Isamayat O Level Notes
SAROSH ANSAR O’Level Islamiat Notes 1 Table of Contents Preface Passages from the Holy Quran History and Importance of the Holy Quran Arabia Before Islam Biographical Account of the Lifef the Holy Prophet (PBUH) Early Life of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) From Call to Migration Foundation of the Republic of Madina Wars with the Quraish Expulsion of Jews frm Madina Treaty of Hudaybia Unification of Northern Arabia Letters of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) to different Rulers asking them to Embrace Islam Fall of Makkah Section One Section Two Section Three Section Four • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9
Chapter 10 Supermacy of Islam in Central and Southern Arabia Chapter 11 Last days of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) Chapter 12 Some Outstanding Qualities of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) Chapter 13 Behavior of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) Towards Others Chapter 14 Government and Society under Muhammad (PBUH) Chapter 15 Relations of the 1st Islamic State of Madina under the Holy Prophet (PBUH) with other States The First Islamic Community of Madina Umm-ul-Momineen
Section Five • 2 Chapter 1 • • • • • • Umar Salman Rao Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Descendents of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) Asharah Mubasharah Scribes of Divine Revelation Muhajirin and Ansar Important Personalities during the Lifetime of the Holy
Prophet (PBUH) at Makkah and Madina Imamat and Khilafat in Shi’ite Thought The Four Pious Caliphs Caliphate of Hazrat Abu Bakr Caliphate of Hazrat Umar Farooq Caliphate of Hazrat Usman Caliphate of Hazrat Ali Six Articles of Faith Unity or Oneness of Allah The Angels The Books of Allah Prophet and Prophethood The Day of Judgement Belief in the Divine Preordainment And Divine Decrees Five Pillars of Islam Witness (Shahada) Prayers (Salat) Zakat Fasting (Saum) Hajj (Pilgrimage) Rights of Allah and Men 3
Section Six • • • • Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Section Seven • • • • • • Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Section Eight • • • • • Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Section Nine Umar Salman Rao Section Ten Section Eleven Section Twelve Section Thirteen Jihad Women in Islam Rights of Non-Muslims in Islam History and Importance of Ahadis Section Fourteen Selected Ahadis 4 Umar Salman Rao Section one Passages from the Holy Quran 1) Ayat-ul-Kursi (2:255) Allah! There is no deity but He (none has the right to be worshipped but He), the Ever living, the One Who sustains and protects all, neither over takes Him slumber nor sleep, To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth, who is there that could intercede with Him except by His Own permission. He knows all what is in front of them and also what is hidden from them and they cannot comprehend anything of His knowledge except what He wills.
His kingdom extends over the heavens and the earth, and He feels no fatigue in guarding them both, and He is the most High and the most Great.
(2:255) Explanation: • Allah is One, Absolute and Eternal. No one else shares any of His attributes and Authority with Him. • He is Omnipotent, All Powerful and Supreme, the Mightiest who created this universe comprising of billions of galaxies, stars and planets. Being the Sovereign Lord of the Universe, He administers it single-handedly, without the assistance of anyone else or interference from any quarter.
All what is there in the universe belongs to Him alone and to no one else. Allah Almighty is Omniscient. His knowledge in all manifestations and dimensions is absolute, perfect and complete, all-encompassing and all-embracing. He knows the hidden and the manifest, past and present and also what lies ahead, to the minutest possible details. No one has the power to intercede with Allah on someone’s behalf, not even the most powerful of prophets, unless one is permitted by Him to do so. • • • 5 • • Umar Salman Rao
It is He alone who maintains and sustains heavens and earth and everything contained therein, and while doing so, He neither requires rest nor He ever tires or feels fatigued. This verse emphatically cuts across the doctrine of Holy Trinity as preached by the Christians or the two-god (Ahura Mazda and Ahriman) concept of Magians or the worship of multitude of gods and goddesses by the pagans. It also belies the stand of the atheists who maintain that this universe came into being as a result of some accident and ould continue to function in a mechanical manner till it completes its circle of life and dissolves into oblivion. The Holy Quran at other places speaks of Allah in these words: • • • “Say: He is Allah, the One; Allah, the Eternal, Absolute; He begets not, nor is He begotten; and there is none equal or comparable to Him. ” (112:1-4) There is nothing whatever like unto Him and He is the All-Hearing, the AllSeeing. ” (42:11) “He is Allah, the Creator, the Inventor of all things, the Bestower of forms. To Him belong the Best Names.
All that is in the heavens and the earth glorify Him. And He is All-Mighty, the All-wise. ” (59:23-4) • (2) Surah An’aam (6:101-103) 101. To Him is due the primal origin of the heavens and the earth: how can He have a son when he has no consort? 102. He created all things, and He has full knowledge of all things. That is Allah, Your Lord! There is no god but He, the Creator of all things: then worship Him: and he has power to dispose of all affairs. 103. No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision: He is above all comprehension, yet is acquainted with all things. 6:101-103) Explanation: • All What you see in the universe has been created by Allah alone, and no one else. As He is the creator, the Sustainer and Protector of all heavens and earth, He alone is worthy of being worshipped, for He shares with no one the Sovereignty and Lordship of His universe. Allah is One, Eternal and Absolute; He has no wife nor has He the begotten any son. Those who say to the contrary derogate His attributes, glory and uniqueness. • 6 • Umar Salman Rao Allah is omnipotent, All Powerful and Supreme.
Human vision can not comprehend Him but He comprehends everything because His knowledge in all dimensions and manifestations is absolute, perfect and complete As He is indefinable, unfathomable and inaccessible to human perception, His presence can be felt and visualized only by seeing and probing the super excellence and perfection of the immeasurably vast universe which He has created. Allah says at other places in the Holy Quran that: • • “Say: “Behold all that is in the heavens and on earth; but neither signs nor warners benefit those who believe not. (10:101) “Say He is Allah, the One; Allah, the Eternal, Absolute, He begets not, nor is He begotten; and there is none equal or comparable to Him. ” (112:1-4) • • (3) Surah Fussilat or Surah Ha the Meem Al-Sajda (41:3739) # aOu rou? oo? Yo‹ oU$? ]?? roSio o†Uo? U$O …?? ou ajo a? Uo oo? ‰o Uoo ? u Ou ? u Y? ooO ‹o u ]? ^o] o n] omuo ? ] ‚o ] † I u o Z o ‚o O I uo Z ooa$ OO ? F ? ] O $ ! $ $ O Io ? ] Oueaoov fuoO eo? am^o?? fo? jo] a^E a? foio^]ou? oa]o$o? io u ? O n^oO u So o u uO] † u u o o u u o Uu …o $ oO uac oo m o u‚oA o„o E uo O ‰ o? o o‚oAam jo uaao p„o$ u ? u E ? U] ^oo ^o ?? ^o?? io …u †? io o?? jomuUo acUo moa? ^oO oo auA ? u ? oeo^ souop o O $a ??? a? o o o oSo Uoooa$]? « O n o O]o o Ao ? o Y] ]o? F ? u ou Y u …? o ? ! u $ ‚o O …l u am] a]o †moo? Ooo?? Aa?? oiFU] ov UOa^nu? u ? O$o kueoo u$o] o„o $ o ? uI 0uou Fou$ c o ouoo? o o]o „o$a] ? o? ? ja uO o ? ? ]o u O ? ^ ? u p ] ? $ eoIo Yu^?! ?u^ aUu†noo? oE IFm? UE? ^oo acEuo oomoEo‚oouo onOomU oio u Y ? u …] o ? a oo ?? oo o m ^jo! ?uo ? v ? m U u c$? u $ ]o i ^O o u u ? ]o nA ui Y ??? a u ? F] o m $ % u F $ ? (41:37-39)†u eo? oio oa] Y Uoo Uc? o] ? n o coA^ euo uu ^o uUu ’o a uUu Uo? o ] oAo 37. Among His sings are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. Adore not the sun and the moon, but adore Allah, who created them, if it is Him you wish to serve. 38. But if people are arrogant, in the presence of your Lord are those who celebrate His praises by night and by day. And they never grow tired. 39. And among His signs is this: you see the earth barren and desolate, but when We send down rain to it, it is stirred to life and yields increase. Truly, He who gives life to the earth can surely give life to those who are dead, for He has power over all things. 41:37-39) Explanation: • The sun and the moon and day and night are signs of Allah and being His creation, wield no authority or power on their own. 7 • Umar Salman Rao It is not the signs of Allah but Allah Himself who alone should be worshipped because He is the sole Creator and Sustainer of all what exists in this immeasurably vast universe of which He is the sovereign Lord. If transgressors of the Power and Authority of Allah continue to exhibit arrogance and defiance (by ridiculing and casting doubt on revelation), it is they who would be at loss and not Allah.
