Land Subsidence in Bangkok, Thailand

Land Subsidence in Bangkok, Thailand

Specific Purpose:

To carry my audience to hold that we must halt the remission in Bangkok by cut downing over-exploitation of groundwater, increasing the usage of surface H2O, and sing resettlement of the capital metropolis

Thesis:

In order to maintain our capital metropolis safe, we must understand the jobs and causes of the land remission, and take action to halt the remission.

Organizational Form: Problem-cause-solution

  1. Introduction
    1. Attention Getter

If you have been experiencing a spot lower late, it is non merely your imaginativeness. In fact, Bangkok has been droping.

Around 20 per centum of Bangkok had already sunk by about a metre over the past 30 old ages, said Srisuk ( 2006 ) , manager of the Groundwater Research Centre.

  1. Reason to listen

This is what is go oning in Bang Khun Thian territory of Bangkok. Panya Changcharoen ( 2008 ) from this territory said, “I’m non certain how long my household and I can populate here. We urgently need aid before we lose the whole territory to the sea.” The people in this territory lost their places, lands, and occupations as some countries submerged. If we do non halt the land remission in Bangkok, non merely Bang Khun Thian, but the whole metropolis will fall below sea degree.

  1. Credibility Statement
    1. A professor from Chulalongkorn University said that Bangkok is droping at twice the rate it was a decennary ago ( Trisirisattayawong, 2009 ) .
    2. A Dutch expert who has studied the state of affairs said, “In few decennaries, Bangkok may non be habitable” ( Haberman, 1983 ) .
    3. “More than 50 per centum of the sinking has been caused by the tapping of groundwater by industry, ” said Dr. Sanitwong ( 2013 ) , manager of the Gio-Informatics and Space Technology Development Agency.
  2. Preview of Main Points
    1. First, I will exemplify the dangers of the land remission in Bangkok.
    2. Second, I will discourse why this catastrophe is go oning to us.
    3. Finally, I will propose how we can get the better of this job.
  1. Body
    1. The job
      1. Bangkok, the capital metropolis of our state, is quickly droping.
  1. Even worse, the gait of land remission has been quickened ( Trisirisattayawong, 2009 ) .
  2. If this tendency continues, most of our capital metropolis will be in danger of falling below sea degree by century ‘s terminal ( Haberman, 1983 ) .
    1. Urban countries like Bangkok are vulnerable to set down remission, which is frequently destructive.
  1. Land remission can damage our substructures ( Tularam & A ; Krishna, 2009 ) . It can destruct our Rama bridges, our BTS, our MRT, our main roads, our railwaies, and our electric power lines.
  2. Land remission besides amendss underground pipes, increasing H2O depletion. This can make a vacuity in the aquifer, which could do a prostration of land ( Hasan, 2006 ) .
  3. Land remission can do monolithic inundations like 2011 because it increases inundation hazard ( Tularam & A ; Krishna, 2009 ) .

Passage:In order to halt the land remission of our capital metropolis, we must foremost cognize what caused this catastrophe.

  1. Causes
    1. Our capital metropolis is droping chiefly because of inordinate groundwater pumping.
  1. The land remission rate is around 3 centimeter a twelvemonth in some topographic points in Bangkok due to over-extraction of groundwater ( Shaw, Srinivas, & A ; Sharma, 2009 )
  2. As we pump groundwater, the H2O that bears the dirt above is bit by bit removed, impacting the geologic construction. Hence, the land begins to lessen ( Tularam & A ; Krishna, 2009 ) .
  3. There is no appropriate pricing policy in pull outing groundwater beyond sustainable output degrees, and hence there is over-exploitation of groundwater ( Suwal, n.d. ) . In Thailand, none of national bureaus is responsible for coordination groundwater resources ( Foster, 2008 ) .
    1. Overloading on the Soft Bangkok Clay
  1. Because the soft Bangkok Clay is about 70 per centum saturated, it is really soft, weak, and compressible ( Bhattacharya, 2013 ) .
  2. The land remission in Bangkok has occurred because constructions were built without sing the bearing capacity of the soft Bangkok Clay.
  3. The weight of the land surface rises due to building of heavy edifices, ensuing in the compression of the clay bed ( Bhattacharya, 2013 ) .

Passage:We now know that over-exploitation of groundwater and overloading on the soft clay have caused the land remission in our capital. Then now, we must larn to work out the jobs.

