Just War and Pacifism
Religious Studies lust War and Pacifism (l) Examine the view that some wars can be Justified. (21) What is just war? It’s the act of war that must be justified because of the considerable losses which war entails. Pacifism? The pacifist will pursue every other option a prior to resorting to war.
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War actually has some advantages and can be justified; mainly It establishes peace. It stimulates the economy e. G. Weapon development, employment, reparations, rebuilding. War raises consciousness of call and human rights.
It also advances technology and medicine. The Just War theory was developed my Augustine during the 3rd century and Aquinas during 1 13th century. This theory responded to the need for Christians to fight for the defense of the empire, but without compromising Christian principles, following Constantine conversion to Christianity. There are three categories: Jus ad bellum (conditions for going to war), Jus in belle (conditions during war), and Jus post bellum (conditions for ending war). Jus ad bellum has to have a Just cause e. . Aberration from oppression, to restore peace, protect the innocent, and self defense. Last resort which means after all peaceful methods of negotiation, sanctions; isolation; have failed. The legitimate authority has to approve e. G. The elected or recognized government of the land; religious authority If appropriate; military government that Is the legitimate authority A Just Intention should be present, a Just outcome as means e. G. Not to take a nations wealth is the process of lecturing peace.
There should be a comparison of justice on tooth sides; in principle both sides should have a just cause and a Just intention. A reasonable likelihood of success, do not commit a nation to an unnamable war that will lead to Increasing suffering. Also, the level of weaponry should be proportionate to the offense e. G. Conflict becoming a country for a dispute over trade. Jus in Belle, the conditions during war. There should be reasonable proportion between injustices fought and suffering cause, but is the suffering worth it? E. G. Vietnam war. Considerably not World War II, conceivably so.
The use of weapons would be proportionate; weapon technology changes and develops during the course of war- it should remain proportionate to the weaponry/man power of the enemy. Warfare must be discriminate, targeting non-competent, civilian facilities, medical facilities Is not Just. Jus post bellum, the conditions for bringing an end to conflict. First of all you should provide assurances to combatants about the terms necessary to end a conflict. Provide terms for the end of war and guideline for the construction of peace treaties. Prevent continuous fighting throughout peace negotiations.
Also, prevent draconian and vengeful peace terms. It limits the chance of future generations, suffering, and conflict reigniting. War crimes punishment should distinguish between 1 OFF aggressor in two forms; compensation to the victim for losses incurred and war crime trials for the aggressor. Terms for settlement should be measure and reasonable and should be made public. Leaders, soldiers, and civilians must be distinguished. Basically, wars can be Justified if only you follow these principles and have a good, thoughtful and peaceful reason to start a war. T) To what extent can this view be challenged by pacifism? (9) What is pacifism? The belief that war is incompatible with obedience to the gospel of Jesus, and is superseded by the command to love enemies and pray for persecutors, particularly Christian pacifism. Also, it is possible to be pacifist on humanitarian principles without religious focus. Absolute of total pacifism is no engagement in any military activity. It’s notable associated with the Quakers and Amiss and it’s unofficially the policy of many individual Christians.
Jesus referred to SE violence and taught his disciples not to respond violently e. G. “Put your sword away, for all who draw the sword will die by the sword” (Matthew 26:52). He forgives his executioners: “Father, forgive them for they do not know what they are doing. ” (Luke 23:34) This quote by Jesus was taken out of most Bibles because the writers disagreed with the forgiveness of Jesus’ executioners. Jesus could have been more revolutionary; Steven Brandon has argued the case that Jesus was a zealot. Also, religious support came from Paul e. G. ‘Do not take revenge, but leave room for
God’s wrath’ (Romans 12:19); Judgment belongs to God, it is not humans responsibility. Paul also teaches submission to, not rebellion against, the ruling powers. ‘Do you want to be free of fear of the one in authority? Then do what is right and he will commend you’ (Romans 13:5). This was the pragmatic teaching in a time of impending persecution. ‘The spirit of Christ, which leads us into all truth, will never move us to fight and war against any man’ (The Quakers). Even though a war can be Justified, it doesn’t mean it is a good idea to start it. Pacifism challenges the Just War theory.
No matter how it can be Justified or what kind of peace you want to establish, war is always bad. Pacifism is a very religious but at the same time peaceful and the right view. ‘Christian peacemakers… Are to live at peace… Love their enemies, overcome evil with good… And become ministers of reconciliation’ Noon Sotto). Only the most wise and enlightened will understand pacifism and disagree with Just war. But even though pacifism seems like a solution to all our suffering, people will never achieve it because humans are too selfish and too obsessed with power and money.