In Surah Al-Qamar 54:2, Allah says: “And if they see a sign, they turn away and say: This is continuous magic. ” In the same Surah at 54:43, it is revealed: “Are your disbelievers (O Quraish) better than the nations of Nuh, Lut, Salih and the people of Fir’aun who were destroyed? ” Contrary to what such people do and say, there are men and angels who celebrate Allah’s praise and glory day and night and they hardly ever get tired in it. Another sign of Allah is that He causes revival of dead land after rainfall.
The disbelievers should know that as dead earth comes back to life after one shower of rainfall, the dead human-beings too would be resurrected by Allah Almighty to life for accountability on the day of judgment. The revival of dead after rainfall also implies that a believer should never abandon the hope that his mission to bring the defiant to the fold of Islam would one day succeed for which he would be rewarded in both worlds. As man’s vision and perception are limited, he adores the Sun and Moon, Day and Night and Rainfall and other natural phenomena, but refuses to recognize the magnificence and glory of he Supreme Lord of the Universe. The stars scattered through infinite space, the vast panorama of nature with its charm and beauty, the regular waxing and waning of the moon, the astonishing harmony of the seasons and the days and nights all points towards one fact: there is a God, the Creator, the Governor. Allah says in the Holy Quran that: • “It is He who made the sun radiate a brilliant light and the moon reflect a luster, and ordained for it stages, that you might know the number of years and the reckoning of time. ” (10:5) “Have they not looked at the sky above them, how We made it and adorned it, and there are no flaws in it”? 50:6) • • • • • • • • • “It is He who has created seven heavens one above another. No incongruity can you see in the creation of the Most Beneficent. Then look again: can you see any rifts? Again turn your vision a second time: your sight will return to you confused and fatigued. ” (67:3-4) (4) Surah Shura (42:4-5) 8 Umar Salman Rao 4. To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and on earth: and He is most high, most great. 5. The heavens are almost rent asunder from above them, and the angels celebrate the praises of their Lord, and pray for forgiveness for beings on earth: Behold!
Verily Allah is He, the oft-forgiving, the most merciful. (42:4-5) Explanation: • All what is in the heavens and on earth belongs exclusively to Allah and to no one else. Allah’s Authority, His Power, His Suzerainty and Sovereignty over His entire universe is un-paralleled, un-matched and un-disputed and not shared by Him with anyone else, be that the so-called gods and goddesses, the Begotten Son, the Holy Ghost , Ahura Mazda or Ahriman. It is Allah alone who administers His kingdom single-handedly, without aid, help or assistance from any quarter.
The Majesty, the Grandeur and Magnificence of Allah can not be conceived by humanbeings. It is the dwellers of heavens i. e. the angels who are aware of its magnitude and depth and know that even the highest heavens are almost ready to burst asunder by the greatness of His glory. As angels are aware of the implications of defiance and transgression of Allah’s commands by human-beings, besides celebrating the glory of the Almighty, they also pray and beg of Him that the dwellers of the earth be forgiven for the un-warranted vanity and arrogance exhibited by them towards His commands.
As human-beings are prone to err and sin, Allah has willed upon Himself the law of grace, forgiveness and mercy which is manifest from the fact that in-spite of their transgressions, arrogance and vanity, He goes on giving them respite so that they may reflect, realize their mistake and come to the right path. At other places in the Holy Quran, Allah says that: • • • “He is kind, and what He, out of His mercy, bestows on mankind, there is no one who can withhold it. ” (35:2) “If He does design some benefit for you there is none (who) can keep back His favor. He causes it to reach whosoever of His servants He pleases. (35:2) “Say: O Ibadi (My servants) who have transgressed against themselves (by committing evil deeds and sins), despair not of the Mercy of Allah: verily, Allah forgives all sins, truly, He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful (39:53) “And My Mercy embraces all things. ” (7:156) • • • • • 9 • Umar Salman Rao Allah Almighty, however, warns that if someone persists in defiance and arrogance, then he is sure to earn Allah’s wrath. • • “He who forgives sins, accepts repentance, is strict in punishment and has long reach. ” (40:3) “If Allah touches you with affliction, none can remove it but He Himself. ” (6:17) 10 Umar Salman Rao 5) Surah Ikhlas (112) o oo O mOo omOY o u ’$ ? o o? o I $ oo c o oo # # (112) ‚? u] ]cE a aO U? ‚u uU? ‚umO ‚oo Oo] o ‚? u] aOo O o ? Ou uo uo Oouo ? Uo U ] aO o o] ca uo • • • • Say: He is Allah, the One and Only; Allah, the Eternal. Absolute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten. And there is none like unto Him. This is an early Makkahn surah. Subject Matter: This surah deals with Tauhid, the Unity of God. Explanation: Ayat (i): • • The word Allah was not new to the pagans of Arabia. This word had been used for the Creator of the Universe for a long time. This ayat teaches man to avoid the pitfalls of understanding Allah.
The first is to remember that He is our Creator. He cares for us. The second is that He is One and Only. He is the only One to Whom worship is due. The fact that Allah is One and Only negates the idea of polytheism, in which people believe in many gods. Period of Revelation: • Ayat (ii): • • • • • • • `Samad’ has been translated by Abdullah Yousaf Ali in two ways: Eternal and Absolute. That absolute existence can only be predicated to Allah. That all things and beings are dependent on Him and He is not dependent on anyone. Ayat (iii): This ayat negates the Christian idea on proposing Jesus as `Son of God’.
Allah was not begotten, nor does He have any children. This Ayat is very clearly stating the fact that He is not dependent on any being and there is no concept of His children. Ayat (iv): This ayat sums up the argument of all previous ayats. There was no one like Allah in the past, there is no one like Him in the present, and there will never be anyone like Him in future as well. 11 • Umar Salman Rao This ayat is also a warning to those who have the tendency to liken Allah to another being, a human or such. Allah is unlike any other. (6) Surah Fatihah (1:1-7) # Uu†OoFu OoOouo n $ u$ ?