  1. Solution
    1. We need to cut down the rate of groundwater pumping.
  1. Groundwater in Thailand costs merely approximately 10 ticals per one three-dimensional metre ( Department of Groundwater Resources, n.d. ) .
  2. Higher monetary values for groundwater are necessary ( Bangkok State of the Environment, 2001 ) .
    1. We besides need to utilize groundwater and surface H2O conjunctively, or utilize more surface H2O if possible.
  1. Surface H2O intervention workss have a larger capacity. They are a batch more efficient in providing H2O to urban countries ( Mahmud, 2009 ) .
  2. Surface H2O intervention workss are located around the beginnings of surface H2O such as nearby rivers ( Mahmud, 2009 ) .
    1. If none of the solutions plants, we should in conclusion see relocating the capital metropolis as the last option.
  1. Some Thai environmental experts believe that traveling the whole capital metropolis to a higher land, for case one of the 16 northeasterly states, is the lone solution ( Kurlantzick, 2011 ) .
  2. Resettlement of the capital metropolis is dearly-won and time-consuming, but the safety of the new capital will convey benefit in the long-run ( “Capitals should, ” 2012 ) .

Decision:

Think of your place. You grew up at that place, you have spent most of your clip at that place, you feel the safest at that place. However, will your sweet place be still there when you are at your 50? If the land remission in Bangkok can non be stopped, no 1 can guarantee that your house will be safe when you are old. Even though land remission has been a serious menace to our capital metropolis, our authorities has ignored this grave danger. We merely have few decennaries to undertake this job. Now is clip. We must maintain our eyes unfastened. We must press the authorities. We must salvage our places.

Mentions

Bangkok State of the Environment. ( 2001 ) . 5 Land remission.Regional Resource Centre for Asia and the Pacific.Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.rrcap.ait.asia/pub/soe/bangkok_land.pdf

Bhattacharya, K. A. ( 2013 ) . An analysis of land remission in Bangkok and Kolkata due to over-extraction of groundwater.EJGE.Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ejge.com/2013/Ppr2013.163alr.pdf

Capitals should be moved to Northeast, top scientist says. ( 2012, Feb 5 ) .The State.Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nationmultimedia.com/national/Capital-should-be-moved-to-Northeast-top-scientist-30175186.html

Department of Groundwater Resources. ( n.d. ) . retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.dgr.go.th/en/organize.htm

Faculty of Geosciences at Utrecht University. ( 2010 ) . Rising sea degrees attributed to planetary groundwater extraction.Utrecht University.Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.uu.nl/EN/Current/Pages/Wereldwijdonttrekkenvangrondwaterleidttotzeespiegelstijging.aspx

Foster, S. ( 2008 ) . Siam: Strengthening capacity in groundwater resources direction.The World Bank.Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.un-igrac.org/dynamics/modules/SFIL0100/view.php? fil_Id=178

Haberman, C. ( 1983 ) . Crowded Bangkok is droping under weight of its ain growing.The New York Times.Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nytimes.com/1983/05/01/world/crowded-bangkok-is-sinking-under-weight-of-its-own-growth.html

Hasan, F. K. ( 2006 ) . Water direction in Dhaka.International Journal of Water Resource Development, vol. 22

Kurlantzick, J. ( 2011 ) . Time to travel Bangkok? .Council on Foreign Relations.Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //blogs.cfr.org/asia/2011/11/09/time-to-move-bangkok/

Mahmud, A. ( 2009 ) . Impact of urbanisation on land H2O.Research Project of Social Science 2008-9.Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.academia.edu/8072864/ Impact-of-Urbanization-on-Ground-Water

Sanitwong, A. ( 2013 ) . Thailand needs to move as Bangkok sinks faster.Deutsche Welle.Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.dw.de/thailand-needs-to-act-as-bangkok-sinks-faster/a-16739739

Shaw, R. , Srinivas, H. , & A ; Sharma, A. ( 2009 ) .Urban hazard decrease: An Asiatic position.Wagon Lane, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Srisuk, K. ( 2006 ) . Excessive groundwater usage “sinking Bangkok” .Department of Environmental Quality Promotion.Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.deqp.go.th/index.php? option=com_content & A ; view=article & A ; id=14538:2006-02-17 & amp ; catid=7:2010-02-04-06-14-10 & A ; Itemid=43 & A ; lang=th

Suwal, S. ( n.d. ) . Water in crisis – Thailand.The Water Project.Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //thewaterproject.org/water-in-crisis-thailand

Thai National Committee on Irrigation and Drainage. ( 2002 ) . General Information about Thailand.International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage.Retrieved from http www.icid.org/v_thailand.pdf

Trisirisattayawong, I. ( 2009 ) . PS-inSAR measuring of land remission in Bangkok metropolitan country.Chulalongkorn University.Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.sv.eng.chula.ac.th/attachments/article/84/ACRS2009_InSAR_GEO2TECDI.pdf

Tularam, G. A. , Krishna, M. ( 2009 ) . Long term effects of groundwater pumping in Australia: A reappraisal of impacts around the Earth.Journal of Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation,4( 2 ) , 151-166.

Warr, P. ( 2005 ) . Thailand beyond the crisis. Routledge Curzon, New York: New york

Water Environmental Partnership in Asia. State of H2O environmental issues: Thailand. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.wepa-db.net/policies/state/thailand/thailand.htm

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