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Leadership

Leadership Theories and Styles IAAP 2009 Administrative Professionals Week  Event April 28, 2009

Development of Leadership Theory Development of Leadership Theory • Until approximately 1930, there was not much  academic interest in the area of leadership academic interest in the area of leadership • Fredrick Taylor –Scientific Management (time/motion Fredrick Taylor  Scientific Management (time/motion  studies of productivity) (late 1800’s) • Max Weber –(writing on bureaucracy)  a leader  possessed power by virtue of his position (1922) • Mary Parker Follett – participatory management in  power with as opposed to power over (1926) “power with” as opposed to “power over” (1926)

Luther Gulick Notes on Organization ?? 1937 • Work of the Executive Work of the Executive • POSDCORB – Planning – Organizing – Staffing – Directing – Coordinating g – Reporting – Budgeting g g Leadership  a new definition Leadership – a new definition • Chester Barnard – 1938 new definition of  leadership The ability of a superior to influence the  behavior of subordinates and persuade them  to follow a particular course of action. (Barnard 1938)

Power  French and Raven (1960) Power – French and Raven (1960) • Legitimate power – comes solely from the position the  g p y p superior holds in an organization • Reward power – comes by means of promotion, salary  increases and interesting assignments i di t ti i t • Expert power – comes from the leader possessing  superior knowledge of the matter under discussion superior knowledge of the matter under discussion • Referent power – comes from the fact that  subordinates identify with the leader and respect  him/her / • Coercive power – comes from forced actions and  potential for punishment potential for punishment

Nature of Leadership Nature of Leadership Effective leadership is a key factor in the life and success  of an organization Leadership transforms potential into reality. Leadership transforms potential into reality Leadership is the ultimate act which brings to success all  p g of the potent potential that is in an organization and  its people.

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Leaders propose new paradigms when old ones lose  their effectiveness. Leadership is a major way in  which people change the  minds of others and move  minds of others and move organizations forward to  accomplish identified goals.

Theories of Leadership Theories of Leadership Over time, a number of theories of leadership have  , p been proposed, including: • Great Man Theory • Trait Theory • B h i l Th i Behavioral Theories – The Managerial Grid – Theory X and Theory Y Theory X and Theory Y • Participative Leadership – Lewin’s leadership styles Theories of Leadership (con t) Theories of Leadership (con’t) • Situational Leadership Situational Leadership • C i Contingency Theory h • Transactional Leadership • Transformational Leadership

Theories of Leadership:  Trait Theories of Leadership: Trait • Trait Theory/Great Man (Woman) – assumes the  a t eo y/G eat a ( o a ) assu es t e leader is different from the average person in  terms of personality traits such as intelligence,  perseverance, and ambition d b • Assumptions – People are born with inherited traits. –S Some traits are particularly suited to leadership. t it ti l l it d t l d hi – People who make good leaders have the right (or  sufficient) combination of traits. sufficient) combination of traits. Trait Theory Trait Theory Early research on leadership was based on the  y p psychological focus of the day, which was of  people having inherited characteristics or traits. • Attention was given to discovering these traits,  often by studying successful leaders. often by studying successful leaders. • Underlying assumption that if other people could  y g p p p also be found with these traits, then they, too,  could also become great leaders. Stodgill s  (1974) Traits and Skills Stodgill’s (1974) Traits and Skills Traits •Adaptable to situations  •Alert to social environment  •Ambitious and achievement? rientated  •Assertive  •Cooperative  •Decisive  •Decisive •Dependable  •Dominant (desire to influence others)  •Energetic (high activity level)  •Persistent  •Self? confident  •Tolerant of stress  Willing to assume responsibility  •Willing to assume responsibility Skills •Clever (intelligent)  •Conceptually skilled  •Creative  •Diplomatic and tactful  •Fluent in speaking  •Knowledgeable about group task  •Knowledgeable about group task •Organized (administrative ability)  •Persuasive  •Socially skilled Behavioral Theories Behavioral Theories Assumptions – Leaders can be made, rather than are born – Successful leadership is based in definable, learnable behavior • Description p – Behavioral theories do not seek inborn traits – they look at what  leaders actually do – Success can be defined in terms of describable actions • Implication: Leadership capability can be learned Leadership capability can be learned Behavioral Theories Behavioral Theories Two general types of behavior exhibited by  leaders: • Concern for People • Concern for Production