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In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the entire universe. The Merciful, the Compassionate. The Master of the Day of Recompense. You alone do we worship, and You alone do we turn for help. Direct us on to the Straight Way. The way of those whom You have favored. Who did not incur Your wrath, who are not astray. Period of Revelation: • • • This is a Makkan surah. This surah was revealed at the very outset of Muhammad’s (PBUH) Prophethood. Traditions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) show this to be first complete surah to be revealed.
Subject matter: • • Al-Fatihah is actually a prayer, taught by Allah to all those who read His Book. This surah is a prayer and a response- Al-Fatihah being the prayer that man makes to Allah and the rest of the Quran is Allah’s response to man’s prayer. 12 • Umar Salman Rao This surah is also called: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Fatihah-al-Kitaab (The Opening of the Book) Umm-ul-Kitaab (Mother of the essence of the Book) Surat-ul-Hamd (The surah of Praise) Surah-us-Salaat (The chapter of Prayers) Surat-ud-Dua (The surah of Supplication) Asas-al-Quran (The Foundation of the Quran)
Explanation: Ayat (i): • • • • • • This surah begins with the principle that ever activity, every gesture, should begin in the name of Allah. As said, the character of this surah is that of a prayer- a prayer that begins with the praise of One to Whom the prayer is addressed. It is important to note that the prayer is not merely that praise be to God, but all praise be to Allah alone. Prayer to Allah is called for because all excellence calls for praise and because He is our Benefactor. Our praise of Allah arises out of a deep feeling of gratitude.
If there is anyone at all whom we must adore and worship, towards whom we should be humble and devoted, it is the Creator of the Universe, and the Creator of all excellence. Ayat (ii): In Arabic, the word Rabb has three meanings: (i) (ii) (iii) • • Lord and Master; Sustainer, Provider, Supporter, Nourhisher and Guardian, and Sovereign Ruler, He who controls and directs. God is the Rabb in all three meanings of the term. `Rahman’ and `Rahim’ are translated as `Most Gracious’ and `Most Merciful”. They pertain to Allah’s Attributes of Grace and Mercy.
Ayat (iii): • • Allah is the Lord of the Day when all mankind will gather to render accounts of their conduct on earth and all generations wil be rewarded or punished for their doings. This Ayat follows after the one describing Allah’s Mercy and Benevolence so that one may not think that one is to forget the Hereafter. 13 Umar Salman Rao Ayat (iv): 1. 2. 3. • • • • • • Arabic word Ibadah is used in three senses: Worship and adoration: Obedience and submission; and Service and subjection: In this particular context, the term carries all three senses simultaneously.
We say to Allah, that we worship and adore Him, we are obedient to Him, and also that we are His servants. Not only do we worship Allah, we also turn only to Him for help. Ayat (v): We beseech Allah to guide us in all walks of life so that we follow the `Straight’ path. We pray to Him, to provide us with sound principles of behaviour and conduct and show us the path that will lead to salvation and happiness. This Ayat follows after the one describing Allah’s Mercy and Benevolence so that one may not think that one is to forget the Hereafter. ? This defines the `straight path’ which we beseech Allah to show to us. This is the path that was followed by those who have enjoyed Allah’s favours and blessings. Ayat (vi): Ayat (vii): • • • This ayat makes it clear that the recipients of Allah’s blessings are not those who go astray. The recipients of Allah’s favour may not also be those who appear to briefly enjoy worldly prosperity and success. Those who receive Allah’s abiding favors and blessings are the people who follow the right path. (7) Surah Baqarah (2:21-22) 14 Umar Salman Rao 21. O people!
Adore your Guardian-Lord, who created you and those who came before you, so that you may have the chance to learn righteousness; 22. Who has made the earth your couch, and the heavens your canopy; and sent down rain from the heavens; and by it brought forth fruits for your sustenance; then do not set up rivals to Allah, when you know. (2:21-22) Explanation: • As Allah is the Creator the Sustainer, and the Cherisher of the entire universe comprising all of mankind, earth and the heavens, billions of galaxies and stars, it is He alone who ought to be adored and worshipped and no one else.
This Quranic assertion cuts across the believe in Holy Trinity (God as Father, God as Son and God as the Holy Ghost), the concept of Ahura Mazda (the god of light) and Ahriman (the god of darkness) struggling for domination or the idols interceding on behalf of humans. Allah has showered the following bounties, blessings and rewards upon Man: • • • • • The very creation of man himself The creation of earth on which grow every kind of things for the sustenance and benefit of mankind.
The creation of heavens from which flow spiritual and physical blessings for all those who seek of these from Him. The sending of rain which brings the dead earth to life and causes it to produce all kinds of food without which no creature can survive. • The idea behind mentioning the aforesaid is that when it is an admitted and acknowledged fact that all this has been granted to Man by Allah alone, then it must also be realized that He alone deserves worship, adoration, obedience and servitude.
As Allah is One, nothing but One, to set up others equal in rank with Him, is the most heinous and detestable crime of shirk which Allah will never forgive. The Holy Quran at other places speaks of Allah in these words: • • • “Say: He is Allah, the one; Allah, the Eternal, Absolute; He begets not, nor is He begotten; and there is none equal or comparable to him. ” (112:1-4) There is nothing whatever like unto Him and He is the All-Hearing, the AllSeeing. ” (42:11) “He is Allah, the Creator, the Inventor of all things, the Bestower of forms.
To Him belong the Best Names. All that is in the heavens and the earth glorify Him. And He is All-Mighty, the All-wise. ” (59:23-4) • (8) Surah Alaq (96:15) $ ? o ? $ o ‰]u … UAp„o] o YoYu oeoouIuo ? o aUoS? uo? io ? o p„o] O eooue†? Iu o ou O oOoO % ]† ]o oA uo ^oY] ? o o oio u O o u U ^oo]o ? $ † u ] … o ? o a u ? oo o (96:1-5) UAU^oo oY UAo UIoe u u u U ^ ? ] o o o O ? mO a Suu ? ? uo o $ o^ 15 Umar Salman Rao 1. Read! In the name of your Lord, who created 2. Created man out of a clot of congealed blood, 3. Proclaim!
And your Lord is most bountiful, 4. He who taught by the pen, 5. Taught man what he did not know. (96:1-5) 16 Umar Salman Rao Explanation: • • These verses were the first ones revealed to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) through the angel Jibril in the cave of Hira during the last ten days of Ramzan when he was mediating there That Allah, the Omnipotent, Allah the Powerful, the Creator, the Sustainer of the universe, is the one who has created man from something which was insignificant i. e. a piece of thick coagulated blood.
