Leadership Theories and Styles IAAP 2009 Administrative Professionals Week Event April 28, 2009
Development of Leadership Theory Development of Leadership Theory • Until approximately 1930, there was not much academic interest in the area of leadership academic interest in the area of leadership • Fredrick Taylor –Scientific Management (time/motion Fredrick Taylor Scientific Management (time/motion studies of productivity) (late 1800’s) • Max Weber –(writing on bureaucracy) a leader possessed power by virtue of his position (1922) • Mary Parker Follett – participatory management in power with as opposed to power over (1926) “power with” as opposed to “power over” (1926)
Luther Gulick Notes on Organization ?? 1937 • Work of the Executive Work of the Executive • POSDCORB – Planning – Organizing – Staffing – Directing – Coordinating g – Reporting – Budgeting g g Leadership a new definition Leadership – a new definition • Chester Barnard – 1938 new definition of leadership The ability of a superior to influence the behavior of subordinates and persuade them to follow a particular course of action. (Barnard 1938)
Power French and Raven (1960) Power – French and Raven (1960) • Legitimate power – comes solely from the position the g p y p superior holds in an organization • Reward power – comes by means of promotion, salary increases and interesting assignments i di t ti i t • Expert power – comes from the leader possessing superior knowledge of the matter under discussion superior knowledge of the matter under discussion • Referent power – comes from the fact that subordinates identify with the leader and respect him/her / • Coercive power – comes from forced actions and potential for punishment potential for punishment
Nature of Leadership Nature of Leadership Effective leadership is a key factor in the life and success of an organization Leadership transforms potential into reality. Leadership transforms potential into reality Leadership is the ultimate act which brings to success all p g of the potent potential that is in an organization and its people.
Leaders propose new paradigms when old ones lose their effectiveness. Leadership is a major way in which people change the minds of others and move minds of others and move organizations forward to accomplish identified goals.
Theories of Leadership Theories of Leadership Over time, a number of theories of leadership have , p been proposed, including: • Great Man Theory • Trait Theory • B h i l Th i Behavioral Theories – The Managerial Grid – Theory X and Theory Y Theory X and Theory Y • Participative Leadership – Lewin’s leadership styles Theories of Leadership (con t) Theories of Leadership (con’t) • Situational Leadership Situational Leadership • C i Contingency Theory h • Transactional Leadership • Transformational Leadership
Theories of Leadership: Trait Theories of Leadership: Trait • Trait Theory/Great Man (Woman) – assumes the a t eo y/G eat a ( o a ) assu es t e leader is different from the average person in terms of personality traits such as intelligence, perseverance, and ambition d b • Assumptions – People are born with inherited traits. –S Some traits are particularly suited to leadership. t it ti l l it d t l d hi – People who make good leaders have the right (or sufficient) combination of traits. sufficient) combination of traits. Trait Theory Trait Theory Early research on leadership was based on the y p psychological focus of the day, which was of people having inherited characteristics or traits. • Attention was given to discovering these traits, often by studying successful leaders. often by studying successful leaders. • Underlying assumption that if other people could y g p p p also be found with these traits, then they, too, could also become great leaders. Stodgill s (1974) Traits and Skills Stodgill’s (1974) Traits and Skills Traits •Adaptable to situations •Alert to social environment •Ambitious and achievement? rientated •Assertive •Cooperative •Decisive •Decisive •Dependable •Dominant (desire to influence others) •Energetic (high activity level) •Persistent •Self? confident •Tolerant of stress Willing to assume responsibility •Willing to assume responsibility Skills •Clever (intelligent) •Conceptually skilled •Creative •Diplomatic and tactful •Fluent in speaking •Knowledgeable about group task •Knowledgeable about group task •Organized (administrative ability) •Persuasive •Socially skilled Behavioral Theories Behavioral Theories Assumptions – Leaders can be made, rather than are born – Successful leadership is based in definable, learnable behavior • Description p – Behavioral theories do not seek inborn traits – they look at what leaders actually do – Success can be defined in terms of describable actions • Implication: Leadership capability can be learned Leadership capability can be learned Behavioral Theories Behavioral Theories Two general types of behavior exhibited by leaders: • Concern for People • Concern for Production
Early Research on Leader s Behavior Early Research on Leader’s Behavior While a leader can exhibit both types of behavior, yp , early research on the two dimensions indicate that generally: • As a leader’s consideration increased employee As a leader’s consideration increased, employee turnover and absenteeism declined • As a leader’s task orientation increased, employee performance rose. But, the findings were sometimes contradictory. The Managerial Grid The Managerial Grid High g Country Club management Middle of the road management Impoverished management Team management g Concern for People Medium