Early Research on Leader s Behavior Early Research on Leader’s Behavior While a leader can exhibit both types of behavior,  yp , early research on the two dimensions indicate  that generally: • As a leader’s consideration increased employee As a leader’s consideration increased, employee  turnover and absenteeism declined • As a leader’s task orientation increased,  employee performance rose. But, the findings were sometimes contradictory. The Managerial Grid The Managerial Grid High g Country Club management Middle of the road management Impoverished management Team management g Concern for People Medium

Low Authority-compliance Low Medium High Concern for Production (Task) Blake and Mouton (early 1960’s) McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y (1960) ( ) Theory X Leaders Assume: Theory Y Leaders Assume: 1. Employees inherently dislike work and,  whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it. whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it. 1. Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play  rest or play 2. Because employees dislike work, they must be  2. Men and women will exercise self? direction  coerced, controlled, or threatened with  and self? ontrol if they are committed to the  punishment to achieve desired goals  punishment to achieve desired goals objectives  objectives 3. Employees will shirk responsibilities and seek  3. The average person can learn to accept, even  formal direction whenever possible  seek, responsibility  4. Most workers place security above all other  4. The ability to make good decisions is widely  factors associated with work and will display little dispersed throughout the population and is not  ambition  necessarily the sole province of managers Participative Leadership Participative Leadership

Assumptions • Involvement in decision? making improves the  understanding of the issues involved by those who must  carry out the decisions. • People are more committed to actions where they have  involved in the relevant decision? making. • People are less competitive and more collaborative when People are less competitive and more collaborative when  they are working on joint goals. • When people make decisions together, the social  commitment to one another is greater and thus increases  commitment to one another is greater and thus increases their commitment to the decision. Several people deciding together make better decisions  than one person alone. than one person alone Participative Leadership Participative Leadership • A Participative Leader rather than taking A Participative Leader, rather than taking  autocratic decisions, seeks to involve other  people in the process, possibly including  people in the process possibly including subordinates, peers, superiors and other  stakeholders. stakeholders • M Most participative activity is within the  i i i i i i i hi h immediate team.

Continuum of Participatory Style Continuum of Participatory Style Autocratic  decision by  leader Joint decision  with team as  equals Full delegation  of decision to  team You should also know: You should also know: • This approach is also known as consultation, This approach is also known as consultation,  empowerment, joint decision? making,  democratic leadership, Management By  Objective (MBO) and power? sharing. • Participative Leadership can be a sham when  managers ask for opinions and then ignore  them. This is likely to lead to cynicism and  feelings of betrayal.

Autocratic • In the autocratic style, the leader makes decisions  without consulting with others. In Lewin’s experiments,  he found that this caused the greatest discontent. h f d th t thi d th t t di t t • An autocratic style works  best when: – there is no need for input on the decision there is no need for input on the decision – where the decision would not change as a result of input – where the motivation of people to carry out subsequent  actions would not be affected whether they were or were  not involved in the decision? making.

Lewin s  Three Participatory  Lewin’s Three Participatory Leadership Styles (1939) Lewin s Styles (con t) Lewin’s Styles (con’t) Democratic • In the democratic style, the leader involves the people  in the decision? making, although the process for the  final decision may vary from the leader having the final  fi l d i i f th l d h i th fi l say to them facilitating consensus in the group. • Democratic decision? making is usually appreciated by Democratic decision making is usually appreciated by  the people, especially if they have been used to  autocratic decisions with which they disagreed. Democratic style can be problematic when there are a  wide range of opinions and there is no clear way of  reaching an equitable final decision. reaching an equitable final decision. Lewin s Styles (con t) Lewin’s Styles (con’t) Laissez Faire Laissez? Faire • The laissez? faire style minimizes the leader’s  involvement in decision making. involvement in decision? making. • Laissez? faire works best when: Laissez? faire works best when: – people are capable and motivated in making their  o dec s o s, a d own decisions, and – where there is no requirement for a central  coordination