That it is Allah who has blessed man with the power of knowledge to probe his own being and the universe around and see the stars scattered through infinite space, the vast panorama of nature with its charm and beauty and the astonishing harmony of the seasons and the days and nights__ manifestations of the Power and Might, and Mercy and Grace of the All-Pervading Mind. The importance and place of knowledge in Islam is evident from the following sayings of the Holy Prophet (PBUH): • • • • “Allah makes the way to paradise easy for him who treads the path in search of knowledge. (Muslim) “He who goes forth in search of knowledge will be in Allah’s way until he returns. ” (At-Tirmizi) The acquisition of knowledge is “an obligation upon every Muslim man and woman” (Ibn Maja) • • The least expected of Man is that he should publicly express his gratitude by recognizing the bounties of the sovereign Lord of the universe and keep on proclaiming that none has the right to be worshipped except Him__ the epitome of Wisdom, Power, Greatness and Divine will. (9) Surah Zilzaal (99) „oU? m ^oUo? S? uo? Ioo ^oIoo …u ? q†? iu? ^o? oo …u OO]? o oo o aoo ^ oY] U ? ao$so uoko oo ]oo ao Oso uokoo? o oc o O a u ^ o Ou Y] u ^ o ^] o Ou ] ‡ Y] ? o‡ ] o u U O u fo v aUo Uo^o]o? nY ^? o]oo^Oo ’u „oUm ^oou? O eo$oo ^o^iu’ ouo uoo uO A ] uoo i^? ?? … mooo ao Fu o$ a^o a… ]o ‚o io E ao u †o j u $] ‚o $ oc o O ]o … e o (99) ao]† oo? UIoouomUo ao†u e ? UIoouom um ? e oo % Uua o o umnoo oo % Uu †$ & … ^ uO A u ? †$? i … ^ uO A $ U $ $ U $ 1. When the earth is shaken to her utmost convulsion, 2. And the earth throw up her burdens, 3. And man cries out: `What is the matter with her? ” 4. On that day will she declare her tidings: 5. For that your Lord will have given her inspiration. . On that day will men proceed in companies sorted out, to be shown their deeds. 7. Then shall anyone who has done an atom’s weight of good see it! 8. And anyone who has done an atom’s weight of evil shall see it. Explanation: • This world, as such, is not going to last for ever nor all what we do here is to remain unaccounted for. The Day of Judgment and reckoning is not far, when the present physical 17 Umar Salman Rao order of the world will get dissolved due to the tremendous earthquake and uprooting and a new world of Truth, Justice and Fair-play, will be born in its place.
That is the day when the earth shall throw up all what was kept by it as secret so far. • Similar statements have also been made about the magnitude and gravity of the Day of Judgment at other places in the Holy Quran ? “When the sky is cleft asunder (opened out). And when the stars are scattered. And when the seas are torn apart (burst forth) and when graves are turned upside down. Every person will know what he has sent forward. ” (82:1-5) “When the sky is split asunder…… and when the earth will be spread and it will throw out what is therein. (83:1-4) “A day whereon men will be like moths scattered about and the mountains will be like carded wool. ” (101:4-5) ? ? • That is the day when the dead would be resurrected to life and they would be wonderstruck and bewildered to see the story of their previous life being screened by the earth itself to its minutest details. When the final judgment is handed over by the sovereign Lord of the universe, the righteous would enter Paradise while the fate of the condemned ones would be the ever-burning fire of Hell.
All this, however, will be done by Allah Almighty, the Supreme Authority, the Most Merciful, in a just and fair manner as is stated in the Holy Quran: “…… not a soul will be dealt with unjustly in the least….. ” (21:47)…… God will judge with (justice and truth)……” (40:20) (10) Surah Nas (114) $ ^i ] ] cu o o ^O? ]o ^O ? o ^O o oc ] ? ] ] ] ] p„o] o ?? oO ? c‰OuouU ?? aO ?? O ? U ?? h †eo? AouIo u O o$ ? uY o ouo †? a? o o$ oFo o$ o oo o$ uo? uoO $] oo u o $] ? $ (114) ???? o] aU ?? … ‘ooE oouo u ? co o^O er Oo o o^Oo‚o uo c‰m ? ? ? ? ? Say: I seek refuge with the Lord and Cherisher of Mankind. The King (or Ruler) of Mankind. The God for (or Judge of) Mankind. From the mischief of the whisperer (of Evil). Who withdraws (after his whisper) (The same) who whispers into the hearts of mankind. Among Jinns and among Men. Period of Revelation: This is a pendant to the previous surah (Surah Al-Falaq) and it concludes the Holy Quran with an appeal to mankind to trust in Allah and seek His Mercy and Protection at all times, especially from evil within our own hearts. 18 Umar Salman Rao
Explanation: Ayat (i): • • We are being told to seek refuge from internal factors, the whispers of evil within our hearts. Allah is the Only One whom we should turn to for protection and refuge because He is the Creator, the Lord and Cherisher of mankind. Ayat (ii) and (iii): • • • • • Man’s relation to Allah, according to Abdullah Yousaf Ali, can be viewed in three aspects: Allah is his Lord, Sustainer and Provider Allah is the King and the Ruler. Allah is the One to whom mankind must return to give an account of their deeds. Allah is the One who will Judge all mankind for their deeds.
He is the Only Being worthy of man’s worship. Ayat (iv) and (v): • • • • Evil manifests itself in many ways; Internal evil is just as strong as external evil. `Waswasa’ means to whisper evil repetitively in one’s heart in such a way that such whisperings are not even felt. The whispering of evil, repeatedly, into the hearts of people is the evil work of Satan. Yet, whisperings of evil simply plant the seeds, which are likely to develop into evil acts. Man must, therefore, seek Allah’s refuge from Waswas-il-Khanas so that he is protected against doing evil as well as protected against being done evil against by someone else.
Ayat (vi): • This ayat describes the sources of evil. Man must seek refuge with Allah from evil emanating from the hearts of men (who are visible to naked eye) as well as evil emanating from evil spirits and jinns (who are invisible to the naked eye). But if man seeks protection from such evils, Allah will protect him and no evil, visible or invisible, can touch him. • 19 Umar Salman Rao (11) Surah Baqarah (2:30-37) 30. Behold, your Lord said to angels: `I will create a vicegerent on earth. ’ They said: `Will you place there one who will make mischief there and shed blood?
Whilst we celebrate your praises and glorify your holy (name)? ” He said: “I know what you do not know. ’ 31. And He taught Adam the names of all things; then He placed them before the angels, and said: `Tell me the names of these if you are right. ’ 32. They said: `Glory to You, of knowledge we have none, save what You have taught us: In truth it is You who are perfect in knowledge and wisdom. ’ 33. He said: `Adam! Tell them their names. ’ When he had told them, Allah said: `Did I not tell you that I know the secrets of heaven and earth, and I know what you reveal and what you conceal? 34. And behold, we said to the angels: `Bow down to Adam’. And they bowed down. Not so Iblis: he refused and was haughty: he was of those who reject faith. 35. WE said: `Adam! You and your wife dwell in the Garden; and eat of the bountiful things in it as you wish. But do not approach this tree, or you will run into harm and transgression. ’ 36. Then Satan made them slip from there, and got them out of what they had been in. We said: `Go down, with enmity between yourselves. On earth will be your dwelling-place and your means of livelihood, for a time. ’ 37.
Then Adam learnt from His Lord words of inspiration, and His Lord turned towards him; for He is OftReturning, Most Merciful. (2:30-37) Explanation: 20 • Umar Salman Rao Allah, the Eternal, the Absolute, One and Unique, is the Sole Creator, the Sustainer and Planner of this immeasurably vast universe in which angels regularly celebrate His praises and glorify His name. Like other creatures, bodies and things we witness in the universe, it is Allah alone who created Man as well and appointed him as His vicegerent and Messenger in-spite of the apprehensions expressed by Angels that Man would indulge in mischief and blood-shed.
