Introduction to sociology midterm exam

In a controlled experiment high correlations prove that a change in one variable has caused a change in another variable.
• True
• False
false
A student research team asks all students on campus to complete and mail back a survey that questions them about their sexual practices. Based on all of the responses that it receives, the team writes a report called the sexual preferences of LVC students. The team has conducted its project using a random sample approach.
• True
• False
false
Validity refers to the degree to which a research study can expect to obtain the same results every time the study is performed
• True
• False
false
A critical skill in using sociological imagination is the ability to view one’s own society from the perspective of an insider.
• True
• False
false
The discipline of sociology was given its name by the French theorist Harriet Martin and Martin is therefore referred to as the father of sociology
• True
• False
false
In Karl Marx’s analysis, society was fundamentally divided between the religious and the nonreligious who clash in pursuit of moral values.
• True
• False
false
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Which sociological perspective would view society as being like a living organism in which each part of the organism contributes to its survival and stability?
A. functionalist perspective
B. conflict perspective
C. interactionist perspective
D. all of these
Functionalist perspective
Which sociological perspective emphasizes everyday forms of social interaction as the “key” to understanding society?
A. functionalist perspective
B. conflict perspective
C. interactionist perspective
D. all of these
Interactionist perspective
Secondary analysis includes a variety of research techniques that use
A. questionnaires and interviews.
B. participant observation.
C. publicly accessible information and data, or data collected by another.
D. control groups.
C. publicly accessible information and data, or data collected by another
Socialization is the process
A. of surrendering one’s values and in order to become accepting of the perspective of others
B. of discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as part of a transition in one’s life.
C. whereby people learn the attitudes, values, and actions appropriate to individuals as members of a particular culture.
D. whereby people normally being socialized are at the same time socializing their socializers
C. whereby people learn the attitudes, values, and actions appropriate to individuals as members of a particular culture
The relative importance of cultural and biological factors in the socialization process is referred to as the debate over
a. nature versus nurture.
b. role versus status.
c. manifest versus latent functions
a. nature versus nurture
The looking-glass self is the
a. sum total of a person’s conscious perception of his or her identity as distinct from others.
b. child’s awareness of the attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole.
c. phrase used by Charles Horton Cooley to emphasize that the self is the product of our social interactions with others.
d. person’s typical patterns of attitudes, needs, characteristics, and behavior
c. phrase used by Charles Horton Cooley to emphasize that the self is the product of our social interactions with others.
Gender roles are
a. expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females.
b. the biologically determined patterns of behavior that are appropriate for males and females.
c. universally consistent learned behaviors of males and females.
d. the biological characteristics of males and females such as genital organs, hormones, body hair
a. expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females
Which of the following is considered a total institution?
a. a high school
b. military boot camp
c. a Girl Scout troop
d. the New York Mets
b. military boot camp
An inmate enters prison and is stripped of his/her clothing and advised that from this point on he/she will be referred to only by number. This is an example of
a. anticipatory socialization.
b. a rite of passage.
c. a degradation ceremony.
d. ascription.
c. a degradation ceremony
The tendency to assume that one’s own culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others is called
a. culture shock.
b. cultural awareness.
c. ethnocentrism.
c. ethnocentrism
Which sociological perspective would be most likely to maintain that the laws of a society are created by the groups in power to help those groups maintain their superior status?
a. functionalist perspective
b. conflict perspective
c. interactionist perspective
d. global perspective
b. conflict perspective
An example of a positive, formal tool of social control is a
a. salary bonus.
b. demotion.
c. threat to break up the relationship unless romance improves
d. frown.
a. salary bonus
The term “social control” refers to
A. justifications for deviant behavior.
B. penalties and rewards for conduct related to a social norm.
C. techniques and strategies for punishing deviant human behavior in any society.
D. behavior that violates the norms of a group
C. techniques and strategies for punishing deviant human behavior in any society
Which of the following has a role in maintaining social control?
A. the family
B. the government
C. the peer group
D. all of these
D. all of these
Being imprisoned for theft would be an example of a (an)
A. formal sanction.
B. value.
C. informal sanction.
D. norm.
A. formal sanction
Social control carried out casually by people through means such as laughter, smiles, and joking ridicule is known as
A. neutralization.
B. conformity.
C. informal social control.
D. formal social control.
C. informal social control
Which of the following cultures is a case study of a lifestyle that has endured and maintained its traditions despite wide changes in U.S. modern life?
a. Native Americans in New Mexico c. the Amish in Pennsylvania
b. Italian Americans in New York d. polygamous families in Utah
c. the Amish in Pennsylvania
Andy hypothesized that the stress created during economic downturns would increase the probability of spousal abuse. Stress would be considered the ____________ variable, and spousal abuse would be considered the ____________ variable
dependent; independent c. moderating; dependent
key; affected d. independent; dependent.
d. independent; dependent.
Of the following options, Sociology is the study of:
a. how urges, drives, and the mind can account for human behavior.
b.. group-level dynamics and social structures.
c. the underlying variation or causal mechanisms within the biological nature
of individuals.
a. how urges, drives, and the mind can account for human behavior
Deviance is behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society.
• True
• False
true
In general, people of higher/more powerful social class positions are less likely to be imprisoned for crimes they commit than people of lower class/less powerful positions.
• True
• False
true
Having a grandmother who sits on the board of trustees for your college is an example of social capital.
• True
• False
true
A hypothesis describes a proposed relationship between two variables
• True
• False
true
Groups make better decisions than one person working alone as multiple perspectives are almost always better than one.
• True
• False
true
A prison is an example of a total institution
• True
• False
true
Another term for “sociological imagination” is the “sociological perspective.”
• True
• False
false
Role strain is the process by which people internalize the beliefs, values, and behaviors of a given society and learn to function as a member of that society.
• True
• False
false
Hegemony can be defined as a process in which a dominant group, by virtue of its moral and intellectual leadership in society, secures the voluntary “consent” of the masses.
• True
• False
true
Which theory states that people subconsciously notice how others see them and over time use that to form the basis of their self-identity?
A) Stigma
B) Broken Windows Theory
C) Labeling theory
D) Deterrence theory
C) Labeling theory
All of the following are described as golden rules of ethical conduct in social research EXCEPT:
A. voluntary participation.
B. never debrief.
C. informed consent.
D. do no harm.
B. never debrief
What is the difference between a small group and a party?
A). A party involves alcohol
B). A party is multifocal while a small group is unifocal
C). A party is a group of 3 or more people whereas a small group can be 2 people
D. A party is a group that has a formal structure that mediates interaction and status differentiation
B). A party is multifocal while a small group is unifocal
What type of individual rejects both traditional goals and traditional means and wants to alter or destroy the social institutions from which he or she is alienated?
A). Rebel
B). Ritualist
C. Innovator
D. Conformist
A). Rebel