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Leadership

| Q1 1 Assess the main features of managerial work and explain/outline the main roles and activities of managers within Scotia Airways. Managerial work: * The business agenda: defining plans & budgets; setting timetables; taking action; allocation resources, whether people, machines, materials * People development: organising the workforce; developing structure & allocating the right people to tasks; developing procedures and policies * Doing: taking control; directing; solving problems; monitoring actual results vs. lans; taking corrective action * Results: brings order to the organisation; consistent and predicable outcomes.

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Managerial activities * Forecasting-predicting future events * Planning-setting out a course of action to meet anticipated deman * Organising-mobilising materials,resources,people and allocating them to departments and people * Commanding –directing staff to undertake tasks. * Coordinating-ensuring that people,resources,equipment are all working together. Controlling-monitoring progress,ensuring alignment with plans,taking corrective action. In Scotia Airways Role| Description| Examples of identifiable activities| Leader| Responsible for the motivation and activation of subordinates, responsible for staffing, training, and associated duties| Performing virtually all activities that involve subordinates| Disseminator| Transmits information received from outsiders or from subordinates to members of the organization | Holding informational meetings making phone calls to relay information|

Q2 All staff menbers,whether mangers or not,should be regularly appraised. For managers such appraisal should include not only technical ability and skills but also managerial and interpersonal skills. This assists in building effectiveness by identifying if individual menbers of staff have stuck to their own goals which when grouped go towards meeting the goals of the organisation. It often helps an individual to understand where the goals set for him/her link into the ‘bigger picture’of the goals of the organisation as a whole.

If you can see the destination then it is often easier for the individual to map out the best route in order to get there. Measuring Managrial Performance: * Productivity levels/efficiency * Motivation and morale of staff * Success of their training and development * level of staff turnover * Absenteeism * Budget performancewqhit khti3qop I choose two mechanisms that could be uesd to measure mangerial performance are Motivation and morale of staff and Success of their training and development. Motivation and morale of staff

The airline currently covers eight destinations across Europe, including Brussels, Paris, Frankfurt, Madrid, Rome, Lisbon, Amsterdam and Copenhagen as well as domestic flights to Manchester, Birmingham, Bristol and four London airports. The airline has a fleet of five aircraft which the management team feel enables the business to be responsive to the demands and challenges of the market. Future opportunities seem likely as the EU and UK government relax their control over the licensing of airline provision. Success of their training and development

The management team within Scotia have worked meticulously in planning and evaluating their services to ensure that customer focus is the primary driver of business success. The satisfaction of the interests of the stakeholders involved in Scotia Airways has been of paramount importance to Rosa, and at times when difficult decisions have had to be taken, she has always been a strong and decisive manager. Q3 Behavioral Theories * knowing what effective leaders do would provide the basis for training leaders * University of Iowa Studies – Kurt Lewin * explored three leadership styles autocratic – leader dictated work methods * democratic – involved employees in decision making * used feedback to coach employees * laissez-faire – gave the group complete freedom * results were mixed with respect to performance * satisfaction higher with democratic leader * Ohio State Studies – identified two dimensions of leadership * initiating structure – extent to which a leader was likely to define and structure her/his role and the roles of group members to seek goal attainment * consideration – extent to which a leader had job relationships characterized by mutual trust and respect for group members’ ideas and feelings * findings – high-high leaders achieved high group task performance and satisfaction * however, high-high was not always effective * University of Michigan Studies – identified two dimensions of leadership * employee oriented – emphasized interpersonal relationships * accepts individual differences among subordinates * associated with high group productivity * production oriented – emphasized the technical or task aspects of the job * concerned with accomplishing the group’s tasks * associated with low group productivity and low job satisfaction * Behavioral Theories (cont. ) Managerial Grid – two-dimensional grid that provides a framework for conceptualizing leadership style * dimensions are concern for people and concern for production * five management styles described * impoverished (1,1) – minimum effort to reach goals and sustain organization membership * task (9,1) – arrange operations to be efficient with minimum human involvement * middle-of-the-road (5,5) – adequate performance by balancing work and human concerns * Managerial Grid (cont. ) * five management styles described (cont. ) * country club (1,9) – attention to human needs and creation of comfortable work environment * team (9,9) – committed people motivated by a common purpose, trust, and mutual respect * concluded that managers should use (9,9) style little empirical evidence to support this conclusion * no rationale for what made a manager an effective leader The Managerial Grid Q4 * Contingency Theories (cont. ) * Fiedler Model (cont. ) * results indicated that: * task-oriented leaders performed better in situations that are very favorable to them and in situations that are very unfavorable * relationship-oriented leaders performed better in situations that are moderately favorable * implications for improving leadership * place leaders in situations suited to their style * change the situation to fit the leader * considerable empirical support for the model unrealistic to assume that leader cannot alter her/his style * * Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory * appropriate leadership style is contingent on the followers’ readiness * readiness – extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task * reflects the reality that it is followers who accept or reject the leader * based on two leadership dimensions * task behaviors * relationship behaviors * * Situational Leadership Theory (cont. ) * four leadership styles defined by the two dimensions * Telling – leader defines roles and tells people how to do their jobs * people are neither competent nor confident Selling – leader is both directive and supportive * people are unable but willing to do necessary tasks * Participating – leader and follower make decisions * people are able but unwilling to do the job * Delegating – leader provides little direction or support * people are able and willing to do the job * tests of the theory have yielded disappointing results * Leader-Participation Model * Victor Vroom and associates – relate leadership behavior and participation to decision making * provides a sequential set of rules to follow in determining the form and amount of participation in decision making * rule selection determined by the situation * provides an excellent guide to help managers choose an appropriate leadership style to fit the situation * * Leader Participation Model(cont. )-5 Leadership Styles Decide – leader makes decision alone, either announcing or selling to group * Consult Individually – leader makes decision after obtaining feedback from group members individually * Consult Group – leader makes decision after obtaining feedback from group members in meeting * Facilitate – leader, acting as facilitator, defines problem and boundaries for decision-making after presenting it to group * Delegate – leader permits group to make decision within prescribed limits * Path-Goal Model * Robert House – leader’s job is to assist followers in attaining their goals that are compatible with the overall objectives of the group or organization * leader behavior is: * acceptable to the degree that group views it as a source of immediate or future satisfaction * motivational to the extent that it: * makes satisfaction of subordinates’ needs contingent on effective performance * provides the coaching, guidance, support, and rewards necessary for effective performance * identifies four leadership behaviors Directive – describes tasks, sets schedules, and offers guidance on task performance * Supportive – shows concern for subordinates * Participative – relies on subordinates’ suggestions when making a decision * Achievement oriented – sets challenging goals * assumes that a leader can display any or all of the behaviors depending on the situation * two classes of contingency variables * environment – outside the control of the follower * determine the type of leader behavior required if follower outcomes are to be maximized * personal – characteristics of the follower * determine how the environment and leader behavior are interpreted * leader behavior will be ineffective when: it is redundant with sources of environmental structure * it is incongruent with follower characteristics * most evidence supports the logic underlying the model Q5 The Individual-orientation * Attending to personal problems * Giving praise and status * Reconciling conflicts between group needs and the needs of the individual * Training/coaching the individual The Team-related Function * Maintaining morale and building team spirit * Setting standards and maintaining discipline * Systems of communications within the group * Training the group * Appointment of sub-leaders To be effective, the leader needs * Skills to create an awareness of group processes * Skills to understand * Interpersonal skills