The claim of the atheists that man is created out of nothing or that he is his own creator and master is baseless beyond any shadow of doubt. ? ? “Were they created of nothing or were they themselves creators? Or did they create the heavens and the earth? No, they have no firm belief. ” (52:35-6) “Say: Behold all that is in the heavens and on earth but neither signs nor warners benefit those who believe not. ” (10:101) • • • Man is Allah’s best creation as he alone has been blessed with the knowledge power, faculty and wisdom to explore and understand the mysteries and intricacies of the universe.
It is evident from the fact that when confronted, the angels could not give the names of the things while Adam did it quite easily and spontaneously because he had been taught so by the Supreme Lord. It is through knowledge that we can understand Allah better and serve Him better. The very first verse revealed to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) in the cave of Hira amplifies beyond doubt the significance, importance and place of knowledge in Islam: ? “Read! In the name of your Lord who has created (all that exists). He has created man from a clot (a piece of thick coagulated blood). Read!
And your Lord is Most Bountiful, who has taught by the pen. He has taught man that which he knew not. ” (96:1-5) • • • Allah commands the Holy Prophet (PBUH) to invoke Him to advance in knowledge: ? ? ? “Say: O my Lord! Increase me in knowledge. ” (20:114) The Holy Prophet (PBUH) reiterated it as under: “Allah makes the way to Paradise easy for him who treads the path in search of knowledge. ”(Muslim). “He who goes forth in search of knowledge will be in Allah’s way until he returns. ” (At-Tirmidhi) The acquisition of knowledge is “ an obligation upon every Muslim man and woman. (Ibn Majah) • Salvation lies in carrying out the commandments of Allah, All Mighty, and not in defiance and arrogance. Unlike all others who prostrated before the Creator without a moment’s hesitation or resistance, Iblis was condemned because he argued, defied and chose not to do so. 21 • Umar Salman Rao Man’s original abode was Paradise in which he could have lived and enjoyed life for ever un-interruptedly if Adam and Eve had not committed the blunder of eating from the forbidden tree. As they inadvertently violated on the prompting and persuasion of Satan the commandment of Allah, they were xpelled from there and were told to dwell on earth where they would find all provisions. Hazrat Adam instantly realized what a grave blunder they both had committed. He, therefore, repented and apologized in the manner Allah had ordained him to do. Man’s Creator who, no doubt, is most Merciful, Gracious and Oft Forgiving accepted the plea of Adam and cleared him of the original sin. It shows that Allah forgives the sins of His servants as and when they offer sincere, but unconditional repentance. One of the most common frailties or characteristic of human nature is its inability to resist lust.
Hazrat Adam and Hazrat Eve were told not to go near a particular tree but Satan whispered to them that they were forbidden to go near the said tree because if they tasted it they will either become angles or live for ever. It was, therefore, the desire to become angels or immortals that impelled them to do what they were forbidden to do. Allah Almighty let them know through practical demonstration that inability to resist lust was one of those weaknesses of human beings that could always be easily exploited by Satan and that the fear of Allah coupled with His guidance could be the only way to save themselves from such exploitation.
As man has been blessed with the rare faculty of making a choice between good and evil, it is he alone who has to decide whether to tread the path of Allah which leads to Paradise or side with Satan who surely would beguile him to destruction. • • (12) Surah An’aam (6:75-79) 75. So also did we show Abraham the power and the laws of the heavens and the earth, so that he might have certainty. 76. When the night covered him over, he saw a star: He said: `This is my Lord. ’ But when it set, he said: `I do not love things that set. ’ 77. When he saw the moon rising in splendor, he said: `This is my Lord. But when the moon set, he said: `Unless my Lord guides me, I will surely be among those who go astray. ’ 78. When he saw the sun rising in splendor, he said: `This is my Lord; this is the greatest. ’ But when the sun set, he said: `O my people! I am indeed free from your giving partners to Allah. ’ 79. For me, I have set my face firmly and truly towards Him who created the heavens and the earth, and never shall I give partners to Allah. ’ (6:75-79) 22 Umar Salman Rao Explanation: • Hazrat Ibrahim lived in the city of “Ur” in present-day Iraq in 2100 B. C.
The people of this era had great knowledge of the stars and heavenly bodies whom they worshipped as gods and goddess. As Ibrahim was to be blessed with prophet-hood, Allah Almighty showed him with certitude the spiritual glories behind the magnificent powers and laws of the physical world. Hazrat Ibrahim was, thus, left with no doubt, what so ever, that his ancestral idols representing the forces of nature had no power, much less the Supreme Power. The aforesaid verses in an allegorical fashion show different stages of Hazrat Ibrahim’s spiritual enlightenment.
It should not be supposed that he literally worshipped the stars and heavenly bodies and thus committed the act of Shirk. Being convinced of the folly of the ancestral idol-worship, he began to see the futility of worshipping distant shining objects to whom the people around him attributed certain powers which, in fact, did not reside in them. A type of such is a star shining in the darkness of the night. A true believer like Hazrat Ibrahim could see that as the rising and setting of the star was according to laws whose author is God, it, in itself, was not worthy of being worshipped.
Continuing the allegory, it has been stated in the verses, that the moon, though bigger and brighter than the star too could not be deemed to be God for it also changes its shape from hour to hour and depends for its light on smoother body. At this point of time, Hazrat Ibrahim began to search for something which was more reliable than appearances and also asked Allah for His guidance. The next stage in the allegory is the sun, but this also appears in the east and sets in the west everyday. As its own movement is mechanical, the sun too could not be the real power behind the immensely vast universe.
It is at this stage that Hazrat Ibrahim proclaims firmly that his Lord is neither the star, nor moon nor sun but Allah, the Sole Creator of all the heavens and the earth. Therefore, it is He alone before whom he would prostrate and also that he would never assign partners with Allah as other people around him were doing. • • • • (13) Surah Maidah (5:110) o |ouo O i‚u]ouY O ioO o? oo onAojoA†OuU†? Uoeo? SnoFo#Oo? Iou ? e o% ? o o ‚o? F ? uouUu uo] ouo ? u oAm? ] U ? o †o m] $ oo A O ? o? ? m a ] u? a ? ^ ] ] o o ? $ u ? o cjO eououo ? jF? O ojo?? A? o ? aoo ao oE o? ] U? Oio I ? Iou oe… ]? U v O go OuO U$ ou? ? ? uO o ^? Oouo I o ? O Fu ooO ]? o ] u ? ] t u ‚oU] ? $ ? o ? O ? ‚o ] u o p†fu? u? o]†noouoE`oooooo? ^oo_Oono anu] a? Uo? iuiou? Ououu . oioo ? ^o ? › acOo^ n i EjEu? o†n$] eo O o_Ooo ? o ? ?oo or ? ] o o e u j o u ? o o e u oao u E u u u o ?? ] t n Y u u u u O u o? ou o? kou ou? u? oo c o †i i ? oo u? o o ] ooO ] ] t o e uu ao Yu Y ? ]o o? Ouo†‰? ue EO? o t o? ^o iFU] toouou? o? ^o” o†eo? Uuo A m? ]o o E ] o o e u O o o o (5:110) anU v ‰$]? aa] Uoo? E am] UIokoFOU joo ? u% uoY]o„o u u? uoO o„o o E ? foeu o fo† ? F o au †o uO ^ o nuo `ou U o $ u^ q o Then will Allah say: `Jesus son of Mary! Recount my favor to you and to your mother. Behold! I strengthened you with the holy spirit, so that you spoke to the people in childhood and in 23 Umar Salman Rao maturity. Behold! I taught you the Book and Wisdom, the Law and the Gospel. And behold! You make out of clay, as it were, the figure of a bird by my leave, and you breathe into it and it becomes a bird by my leave, and you heal those born blind, and the lepers, by my leave.