Low Authority-compliance Low Medium High Concern for Production (Task) Blake and Mouton (early 1960’s) McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y (1960) ( ) Theory X Leaders Assume: Theory Y Leaders Assume: 1. Employees inherently dislike work and, whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it. whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it. 1. Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play rest or play 2. Because employees dislike work, they must be 2. Men and women will exercise self? direction coerced, controlled, or threatened with and self? ontrol if they are committed to the punishment to achieve desired goals punishment to achieve desired goals objectives objectives 3. Employees will shirk responsibilities and seek 3. The average person can learn to accept, even formal direction whenever possible seek, responsibility 4. Most workers place security above all other 4. The ability to make good decisions is widely factors associated with work and will display little dispersed throughout the population and is not ambition necessarily the sole province of managers Participative Leadership Participative Leadership
Assumptions • Involvement in decision? making improves the understanding of the issues involved by those who must carry out the decisions. • People are more committed to actions where they have involved in the relevant decision? making. • People are less competitive and more collaborative when People are less competitive and more collaborative when they are working on joint goals. • When people make decisions together, the social commitment to one another is greater and thus increases commitment to one another is greater and thus increases their commitment to the decision. Several people deciding together make better decisions than one person alone. than one person alone Participative Leadership Participative Leadership • A Participative Leader rather than taking A Participative Leader, rather than taking autocratic decisions, seeks to involve other people in the process, possibly including people in the process possibly including subordinates, peers, superiors and other stakeholders. stakeholders • M Most participative activity is within the i i i i i i i hi h immediate team.
Continuum of Participatory Style Continuum of Participatory Style Autocratic decision by leader Joint decision with team as equals Full delegation of decision to team You should also know: You should also know: • This approach is also known as consultation, This approach is also known as consultation, empowerment, joint decision? making, democratic leadership, Management By Objective (MBO) and power? sharing. • Participative Leadership can be a sham when managers ask for opinions and then ignore them. This is likely to lead to cynicism and feelings of betrayal.
Autocratic • In the autocratic style, the leader makes decisions without consulting with others. In Lewin’s experiments, he found that this caused the greatest discontent. h f d th t thi d th t t di t t • An autocratic style works best when: – there is no need for input on the decision there is no need for input on the decision – where the decision would not change as a result of input – where the motivation of people to carry out subsequent actions would not be affected whether they were or were not involved in the decision? making.
Lewin s Three Participatory Lewin’s Three Participatory Leadership Styles (1939) Lewin s Styles (con t) Lewin’s Styles (con’t) Democratic • In the democratic style, the leader involves the people in the decision? making, although the process for the final decision may vary from the leader having the final fi l d i i f th l d h i th fi l say to them facilitating consensus in the group. • Democratic decision? making is usually appreciated by Democratic decision making is usually appreciated by the people, especially if they have been used to autocratic decisions with which they disagreed. Democratic style can be problematic when there are a wide range of opinions and there is no clear way of reaching an equitable final decision. reaching an equitable final decision. Lewin s Styles (con t) Lewin’s Styles (con’t) Laissez Faire Laissez? Faire • The laissez? faire style minimizes the leader’s involvement in decision making. involvement in decision? making. • Laissez? faire works best when: Laissez? faire works best when: – people are capable and motivated in making their o dec s o s, a d own decisions, and – where there is no requirement for a central coordination
Lewin s Conclusions Lewin’s Conclusions These experiments were actually done with These experiments were actually done with groups of children, but were early in the modern era and were consequently highly modern era and were consequently highly influential. • Lewin discovered that : – The most effective style was Democratic – Excessive autocratic styles led to revolution – Laissez? faire resulted in less coherent work patterns and exertion of less energy than when b i ti l l d Situational Leadership Situational Leadership • Assumptions The best action of the leader depends on a range of situational factors. ange of situational factors When a decision is needed, an effective leader does not just fall into a single preferred style. Factors Influence Situational Leadership d h • Tannenbaum and Schmidt (1958) identified Tannenbaum and Schmidt (1958) identified three forces that led to the leader’s action: – the forces in the situation the forces in the situation – the forces in the follower – the forces in the leader the forces in the leader This recognizes that the leader’s style is highly Thi i th t th l d ‘ t l i hi hl variable, and even such distant events as a family argument can argument can influence decisions made in the work place.