Lewin s Conclusions Lewin’s Conclusions These experiments were actually done with  These experiments were actually done with groups of children, but were early in the  modern era and were consequently highly  modern era and were consequently highly influential. • Lewin discovered that : – The most effective style was Democratic – Excessive autocratic styles led to revolution – Laissez? faire resulted in less coherent  work  patterns and  exertion of less energy than when  b i ti l l d Situational Leadership Situational Leadership • Assumptions The best action of the leader depends on a  range of situational factors. ange of situational factors When a decision is needed, an effective leader  does not just fall into a single preferred style. Factors Influence Situational  Leadership d h • Tannenbaum and Schmidt (1958) identified Tannenbaum and Schmidt (1958) identified  three forces that led to the leader’s action: – the forces in the situation the forces in the situation – the forces in the follower – the forces in the leader the forces in the leader This recognizes that the leader’s style is highly  Thi i th t th l d ‘ t l i hi hl variable, and even such distant events as a family  argument can  argument can influence decisions made in the work place.

Contingency  v. Situational Theory Contingency v. Situational Theory Both assume that there is no simple one right way:  ot assu e t at t e e s o s p e o e g t ay: • Situational theory tends to focus more on the Situational theory tends to focus more on the  behaviors that the leader should adopt, given  situational factors (often about follower  behavior). • Contingency theory takes a broader view that  includes contingent factors about leader  capability and other variables within the  capability and other variables within the situation. Leaders who are very effective at one  place and time may become unsuccessful either Transactional Leadership Transactional Leadership Assumptions • People are motivated by reward and  punishment. punishment • Social systems work best with a clear chain of  command. d • When people have agreed to do a job, a part  of the deal is that they cede all authority to  their manager. • The prime purpose of a subordinate is to do  what their manager tells them to do.

Transactional Leadership Style Transactional Leadership Style • Transactional leader works through creating clear  g g structures  – Work requirements are clear –R Reward structure is clear d t t i l – Punishments are not always mentioned, but they are also well? understood and formal systems of discipline are  usually in place – Negotiate the contract whereby the subordinate is given a Negotiate the contract whereby the subordinate is given a  salary and other benefits, and the company (and by  implication the subordinate’s manager) gets authority over  the subordinate. he subordinate – When work is allocated to subordinates, they are Transactional Considerations Transactional Considerations • The transactional leader often uses The transactional leader often uses  management by exception, working on the  principle that if something is operating as  expected then it does not need attention. • In the Leadership vs. Management Spectrum,  transactional leadership is very much towards  the management end of the scale. • Relies strongly on principle of “rational man”  and reaction to rewards and punishment. Transactional and Transformational (Burns ?? 978) ( ) • Transactional – leader engages others in the Transactional  leader engages others in the  reciprocal activity of exchanging one thing for  another. (participatory/dynamic) another (participatory/dynamic) • T Transformational – l d f i l leader examines and  i d searches for the needs and motives of others  while seeking a higher agenda of needs. hil ki hi h d f d (visionary/change agent) Transformational Leadership Transformational Leadership Assumptions • People will follow a person who inspires them. • A person with vision and passion can achieve  great things. • The way to get things done is by injecting  enthusiasm and energy. nthusiasm and energy Components of Transformational  Leadership d h Develop the vision p • Starts with the development of a vision, a view of the future that will excite and convert potential  followers. (This vision may be developed by the  followers (This vision may be developed by the leader, by the senior team or may emerge from a  broad series of discussions. The leader must buy  in completely. ) Sell the vision S ll h i i • Sell the vision immediately and continually. • Create trust Create trust • Rely on personal integrity  Transformational leaders are selling themselves as well as