And behold! You bring forth the dead by my leave. And behold! I restrained the Children of Israel from you when you showed them the clear signs, and the unbelievers among them said: `This is nothing but evident magic. ’ (5:110) Explanation: • The Supreme Lord of the universe is Allah alone and no one else. All human-beings including prophets, shall stand before Allah on the Day of Reckoning and Judgment and account for their deeds or the accomplishment of the missions which were entrusted to them.
Jesus Christ was a Prophet not God-incarnate or the begotten son of God as wrongly held by the Christians who corrupted the original revelation which he had received from Allah as His messenger. The virgin birth of Jesus Christ from Mary, the fact that he could speak with maturity even when he was still in the cradle, the power to mould a lump of clay into the shape of a bird and breathe life into it, cure the blind and the lepers and bring the dead to life were the miracles which Jesus Christ performed not on his own but with Allah’s leave.
Jesus Christ could perform these miracles because he was specifically taught the Book, the Wisdom, the Law and the Gospel and had also been strengthened with the holy spirit i. e. Jibril. Had Allah not protected Jesus Christ, the Israelites, who took his miracles to be magic, would have succeeded in harming him physically long before their final attempt to crucify him which too was foiled by Allah. The favors of Allah to Jesus Christ and Mary mentioned in this verse also figure at other places in the Holy Quran: ? “O people of the Scripture (Christians) !
Do not exceed the limits in your religion nor say of Allah aught but the truth. The Messiah Isa, son of Maryam was no more than a Messenger of Allah and His word” (4:171) “I have come to you with a sign from your Lord, that I design for you out of clay, a figure like that of a bird and breathe into it, and it becomes a bird by Allah’s leave, and I heal him who was born blind, and the leper, and I bring the dead to life by Allah’s leave. ” (3:49) “And when Allah will say: “O Isa, son of Maryam! Did you say to men: worship me and my mother as two gods besides Allah…….
Worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord…. ” (5:116-118) • • • • • ? ? • The aforesaid truth would be vouchsafed by Jesus Christ himself before Allah on the Day of Judgment. It is time that his followers become ashamed, for if they had followed the un-corrupted original message which he had received from Allah, they would have benefited a lot by its purity and spiritual truth. 24 Umar Salman Rao (14) Surah Zuha (93) • • • • • • • • • • • • • By the Glorious Morning Light. And by the Night when it is still. The Guardian-Lord Hath not forsaken thee, Nor is He displeased.
And verily the hereafter will be better for thee than the present. And soon will thy Guardian-Lord give thee (that wherewith) thou shalt be well pleased. Did He not find thee an orphan and give thee shelter (and care)? And He found thee wandering and He gave thee guidance. And He found thee in need, and made thee independent. Therefore, treat not the orphan with harshness. Nor repulse the petitioner (unheard): But the Bounty of thy Lord – Rehearse and proclaim! Subject Matter: This surah refers to the vicissitudes of human life.
Man is told to adopt the right path and proclaim the bounties of Allah. This surah seems to have been revealed during a particularly trying period for the Holy Prophet (PBUH) when a man of less resolute strength may have weakened. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) is told to value the Hereafter, which for him was to be as glorious as a morning after absolute darkness, more than the trying present. Explanation: Ayat (i): • • • The Glorious morning light is that when Allah’s splendor shines forth after a night that has passed.
The hours of light from dawn till absolute light epitomize the true growth of spiritual life. Yet, we are not to lose heart that the hours of darkness are wasted in a spiritual sense, because darkness does not imply that Allah forsakes us. 25 • Umar Salman Rao We must not lose heart because just like night is followed by daylight, Allah’s mercy is bound to ease all human suffering. The hours of darkness are mentioned after a mention has been made of the hours of daylight. The `night’ is thought to symbolize the extended periods of human suffering. Ayat (ii): ? ? • • •
Ayat (iii): There is a particular assurance to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) that Allah has not forsaken him, despite the fact that he may be going through a particularly rugh time in his life. In general, there is an assurance to everyone who prepares for a spiritual reawakening that he should not be discouraged by a sense of loneliness in his early endeavors. This Ayat follows after the one describing God’s Mercy and Benevolence so that one may not think that one is to forget the Hereafter. Ayat (iv): • • For a truly devout human being, each succeeding period will be better than the last.
This ayat refers to the Hereafter in terms of the life after the one on earth, as well as `hereafter’ in terms of each succeeding period in life. Although it may seem that he is bearing hardship, a truly devout person will be internally and spiritually satisfied, and, hence, each succeeding moment for him will be better than the last. Ayat (v): • We are assured that when our human will is identified with the Will of Allah, all feelings of doubt and suffering will vanish and a sense of complete satisfaction will come over us. Ayat (vi): • • ? Allah is always with us.
He has been good to us in the past and we should trust Him to be good to us in future as well. Three incidents are taken from the Holy Prophet’s (PBUH) life to serve as illustrative examples. The first incident refers to the fact that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) was born an orphan. He was chiefly brought up by his nurse, Halima, as his mother was in poor health. The Prophet’s mother died when he was six. Then he was brought up by his grandfather, who died two years later. Finally, his Uncle Abu Talib treated him as his own son. The love of all these people was least equal to the parental love that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) missed in his life.
Each one of us is an orphan in one sense of the word, yet Allah provides us with some sort of love and shelter. ? Ayat (vii): • The second incident refers to the fact that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) was born in the midst of a wandering society, one that believerd in many gods. 26 • • • • Umar Salman Rao In his search for Unity, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) was guided by Allah to the right path. Ayat (viii): The third fact refers to the idea that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) inherited no wealth and was poor but Hazrat Khadija not only provided him with love, she also made him independent.
By freeing the Holy Prophet (PBUH) of wordly worries, her wealth enabled him to devote all his life to Allah and his mission. Ayat (ix): • • The Holy Prophet (PBUH) treated all orphans with kindness. All mankind is being told to treat orphans with great kindness. In fact, all helpless creatures, be they orphans or dependents, or creatures who are unable to assert themselves, should be treated with great care. Ayat (x): • The common attitude towards those who come to us for help, is to scorn them. We are being told to adopt the correct attitude in dealing with such people as they may be in genuine need of help.
Charity is nothing without the right attitude, which includes sympathy and love. • • • Ayat (xi): If we are endowed with Allah’s bounties, it is our responsibility to spread that bounty far and wide just like the Holy Prophet (PBUH) did. Spiritually, we all belong to either of these categories: • • • • Orphans Petitioners Victims of poverty We all receive Allah’s bounty in one way or the other, and no matter what category we belong to, it is our duty to help those who are less endowed in any respect than ourselves. (15) Surah Kausar (108) c u n o u (108) †oocaO o^o$ o † o]? eO ’o o †o o O ?? o] «] oe uo o o? a]o u ? o uou E ou O o ? _Ao? j u] o ? Y o v u O o O o $O] F u $ †o o • • • • Verily, we have granted you (O Muhammad) the Abundance. Therefore turn in prayer only to you Lord and sacrifice (to Him only). Verily, your enemy alone will be cut off from the root. Title: The surah takes its name after the single mystical word `Kausar’ or Abundance. 27 Umar Salman Rao Period of Revelation: • • • • • • This is apn early Makkahn surah. Subject Matter: This surah discusses `Kausar’, the doctrine of spiritual success through devotion and sacrifice.
