Japan vs. ____ essay

Qing
Intro/Thesis:
Despite the fact that both the Qing and Tokugawa dynasties experienced ____ decline in the 19th century, the Japanese were able to flourish because of the manner in which they handled reformation.
Paragraph 1: Military conflict with industrialized European countries
paragraph 1: similarity
Similarity: Foreign conflict with industrial European countries lead to the realization by Qing and Tokugawa leaders that government change was needed soon, as the current system was mediocre against other non-industrialized countries, but experienced extreme difficulties when faced by industrialized countries such as those in Western Europe.
paragraph 1: difference
Difference: The main difference between the mediocrity of the Japanese and Qing armies were the detriments to the society. The Qing dynasty collapsed due to the external invasions by European powers, whereas the while the Tokugawa shogunate collapse, it was replaced by the prosperous and thriving Meiji dynasty.
paragraph 1: direct comparison
Direct Comparison: While the Qing Dynasty and the Japanese shogunate both collapsed due to the immense pressure from external forces and some rather humiliating treaties, the Japanese came out the other end as a stronger country with better reforms and social structure, while the Qing were stuck in a phase of political unrest and instability.
Paragraph 2: Economic reform in Qing and Japan
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paragraph 2: similarity
Similarity: While Qing and Japan were reforming economically, the two were involved in heavy trade with external countries. The Qing traded with Britain’s British East Company. They sold goods such as the Chinese silver coin. In return, the Chinese received Opium that would help feed the addiction that many people had in China. The Japanese traded for industrial equipment and raw materials that would help the country industrialize.
paragraph 2: difference
Difference: The primary difference between the two economic reforms were that the Japanese were able to industrialize and gain a better economy, while the Chinese failed to advance in economy because of their Opium dependence. This dependence on Opium proved to be detrimental to Qing dynasty as they continued to stay at the same development stage while Japan was able to modernize and industrialize, even with the higher taxes that were imposed.
paragraph 2: direct comparison
Direct Comparison: Qing and Japan had to deal with economic reforms in order to help the economy grow. Qing made many trades in order to obtain Opium that was sold to many people in China because they were addicted to it (bunch of druggies). Japan on the other hand dealt with trade that involved their industrialization as a country. Because of this, Japan was able to have a more successful economic reform while Qing was not.
Russia
Intro/Thesis:
Despite the fact that both the Russians and Japanese experience military decline and social unrest in the 19th century, the Japanese were able to flourish because of the manner in which they handled reformation.
Paragraph 1: Military Decline
paragraph 1: similarity
Similarity: Foreign conflict with industrial European countries lead to the realization by Japan’s shoguns and Russia’s tsars that government change was needed soon, as the current system was mediocre against other non-industrialized countries, but experienced extreme difficulties when faced by industrialized countries such as those in Western Europe.
paragraph 1:difference
Difference: While the Russians were unable to maintain political and military authority in order to rise above the European powers, the Japanese successfully reformed their political and military structure in a way that they emerged as a surprisingly influential east Asian power by the end the 19th century.
paragraph 1: direct comparison
Direct Comparison: Both countries experienced military decline as a result of rising industrial countries. The Russians were challenged in the Crimean War by British and French forces, who they were unable to defeat, causing them to realize reformation was necessary in order to compete with the European countries. Similar to this, the Meiji restoration offered a political and economic system that would foster better relations with European countries, after the Tokugawa shogunate was defeated as a result of these foreign economic pressures.
Paragraph 2: Social change fostered industrialization within the Japanese and Russian societies.
Paragraph 2: similarity
Similarity: The Russian tsars and the Japanese shoguns both realized that one of the main problems with the current government structure was the rigidity of society, therefore they both decided to abolish the limiting aspects of their class structure.
paragraph 2: difference
Difference: The difference between the abolishment of the rigid social structure in both Russia and Japan was the way that both countries executed the adjustment of society, as the Japanese decided to educate their people as well as eliminating the social structure, whereas the Russian tsars decided to only emancipate the serfs, which lead to problems down the road.
paragraph 2: direct comparison
Direct Comparison: Both were successful in their preliminary attempts to abolish the rigid social structure that limited their respective societies, but the Japanese had more long term success due to the basis they set by educating the people, as compared to the “put it under the rug” mentality carried out by the Russian tsars.
Japan vs. Ottomans
intro/thesis
Intro/Thesis: Despite the fact that both the Ottomans and Japanese experienced political and economic decline in the 19th century, the Japanese were able to flourish because of the manner in which they handled reformation.
Paragraph 1: Ottoman and Japanese economic difficulty.
paragraph 1: similarity
Similarity: As a result of increasing European powers, both the Ottomans and the Japanese were unable to keep Europe out of domestic economic affairs, so this put pressure on the societies to industrialize.
paragraph 1: difference
Difference: The Japanese imperial powers supported industrialization along with the increase of taxation while the Ottoman empire continued to remain an agrarian society, with lowered taxes. This led to the Japanese artisans being able to compete with Europeans in the export of textiles while the Ottomans were unable to export anything outside of raw goods.
paragraph 1: direct comparison
Direct Comparison: The Ottomans had economic difficulties because industrial societies were outperforming and outproducing them in exports. Industrialization made manufacturing more efficient and less costly, therefore foreign producers were selling their goods for less than the Ottoman cottage industry manufacturers. This is similar to the Japanese because the U.S. navy threatened to open fire on the capital if the Tokugawa leaders did not allow them to come and establish trade relations. This influenced the Japanese decision to embark on a path to industrialization.
Paragraph 2: Ottoman and Japanese political reform.
paragraph 2: similarity
Similarity: Both empires transitioned to a European-style form of government in order to limit corruption.
paragraph 2: differences
Difference: While the Meiji Reformation, which established a parliamentary government was highly effective for Japanese political restructuring, the Ottomans were not as successful in achieving their goals of political stability because of the many rebellions that the reformation caused. (Such as the Tanzimat Reforms and the Young Turk group).
paragraph 2: direct comparisons
Direct Comparison: The Japanese reformed from a feudal society to a parliamentary government in order to limit the power of the daimyos, who caused unbalanced land distribution, whereas the Ottoman Empire reformed from an autonomy to a representative government with the constitution of 1876 in order to avoid the corruption of the sultans.

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