Leadership in a Global Environment
Management vs. Leadership Management Leadership – Vision & strategy – Keeping an eye on the horizon – Creating shared values – Helping others grow – Reducing boundaries – Focusing on people – Based on personal power – Acting as a coach – Emotional connections – Open mind – Listening – Nonconformity – Insight into self – Creates change and a culture of integrity Source: Daft (2008), p. 15 Leadership Direction: Planning & budgeting – Keeping an eye on the bottom line – Organizing & staffing – Directing & controlling – Creating boundaries – Focusing on products – Based on position power – Acting as boss – Emotional distance – Expert mind – Talking – Conformity – Insight into organization Alignment: Relationships: Personal Qualities: Outcomes: – Maintains stability – Creates culture of efficiency Definition of culture Internet in Leadership Germany Members of a group or a society sharing a distinct way of life with common values, attitudes and behaviors that are transmitted over time in a gradual, yet dynamic process.
Source: Harris, J. E. / Moran, R. T. (1979). International Context Culture Bbehavior Values Attitudes Source: Adler (2002) p. 17. Values – attitudes – behavior Internet in Leadership Germany Values => explicit or implicit desirable to an individual or group => influences the selection from available modes, mearns and ends of action International Context => can be both consciously and unconsciously Attitudes => expresses values and disposes a person to act or react in a certain way to something Bbehavior => any form of human action Source: Adler ( 2002), p. 18. Linking values to behavior Internet in Leadership Germany
Bbehavior Value Sample Countries/Areas China/Thailand Australia/United States 1 2 Use of understatement Asking people to call you by your first name Taking off from work to attend the funeral of an aunt Not helping the person next to you on an exam Disagreeing openly with someone at a meeting Not laying off an older worker whose performance is weak H Indirectness F Informality Centrality of family Self-reliance 3 B Venezuela/Korea International Context 4 5 6 I Switzerland/Canada Germany/England A Directness E Respect for age Japan/Pakistan 7 At a meeting agreeing with a suggestion you think is wrong D Saving face
Asia generally 8 Inviting the teaboy to eat lunch with you in your office J Egalitarianism Cambodia/Vietnam 9 Asking the headmaster’s opinion about something you’re an expert on G Defence to authority India/Brazil 10 Accepting, without question that something can’t be changed C External Control Saudi Arabia/Turkey Source: www. uop. edu/sis/culture. Culture: The hidden dimension Culture has observable aspects and suspected, imagined, or intuited. Internet in Leadership Germany Holiday customs Facial expressions Paintings Food Music Eating habits Literature Concept of personal space Work ethic Gestures
International Context Rules of social etiquete Religious beliefs Concept of beauty Childraising beliefs Importance of time Values Concept of leadership Concept of fairness Concept of self General world view Nature of friendship Source: www. uop. edu/sis/culture. Cultural dimensions by Hofstede Internet in Leadership Germany – based on the first and most detailed cross-cultural research study – national culture explained more of the differences in work-related values and attitudes than did position, profession, age or gender International Context 1. Power distance . Individualism 3. Masculinity 4. Uncertainty avoidance 5. Long term orientation Source: www. geert-hofstede. com. Power distance Internet in Leadership Germany 1. Power distance = degree of equality, or inequality, between people in the country’s society. International Context High Power Distance – Core value: respect for status – Core distinction: powerful/dependant – Key element: centralization Low Power Distance – Core value: people‘s equality – Core distinction: whether or not responsible for a certain task – Key element: decentralization Individualism 2.