Kinds of Outline
What is an OUTLINE? An outline is an organizational tool used by writers to gather thoughts so that they can be clearly laid out in an essay or book. Many writers feel that creating an outline is the key to effective writing, and it certainly makes the writing process more efficient and focused. By creating an outline for a piece of writing, the author ensures that all the pieces of the puzzle are presented in a logical, clear order, and that they flow well, drawing the reader to a logical conclusion.
An outline can also be used to identify and eliminate potential areas of weakness or lack of focus in a paper. Although an outline is rarely required for a piece of writing, it can be extremely helpful. Papers which are written with the assistance of an outline tend to be of a higher quality, because of the greater level of organization. For this reason, outlines should be among the tools which every writer knows how to use. Outlines help writers to organize what they are going to say before they write it. 2. What are the kinds of outline?The most common type of outline is called the Alphanumeric Outline. Alpha as in alphabet and Numeric as in Numerals – it’s the one that uses a combination of numbers and letters to organize your thoughts. I. Start with Roman Numbers for Largest Headings A. Then use Capital Letters 1. Then use Arabic Numbers a. Then use small letters II. Continue In This Fashion Until the Outline Is Finished Full-sentence outlines, as the term suggests, use complete sentences on each line of the outline. These can take longer to write, but they do give a much more thorough idea of what is going to be in the final paper.Topic outlines list the main topic or idea of each line, but do not make complete sentences. Some call the Roman numerals above a-heads, the capitalized letters, b-heads, and so on. Some writers also prefer to insert a blank line between the a-heads and b-heads (N. B. these people keep the b-heads and c-heads together, though). I. Why do over 80% of today’s companies monitor their employees? A. To prevent fraudulent activities, theft, and other workplace related violations. B. To more efficiently monitor employee productivity. C.To prevent any legal liabilities due to harassing or offensive communications. II. What are the employees privacy right’s when it comes to EM/S (Electronic Monitoring and Surveillance) in the workplace? A. American employees have basically no legal protection from mean and snooping bosses. 1. There are no federal or State laws protecting employees 2. Employees may assert privacy protection for their own personal effects. A less common type of outline is the Decimal Outline. This uses numbers, and each sub-heading has the number of the heading as part of it.This outline is used if you have a long, complicated outline and need to instantly be able to tell exactly where each section goes in the whole picture. Thesis statement: — 1. 0 Main Topic 1. 1Subheading 1. 2 Subheading 2. 0 Main Topic 2. 1 Subheading 2. 1. 1 Supporting Detail 2. 1. 2 Supporting Detail 2. 1. 3 Supporting Detail . . . . . . . . . 3. What is a Thesis Statement? A thesis statement tells the reader how you will interpret the significance of the subject matter under discussion. It is a road map for the paper; in other words, it tells the reader what to expect from the rest of the paper.It directly answers the question asked of you. A thesis is an interpretation of a question or subject, not the subject itself. The subject, or topic, of an essay might be World War II or Moby Dick; a thesis must then offer a way to understand the war or the novel. It makes a claim that others might dispute. It is usually a single sentence somewhere in your first paragraph that presents your argument to the reader. The rest of the paper, the body of the essay, gathers and organizes evidence that will persuade the reader of the logic of your interpretation. 4. How similar or different is it from a main idea?The main difference is that “thesis” is generally used by teachers when referring to nonfiction works (you find them in history books and science books) while a “theme” is used when referring to a literary work (fiction). A thesis is stated plainly and early in a nonfiction work, while a theme is an idea or message that you get once you’ve read the book and you’ve taken some time to reflect on its meaning. The main idea, or thesis, should give your readers a clear and specific idea of your topic. The main idea can be thought of as a one or two sentence summary of the whole writing project. 5.What is an Action Research? Action research is known by many other names, including participatory research, collaborative inquiry, emancipatory research, action learning, and contextual action research, but all are variations on a theme. Put simply, action research is “learning by doing” – a group of people identify a problem, do something to resolve it, see how successful their efforts were, and if not satisfied, try again. While this is the essence of the approach, there are other key attributes of action research that differentiate it from common problem-solving activities that we all engage in every day.A more succinct definition is that an action research aims to contribute both to the practical concerns of people in an immediate problematic situation and to further the goals of social science simultaneously. Thus, there is a dual commitment in action research to study a system and concurrently to collaborate with members of the system in changing it in what is together regarded as a desirable direction. Accomplishing this twin goal requires the active collaboration of researcher and client, and thus it stresses the importance of co-learning as a primary aspect of the research process.What separates this type of research from general professional practices, consulting, or daily problem-solving is the emphasis on scientific study, which is to say the researcher studies the problem systematically and ensures the intervention is informed by theoretical considerations. Much of the researcher’s time is spent on refining the methodological tools to suit the exigencies of the situation, and on collecting, analyzing, and presenting data on an ongoing, cyclical basis.Several attributes separate action research from other types of research. Primary is its focus on turning the people involved into researchers, too – people learn best, and more willingly apply what they have learned, when they do it themselves. It also has a social dimension – the research takes place in real-world situations, and aims to solve real problems. Finally, the initiating researcher, unlike in other disciplines, makes no attempt to remain objective, but openly acknowledges their bias to the other participants.