Introduction to Psychology

Psychology
The scientific study of bother behavior and thought
Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
the founders of humanistic psychology
Evolution
the change over time in the frequency of specific genes occurring within a species
developmental psychology
focuses on how thought and behavior change or stay the same over the lifespan
shamans
medicine men and women who treat mental problems by driving out demons
cognitive psychology
studies the processes of sensing, perceiving, learning, and thinking about the world
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personality psychology
-aspects of individuals that make them unique
-how these charactericstics change or stay the same over time or in different situations.
sports psychology
psychological factors in athletic performance and participation
educational psychology
includes academics, researchers, policymakers, as well as school psychologist
industrial/organizational psychology
applies psychological concepts and questions to work settings
forensic psychology
blends psychology, law, and criminal justice
humanistic psychology
theory of psychology that focuses on personal growth and meaning as a way of reaching one’s highest potential.
folk psychology
uses common sense father than the scientific method
social psychology
studies how thoughts, feelings, and behavior are affected by living among other people. It covers influences or impact others have on individuals, and the impact or regard of individuals on others.
William James
founder of functionalism, and the founder of American psychology
Empiricism
view that all knowledge and thoughts come from experience.
clinical psychology
Studies diagnosis assessment, and treatment of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders, and promotion of psychological health
nature
emphasizes the role of genetic inheritance on behavior
nurture
emphasizes the role of the environment on behavior
structuralism
a 19th-century school of psychology that argues the best way to understand thought and behavior was to break it down into its smallest parts.
personality
includes: behaviors, thoughts, feelings, motives => that make people unique
behavioral neurosciencwe
study of the relationships between the brain, the mind, and behavior.
psychopysics
study of how people psycholigicaly perceive physical stimuli through the five senses, such as: light, sound waves, touch.
introspection
method primarily used by structuralist, introspection involves observing one’s own mind for information about conscious experience.
counseling psychology
focueses on every day mental, emotional, and behavioral issues, like: career development, adjusting to a new school
natural selection
process of evolution by which one design of an organism is favored over another, because it has an impact on reproduction
functionalism
argued the best way to understand the mind was to look at why it works the why it does, and not at its parts.
Gestalt psychology
the approach that the whole is more important than the sum of its parts.
Clinical and scientific psychology
-the scientific side involves using the scientific method to research thought and behavior
-the clinical side involves applying the scientific findings about thought and behavior
positive psychology
uses a scientific approach to study psychological well being