Explanation: Ayat (i): The Fountain of Kausar was the heavenly fountain of unlimited knowledge, mercy, truth goodness and spirituality which was granted to the Holy Prophet (PBUH). The Fountain of Kausar was also granted to all the sincere devotees of Allah. The Fountain of Kausar provides an unending flow of goodness that quenches the thirst of all righteous men, such that worldly riches become meaningless in comparison. Ayat (ii): • • Because Allah is the Provider, it is to Him that we all must turn in Prayer and Sacrifice. The word `Nahr’ literally means sacrifice.
The outward manifestations of the benefits of sacrifice are in terms of the feeding of the poor. Symbolically, however, sacrifice takes on the deeper meaning of sacrifice in one’s heart. Ayat (iii): • • This ayat refers to the taunts and hatred of Abu Jahal and the pagans of the Quraish who mocked the Holy Prophet (PBUH) on the loss of his two infant sons. Although the taunts of the pagans implied that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) had no hope left for the future, in reality, Allah always guided the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and shone hope upon him.
Those who taunted the Holy Prophet (PBUH) were, in fact, the ones without a future and without any hope. • 28 Umar Salman Rao Section two History and Importance of the Holy Quran Revelation ? ? ? ? Prophet (PBUH) did Tahannuth (meditation) in Cave of Hira. The Holy Quran was delivered through Jibrail. First revelation in Cave of Hira, on Lailatul-Qadr, in the month of Ramazan, 40th year of the life of the Muhammad (PBUH). Confirms and corrects previous revelations. Primary Facts ? ? ? The word “Quran” is derived from the Arabic word “Qara’a’”, which means the reading of the man who knew not how to read.
First Surah as revealed to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH): Surah Alaq First verse as revealed to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH): “Proclaim in the name of thy Lord and Cherisher, who created – created man out of a mere clot of congealed blood: Proclaim! And thy Lord is Most Bountiful – He Who taught by the pen – taught man that which he knew not. ” ? Last verse as revealed to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH): “This day have I (Allah) perfected your religion for you, completed my favor upon you and have chosen for you Islam as your religion. ” ? ? The Holy Quran was revealed in parts in a span of about twenty three years between 610 A. D. o 632 A. D. The first revelation to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) was made on 27th of Ramazan and the last on 9th of Zil Hijah of 10th A. H. The period comprises 12. 5 years of Holy Prophet (PBUH)’s life at Makkah during which 90 or 91 Suras were revealed and last 10 years of Holy Prophet (PBUH)’s life at Madinah during which 23 or 24 Suras are reported to have been revealed. 29 Umar Salman Rao (Source: Code of Islamic Laws by: Muhammad Sharif Chaudhry, Impact Publications International, Lahore, Paksitan) ? The Holy Quran comprises 114 Suras divided into 6600 (according to some research scholars 6247) Ayats or verses.
For the convenience of the reader or reciter the Holy Quran is also divided into 30 paras or parts and seven Manzil (portions). The arrangement of Ayats and Suras is not in order in which they were revealed, but in accordance with a plan sanctioned by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) himself under the guidance of Allah. The Holy Quran was brought by the Angle Jibril to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) of Islam in Arabic language: “And lo! It is a revelation of the Lord of the Worlds which the True Spirit hath brought down, upon thy heart, that thou mayst be (one) of the warners in plain Arabic speech. (26:192-195) First Surah in the Holy Quran: Surah Al-Fatiha. Last Surah in the Holy Quran: Surah An-Nas. Largest Surah in the Holy Quran: Surah Baqara. Smallest Surah in the Holy Quran: Surah Al-Kausar. ? ? ? Manazil (7) Paras or Juz (30) Rukus Ayats The Holy Quran ? ? ? ? ? S U R A H S 114 in all 90 or 91 Makki 23 or 24 M d i Names of the Holy Quran ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Al-Kitab, Mubin, Hakeem, Furqan Qaul, Tazkirah, Zikr” etc. 30 Umar Salman Rao Style of the Holy Quran ? ? ? The Holy Quran’s style is poetic, sublime and beautiful. The Holy Quran speaks in the first person, the speaker being Allah.
The part revealed in Makkah is mostly about belief and disbelief, the supremacy of Allah, the Day of Judgement, Resurrection and Heaven and Hell etc. while the part revealed in Madina is about law and order, conduct of business, war, worship, running of the affairs of the state and an individual’s conduct and style in life etc. Miracles of the Holy Quran ? The Holy Quran contains prophesies, many of which have been fulfilled e. g. : I. Defeat of Persians by Romans. (Surah Ruum) II. Victory of Muslims over Quraish at Badr. III. Conquest of Makkah. IV.
Protection of Quran by Allah from all interpolation. ? ? ? ? It is in its original language and form. Not a single word, not even a dot has been changed. The Holy Quran has been learned by millions of people of all ages around the world. Even those whose mother tongue is not Arabic have memorized the Holy Quran. Hundreds and thousands of people around the world have devoted their entire lives to the study and promulgation of the the Holy Quran. Some devout believers have even counted the number of occurances of each letter. No other book in history is so well guarded and deeply studied.
The Holy Quran challenges mankind to create one like itself. Allah asks men to create ten Surahs like the ones in the Quran. So far, no one has taken the challenge. ? Compilation and the Scribes ? Important scribes are: I. II. III. IV. V. Hazrat Abu Bakr Hazrat Umar Hazrat Usman Hazrat Ali Hazrat Abdullah bin Masud 31 Umar Salman Rao VI. VII. VIII. IX ? Hazrat Zaid bin Sabit. Hazrat Ameer Muawiyah Hazrat Ubbay bin Ka’ab Hazrat Khalid bin Walid The Holy Prophet (PBUH)’s actions: Muhammad (PBUH) took these steps to preserve the Holy Quran: I. He committed it to memory. II. He made his followers learn it.
III. He made his followers write it on tablets, skins or leafless barks of palm trees (there were some 40 scribes of the Holy Quran and Hadith). IV. He used to recite the Holy Quran during prayers in the Masjid-e-Nabvi and complete the whole Scripture revealed uptil then during the month of Ramadan. Thus, the companions could correct their recorded copies. V. He went over the Holy Quran with Jibril every night in Ramadan. ? ? ? Muhammad (PBUH) himself arranged and put on paper the Holy Quran by guidance of Allah during his life, although not in chronological order (which is known). 7 males and 4 females were specialists among the learners of the Holy Quran. After the Holy Prophet (PBUH)’s death, the Holy Quran was on paper but there was no single book. During the Battle of Yamamah waged against Musailma the Liar, 300 to 1200 (varying accounts) Huffuz-e-Quran attained martydom. Hazrat Umar suggested collection of all the Holy Quran’s sections into one book to Hazrat Abu Bakr. Hazrat Zaid bin Sabit undertook and completed this task. After Hazrat Abu Bakr’s death, the compilation came to Hazrat Umar.
