materials and activities in the course I have learnt it is so much more complex and diverse than I had ever imagined. I main idea I took form this course was that leadership may not always be a position of power and status, but the effective ability to communicate, lead and influence.

One quote I valued a lot in my reading of the course reader was this one, by (John D. Rockefeller. )Where he states, that “Leadership consists of showing average people how to do the work of superior people”. This quote emphasizes the idea that anyone can be a leader and ordinary people can do the extraordinary. David from lecturer, forth reinforced this idea, in his examples and discussions of the 9//11 attacks on the United States of America, where it was the cleaners , the fire fighters, who took charge and lead thousands of American’s out of the twin towers at the time of the attack.

This shows, anyone can be a leader, these people had dedication and will power to get out alive and help those around them, they may have not had the highest status of power, but they led, and I feel their courage and determination is a remarkable and astonishing thing. Sarah Gledhill Appendix 6 – In blog three (Appendix 3), I was asked to reflect on what I have learned in this paper thus far, below are snippets from that blog and other lessons that throughout this course, the lectures, tutorials and RSNZ interviews have provoked thought and reflection within me, not only on leadership as a theme but also within myself.

I feel as though I have learnt a lot of valuable lessons, not just about the leadership qualities expected in the workforce, but also about myself and what I have learned and discovered on the leadership front thus far. While a lot of the concepts brought to a front throughout this paper aren’t exactly entirely new concepts, the way in which they were presented to me however, have caused to pause and re-evaluate my own leadership qualities and places where I can improve myself.

At this stage I haven’t exactly, in anyway, reached the pinnacle of my leadership potential, but I do believe that If I continue to work at it, I will keep inching closer to becoming a more together and confident individual who will inspire others to do as I have done. This paper has highlighted, to me, certain universal leadership principles which resonate within me, urging me to become the leader that I know exists within me. Principles like: “A leader communicates vision by embodying it, personifying it, and by living it out”, have encouraged me to want to better myself by putting forth my passion for what I do and passing it on to others.

Leah Norman Appendix 7 – The success of an organisation depends on the employee’s contribution. No matter how good you are a leader you don’t know everything in your business, therefore you need your employees help. Leadership is about getting support and drawing on the best talents of your employees, in order to do so you must acknowledge their contribution to the organisation, that whatever the organisation has achieved is due to the team and give them credit, rather than taking it to yourself. If you treat people right you will get the best out of them, and you will be a leader, if you don’t then you will never be a successful leader. ” (Graeme Milne, 2007). The consequences of a successful leader not empowering employees would be the incapability to grow the business by relying on employees in the leader’s absence. This reinforces with Graeme Milne (2007), that a successful organisation is one that does not need to rely on the leader too much. A successful organisation is one that would continue to grow in the absence of a leader. And this is achieved through staff empowerment.

Ana Stretton is a successful leader but she takes decision making all to herself, the firm does not have the capability to function or grow without her, therefore if anything happens to her then the organisation would probably collapse. Daniel Zhang Appendix 8 – Since high school when I was the captain of the school cricket team, I comprehended that it was very important for me to have a better-quality performance, to gain respect of my team members. Over time I have also realised, that it is very important for a manger to be hands on and not just direct and supervise the subordinates.

Observing an energetic and active manager can be quite motivating for the team and this way the manager can illustrate the best practice style. At my first job I was leading a small team of four. I had an authoritarian approach and listened to none. But when I started working part time, my manager had a similar style of leading. That’s when I realised and empathised with my subordinates how demotivating it felt. Since then I have modified my leadership style and allow more participation and involvement of my team members.

I have personally initiated introspection practices recommended by David in the lectures like writing a diary and Johari window. Initially I used to get angry under high pressure situations at work. But while studying about EI in the course I have realised the importance of the need for the leader to be calm and composed. Leader is a role model for followers and their ill behaviour would have bad effect on their followers. Leaders need to be open for feedback from all sources. It is very important to constantly motivate employees by acknowledging their contribution and giving constructive feedback.

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