Juvenile Delinquency chapters 4,5,6

social structure
The relatively stable formal and informal arrangements that characterize a society, including its economic arrangements, social institutions, and values and norms
social disorganization theory
An approach that posits that juvenile delinquency results when social control among the traditional primary groups, such as the family and neighborhood, breaks down because of social disarray within the community
opportunity structure and delinquency
The differences in economic and occupational opportunities open to members of different socioeconomic classes
cultural transmission theory
An approach that holds that areas of concentrated crime maintain their high rates over a long period, even when the composition of the population rapidly changes, because delinquent “values” become cultural norms and are passed from one generation to the next
cultural deviance theory
A theory wherein delinquent behavior is viewed as an expression of conformity to cultural values and norms that are in opposition to those of the larger U.S. society
focal concerns
The values or focal concerns of lower class youth that differ from those of middle-class youth:
Trouble
Toughness
Smartness
Excitement
Fate
Autonomy
Miller’s thesis
Central to Miller’s thesis is the belief that persons of lower socioeconomic status share a distinctive culture of their own, and that the focal concerns of that culture make lower-class boys more likely to become involved in delinquent behavior.
strain theory
Proposes that delinquency results from the frustrations individuals feel when they are unable to achieve the goals they desire
Robert merton
Merton placed emphasis on two elements of social and cultural systems:
Culturally defined goals
Institutionalized means
Culturally defined goals
the set of purposes and interests a culture defines as legitimate objectives for an individual
Institutionalized means
culturally sanctioned methods of obtaining these goals
Merton’s theory of anomie: Five types of adaptation
Conformity
Innovation
Ritualism
Retreatism
Rebellion
Blocked Opportunity
The limited or nonexistent chance of success
According to strain theory, a key factor in delinquency
Cohen’s Theory of Delinquency Subcultures
Suggest that lower-class youth are fully internalizing the goals of middle-class youth but they experience *Status Frustration*, or strain, because they are unable to attain it
Consequently, strain explains their *reaction formation* and membership in gangs, and their nonutilitarian, malicious, and negativistic behavior.
Cloward and Ohlin’s Opportunity Theory
A perspective that holds that gang members turn to delinquency because of a sense of injustice about the lack of legitimate opportunities available to them
Reduced Social Capital
Social capital is the resources that reside in the social structure itself—norms, social networks, and interpersonal relationships that contribute to a child’s growth.
Lower class youth often lack access to social capital
Disorganized Communities
To adapt to a disorganized community, adolescents may learn to accept cultural patterns that are conducive to delinquent behavior
Collective efficacy
Shared values, trust, and expectations for social interventions
The levels of collective efficacy are strongly influenced by neighborhood conditions.
Social Process Theories
A theoretical approach to delinquency that examines the interactions between individuals and their environments, especially those that might influence them to become more involved in delinquent behavior
Sutherland’s Differential Association Theory
The view that delinquency is learned from others and that delinquent behavior is to be expected of individuals who have internalized a preponderance of definitions that are favorable to law violations
Matza’s Drift Theory
The theoretical perspective that juveniles neutralize the moral hold of society and drift into delinquent behavior
Neutralization theory
provides a meaning of understanding how delinquents insulate themselves from responsibility for wrongdoing.
Soft Determinism
The view that delinquents are neither wholly free nor wholly constrained in their choice of actions
Control Theories
Any of several theoretical approaches that maintain that human beings must be held in check, or somehow be controlled, if delinquent tendencies are to be repressed
Reckless’ Containment Theory
A theoretical perspective that strong inner containment and reinforcing external containment provide insulation against delinquent and criminal behavior
Hirschi’s Social Control Theory
A perspective that delinquent acts result when a juvenile’s bond to society is weak or broken
Hirschi theorized that individuals who are most tightly bonded to positive social groups, such as family, the school, and successful peers, are less likely to commit delinquent acts
Theory Integration
Implies the combination of two or more contexts, including existing theories, on the basis of their perceived commonalities
Elliott and Colleagues’ Integrated Social Process Theory
An explanatory model that expands and synthesizes traditional strain, social control, and social learning perspectives into a single paradigm that accounts for delinquent behavior and drug use
Thornberry’s Interactional Theory
Views delinquency as a result of events occurring in a developmental fashion
Delinquency is not viewed as the end-product; instead it leads to the formation of delinquent values.
Hawkins and Weis’s Social Development Model
A perspective based on the integration of social control and cultural learning theories that proposes that the development of attachments to parents will lead to attachments to school and commitment to education, as well as belief in and commitment to conventional behavior and the law