After Hazrat Umar’s martyrdom, the compilation came to the daughter of Hazrat Abu Bakr, Hazrat Hafsah. Hazrat Huzaifah, who took part in Muslim conquests of Azerbaijan and Armenia, was alarmed at the differences in recitation of the Holy Quran of different tribes. Muhammad (PBUH) had granted permission to different tribes to recite the Holy Quran according to their Arabic dialects, for their convenience. The compilation made originally by Hazrat Abu Bakr was requested from Hazrat Hafsah and copies were made in the Quraish dialect, the original dialect of revelation.
Hazrat Abu Bakr: ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Hazrat Usman: 32 Umar Salman Rao ? ? ? ? ? ? ? These copies were sent to all the provinces, and orders were given to burn any other copies that differed. Hazrat Usman is thus called Jami-ul-Quran, or Uniter of the Holy Quran. The Holy Quran must be treated with reverance. We must not touch the Holy Quran unless we are clean, though we can recite it in a state of Hads-Asghar (after ablution) but not in a state of Hads-Akbar. We are required to deeply study the Holy Quran “as it deserves to be studied”. We are required to meditate and ponder over its eaning. Our lives are to be moulded in accordance with its comprehensive code. Study of the Holy Quran: Salient features of the message contained in the Holy Quran (1) The Holy Quran is a divinely revealed belief system which, unlike the earthly, manmade belief systems, continues to spread un-abated till today. “And truly, this (the Qu’ran) is a revelation from the Lord of the ‘Alamin (mankind, jinn and all that exists), which the trustworthy Ruh [Jibril (Gabriel)] has brought down upon your heart (O Muhammad) that you may be (one) of the warners, in the plain Arabic language. (26:192-195) The belief system of the Holy Quran is centred on Allah, the creator, sustainer, cherisher and protector of the universe who is One and Unique. It is His commands that are contained in the Holy Quran while Sunnah explains and illustrates them in detail. “Glorified (and Exalted) be He (Allah) [above all that (evil) they associate with Him]. Who took His slave (Muhammad) for a journey by night from Al-Masjid, Al-Haram (at Makkah) to Al-Masjid Al-Aqsa (in Jerusalem). ” (17:11) The Quranic message is for all of mankind and not for a particular place, community or tribe. And We have sent you (O Muhammad) not but as a mercy for the ‘Alamin (mankind, jinn and all that exists). ” (21:107) “Say (O Muhammad): “O mankind! Verily, I am sent to you all as the Messenger of Allah. ” (7:158) (4) The Quranic message is final, whose miracle is eternal, ongoing and lasting. “We will show them Our Signs in the universe, and in their own selves, until it becomes manifest to them that this (the Qur’an) is the truth. Is it not sufficient in regard to your Lord that He is a Witness ovr all things? ” (41:53) (2) (3) 33 Umar Salman Rao 5) The Quranic message stimulates rational thinking, logical reasoning and clarity in approach and style. “Verily, in these things there are Ayat (proofs, evidences, lessons, signs) for the people who understand. ”(13:4) “Thus do We explain the signs in detail to a people who have sense. ” (30:28) (6) The Quranic message is a rhythmic balance between the spiritual and the material, and between commotion and tranquility. “Say (O Muhammad): Who has forbidden the adornment with clothes given by Allah, which He has produced for His slaves, and At-Tayyibat [all kinds of Halal (lawful) things] of food?
Say: They are, in the life of this world, for those who believe, (and) exclusively for them (believers) on the Day of Ressurection (the disbelievers will not share them). Thus We explain the Ayat (Islamic laws) in detail for people who have knowledge. ” (7:32) (7) (8) The Quranic message is not limited by time and space. The prophesies and miracles contained in the Holy Quran have stood the test of time. The Quranic message is authentic, pure and original which no other book in the world can claim. The Quranic message is protected by Allah Himself. “Verily, We, it is We Who have sent down the Dhikr (i. . the Qur’an) and surely, We will guard it (from corruption). ” (15:9) (10) The Quranic message is of human brotherhood, not dissension, of ease, not hardship, of dialogue, not compulsion in religion. (11) There is a moving force in the Holy Quran which provokes human mind and stirs one’s imagination beyond comprehension, quantification and illustration. It is this moving force which instantly attracts others to its fold. (12) The Quranic message is straight, direct and to the point, not hit by expediency or timely consideration. (9) The Holy Quran as a Basis of Thought and Action in Islam The Holy Quran tells us that Islam is an all-embracing way of life. It extends over the entire spectrum of life showing how to conduct all human activities in a sound and wholesome manner. When we read the Holy Quran, we find instructions in all aspects of life, political, social, economic, material, ethical, spiritual, national and international which have been further elucidated, expanded, amplified and explained by the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) ? 34 Umar Salman Rao ? The Holy Quran tells us that there is not any kind of separation between religion and life.
It rejects the western saying “Render unto Caesar what is Caesar’s, and unto God what is God’s”; for everything ought to be dedicated to God alone, and a Muslim is required to submit himself completely to the will of Allah in all his affairs: “Say: `Truly, my prayer, my sacrifice, my living and my dying are for Allah, the Lord of the Worlds….. ” (6:162) The Holy Quran has no dark corners or ambiguous expressions. It speaks clearly and guides to the right path. It is straight, clear and understandable, therein no confusion is to be found: “Praise be to Allah who has sent to His slave (i. . Muhammad PBUH) the Book and has allowed therein no crookedness. (He has made it) straight (and clear) in order that He may warn….. ” (18:1-2) The Holy Quran stresses moderation in everything and commands its followers to eschew all extravagances in any direction. It takes deep interest in the spiritual as well as material well-being of man. It commands its followers to prepare themselves for the Hereafter while at the same time lawfully enjoying their portion of life as long as they donot transgress the limit set by Allah.
The Holy Quran says: “Seek, with (the wealth) which Allah has bestowed on you, the Home of the Hereafter, nor forget your portion in this world. ” (28:77) Hazrat Ali is reported to have said: “Work for your life as though you are going to live forever, and work for your Hereafter as though you are going to die tomorrow. ” The central theme of the Holy Quran is that the Creator, Sustainer, Cherisher and Sovereign Lord of this immeasurably vast world is Allah who is One and unique, and that man is His vicegerent.
It talks of the origin of man, the structure of the earth and heavens and that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) has been sent as a mercy for all of the nations and not to a particular tribe, race or set of people. The Holy Quran says: ? ? ? “We have not sent you but as a Messenger to all of mankind, giving them glad tidings, and warning them but most of them know not. ” (34:28) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? “We sent you not but as a mercy for all the nations. ” (21:107) The Holy Quran awakens in man the faculty of thinking and urges that it is through knowledge that he can understand Allah better and serve Him better.
The very first verse received from Alalh was: “Read! In the name of your Lord who has created (all that exists). He has created man from a clot…. Who has taught by the pen. He has taught man that which he knew not. ” (96:1-5) Allah commands the Holy Prophet (PBUH) to invoke Him to advance him in knowledge: “Say: `O my Lord! Increase me in knowledge. ” (20:114) ? ? ? 35 Umar Salman Rao ? ? ? Allah also says in the Holy Quran that: “Allah will exalt in degree those of you who believe and those who have been granted knowledge. (58:11) The Holy Quran contains directions for the Head of the Sate as well as a common man, for the rich as well as the poor, for physical well-being as well as spiritual and intellectual enlightenment, for peace as well as for war. The Holy Quran spells out fundamentals relating to social life, commercial and economic activities, marriage, divorce, penal and civil laws, international conducts, contracts and obligations, dis