Contingency v. Situational Theory Contingency v. Situational Theory Both assume that there is no simple one right way: ot assu e t at t e e s o s p e o e g t ay: • Situational theory tends to focus more on the Situational theory tends to focus more on the behaviors that the leader should adopt, given situational factors (often about follower behavior). • Contingency theory takes a broader view that includes contingent factors about leader capability and other variables within the capability and other variables within the situation. Leaders who are very effective at one place and time may become unsuccessful either Transactional Leadership Transactional Leadership Assumptions • People are motivated by reward and punishment. punishment • Social systems work best with a clear chain of command. d • When people have agreed to do a job, a part of the deal is that they cede all authority to their manager. • The prime purpose of a subordinate is to do what their manager tells them to do.
Transactional Leadership Style Transactional Leadership Style • Transactional leader works through creating clear g g structures – Work requirements are clear –R Reward structure is clear d t t i l – Punishments are not always mentioned, but they are also well? understood and formal systems of discipline are usually in place – Negotiate the contract whereby the subordinate is given a Negotiate the contract whereby the subordinate is given a salary and other benefits, and the company (and by implication the subordinate’s manager) gets authority over the subordinate. he subordinate – When work is allocated to subordinates, they are Transactional Considerations Transactional Considerations • The transactional leader often uses The transactional leader often uses management by exception, working on the principle that if something is operating as expected then it does not need attention. • In the Leadership vs. Management Spectrum, transactional leadership is very much towards the management end of the scale. • Relies strongly on principle of “rational man” and reaction to rewards and punishment. Transactional and Transformational (Burns ?? 978) ( ) • Transactional – leader engages others in the Transactional leader engages others in the reciprocal activity of exchanging one thing for another. (participatory/dynamic) another (participatory/dynamic) • T Transformational – l d f i l leader examines and i d searches for the needs and motives of others while seeking a higher agenda of needs. hil ki hi h d f d (visionary/change agent) Transformational Leadership Transformational Leadership Assumptions • People will follow a person who inspires them. • A person with vision and passion can achieve great things. • The way to get things done is by injecting enthusiasm and energy. nthusiasm and energy Components of Transformational Leadership d h Develop the vision p • Starts with the development of a vision, a view of the future that will excite and convert potential followers. (This vision may be developed by the followers (This vision may be developed by the leader, by the senior team or may emerge from a broad series of discussions. The leader must buy in completely. ) Sell the vision S ll h i i • Sell the vision immediately and continually. • Create trust Create trust • Rely on personal integrity Transformational leaders are selling themselves as well as
Finding the Way Finding the Way Find the way forwards: Find the way forwards: • Path may be clear – others simply need to follow • Path may need to be explored together • Direction will not always be known • Leader guides along the course g g Transformational Leader will accept that there Transformational Leader will accept that there will be failures and blind canyons along the way As long as they feel progress is being Leading the charge • Transformational Leaders are always visible • Will stand up to be counted rather than hide Will stand up to be counted rather than hide behind their troops. Th They show by their attitudes and actions how h b th i ttit d d ti h everyone else should behave. • They make continued efforts to motivate and rally their followers, constantly doing the rounds, listening, soothing and energizing. • Their unswerving commitment keeps people going, particularly through the darker times when some may question whether the vision Transformational Leadership Transformational Leadership • One of the methods the Transformational Leader One of the methods the Transformational Leader uses to sustain motivation is in the use of ceremonies, rituals and other cultural symbolism. y Small changes get big hurrahs, pumping up their significance as indicators of real progress. (Culture Creators) • Overall, they balance their attention between y action that creates progress and the mental state of their followers. Transformational leaders are people? oriented Meta Leadership Meta? Leadership • Working across organizations Working across organizations • Five Dimensions of Meta? Leadership i i i f d hi Lead Up Lead Person as TheTh Leader L Lead the Silo Connectivity Women s Leadership Style Women’s Leadership Style