Finding the Way Finding the Way Find the way forwards: Find the way forwards: • Path may be clear – others simply need to  follow • Path may need to be explored together • Direction will not always be known  • Leader guides along the course g g Transformational Leader will accept that there  Transformational Leader will accept that there will be failures and blind canyons along the  way As long as they feel progress is being Leading the charge • Transformational Leaders are always visible  • Will stand up to be counted rather than hide Will stand up to be counted rather than hide  behind their troops. Th They show by their attitudes and actions how  h b th i ttit d d ti h everyone else should behave. • They make continued efforts to motivate and  rally their followers, constantly doing the  rounds, listening, soothing and energizing. • Their unswerving commitment keeps people  going, particularly through the darker times  when some may question whether the vision Transformational Leadership Transformational Leadership • One of the methods the Transformational Leader One of the methods the Transformational Leader  uses to sustain motivation is in the use of  ceremonies, rituals and other cultural symbolism. y Small changes get big hurrahs, pumping up their  significance as indicators of real progress. (Culture Creators) • Overall, they balance their attention between  y action that creates progress and the mental state  of their followers. Transformational leaders are people? oriented Meta Leadership Meta? Leadership • Working across organizations Working across organizations • Five Dimensions of Meta? Leadership i i i f d hi Lead Up Lead Person  as  TheTh Leader L Lead the Silo Connectivity Women s Leadership Style Women’s Leadership Style

Effectiveness most often depends upon the fit  Effectiveness most often depends upon the fit between the setting and the management  gender. gender • W Women’s typically more mentoring, coaching  ’ i ll i hi style is more favorably received in female? dominated professions. d i d f i • Men’s more typically “command and control”  style is well received in male? dominated What the  studies show: What the “studies” show: • Male and female leaders are equally effective Male and female leaders are equally effective • Women were perceived to be more success in  i d b i female? riented settings and males in male? oriented settings i d i • Women have been found to be more  democratic, encouraging participation, and  , g gp p , men more autocratic, directing performance. (Eagly and Johnson, 1990) Studies   In 2003: Studies ?? In 2003: • Women have been shown to be slightly more Women have been shown to be slightly more  likely than men to have the transformational leadership style, in which the manager acts  more like a good teacher or coach and  encourages creative solutions to problems. – Especially suited to the contemporary work place Women also appear to reward good  performance more than men • Men are more likely to criticize subordinates  and be less “hands? on” Words of Caution Words of Caution Psychologists suggest that there may not be an  Psychologists suggest that there may not be an innate management style… • Women may soften their approach to avoid  the “bossy” woman syndrome h “b ” d • Research only shows average tendencies—any  one man or woman may have more feminine  y or masculine styles Research in the Workplace Research in the Workplace Bureau of Labor Statistics Bureau of Labor Statistics – Nearly one of four chief executives is now a  woman  reflects the # of women who own their  woman – reflects the # of women who own their own businesses. In Fortune 500 – women hold  only about 1 out of 20 top management positions. Researchers are interested in the question of  q whether a management style more associated  with women – less authoritarian, more nurturing  approach – will “click” as the workplace generally  shifts to more team? oriented structures that  thrive under a less directive approach

Leadership Practices Inventory Leadership Practices Inventory James Kouzes and Barry Posner developed a  survey (The Leadership Practices Inventory)  survey (The Leadership Practices Inventory) that asked people which, of a list of common  characteristics of leaders, were, in their  characteristics of leaders were in their experiences of being led by others, the seven  top things they look for, admire and would  top things they look for admire and would willingly follow. 75,000 people over 20 years Kouzes/Posner’s Leadership Inventory (In order of priority) • • • • • • • • • • Honest  Honest Forward? ooking  Competent  Competent Inspiring  Intelligent  I t lli t Fair? minded  Broad? minded  Supportive  Straightforward  Dependable Kouzes/Posner s Inventory (con t) Kouzes/Posner’s Inventory (con’t) • • • • • • • • • • Cooperative  Cooperative Determined  Imaginative  Imaginative Ambitious  Courageous  C Caring  Mature  Loyal  Self? controlled  Independent Keys to Successful Leadership Keys to Successful Leadership • Model the Way Model the Way • Inspire a Shared Vision i Sh d i i • Challenge the Process • Enable others to Act • Encourage the Heart A good leader… A good leader…

Is a person with integrity who is committed to  i hi i h i i d the organization and the people who work  together to accomplish the organization’s  h li h h i i ’ mission; this person leads by example,  communicates without ceasing, and shows  i ih i d h care, concern, and consistency in all dealings. Resources: http://changingminds. org/disciplines/leadership/theories/leadership_theories. htm http://psychology. about. com/library/quiz/bl? leadershipquiz. htm The Leadership Challenge, 4th Edition James M. Kouzes, Barry Z. Posner J M K B Z P August 2007 , Jossey? Bass