Effectiveness most often depends upon the fit Effectiveness most often depends upon the fit between the setting and the management gender. gender • W Women’s typically more mentoring, coaching ’ i ll i hi style is more favorably received in female? dominated professions. d i d f i • Men’s more typically “command and control” style is well received in male? dominated What the studies show: What the “studies” show: • Male and female leaders are equally effective Male and female leaders are equally effective • Women were perceived to be more success in i d b i female? riented settings and males in male? oriented settings i d i • Women have been found to be more democratic, encouraging participation, and , g gp p , men more autocratic, directing performance. (Eagly and Johnson, 1990) Studies In 2003: Studies ?? In 2003: • Women have been shown to be slightly more Women have been shown to be slightly more likely than men to have the transformational leadership style, in which the manager acts more like a good teacher or coach and encourages creative solutions to problems. – Especially suited to the contemporary work place Women also appear to reward good performance more than men • Men are more likely to criticize subordinates and be less “hands? on” Words of Caution Words of Caution Psychologists suggest that there may not be an Psychologists suggest that there may not be an innate management style… • Women may soften their approach to avoid the “bossy” woman syndrome h “b ” d • Research only shows average tendencies—any one man or woman may have more feminine y or masculine styles Research in the Workplace Research in the Workplace Bureau of Labor Statistics Bureau of Labor Statistics – Nearly one of four chief executives is now a woman reflects the # of women who own their woman – reflects the # of women who own their own businesses. In Fortune 500 – women hold only about 1 out of 20 top management positions. Researchers are interested in the question of q whether a management style more associated with women – less authoritarian, more nurturing approach – will “click” as the workplace generally shifts to more team? oriented structures that thrive under a less directive approach
Leadership Practices Inventory Leadership Practices Inventory James Kouzes and Barry Posner developed a survey (The Leadership Practices Inventory) survey (The Leadership Practices Inventory) that asked people which, of a list of common characteristics of leaders, were, in their characteristics of leaders were in their experiences of being led by others, the seven top things they look for, admire and would top things they look for admire and would willingly follow. 75,000 people over 20 years Kouzes/Posner’s Leadership Inventory (In order of priority) • • • • • • • • • • Honest Honest Forward? ooking Competent Competent Inspiring Intelligent I t lli t Fair? minded Broad? minded Supportive Straightforward Dependable Kouzes/Posner s Inventory (con t) Kouzes/Posner’s Inventory (con’t) • • • • • • • • • • Cooperative Cooperative Determined Imaginative Imaginative Ambitious Courageous C Caring Mature Loyal Self? controlled Independent Keys to Successful Leadership Keys to Successful Leadership • Model the Way Model the Way • Inspire a Shared Vision i Sh d i i • Challenge the Process • Enable others to Act • Encourage the Heart A good leader… A good leader…
Is a person with integrity who is committed to i hi i h i i d the organization and the people who work together to accomplish the organization’s h li h h i i ’ mission; this person leads by example, communicates without ceasing, and shows i ih i d h care, concern, and consistency in all dealings. Resources: http://changingminds. org/disciplines/leadership/theories/leadership_theories. htm http://psychology. about. com/library/quiz/bl? leadershipquiz. htm The Leadership Challenge, 4th Edition James M. Kouzes, Barry Z. Posner J M K B Z P August 2007 , Jossey? Bass