Introduction to Criminal Justice – Chapters 1,2, and 3.

In 1931, President Herbert Hoover appointed which group to make a detailed analysis of the U.S. Justice System?
The Wickersham Commission
Created in 1919, which professional association was responsible for keeping track of the activities of local justice agencies?
The Chicago Crime Commission
Which of the following did not spur the early development of the formal agencies of criminal justice in the United States in the 19th Century?
A. A General Sense of Lawlessness
B. The Emergence of Gangs
C. The Creation of the Safe Streets Act
D. Increased Crime Rates
The Creation of the Safe Streets Act
The criminal justice system is society’s instrument of ________ .
Formal Social Control
Which of the agencies within the criminal justice system is responsible for bringing charges against a defendant?
Courts
The use of the term “criminal justice system” reflected a view that justice agencies could be connected in an intricate yet often unobserved network of decision-making processes. When was the term “criminal justice system” first used?
After the findings of the American Bar Foundation project in the 1950s.
Approximately ________ people in the United States are under some form of correctional supervision, whether in jail, prison or supervised within the community.
7 million.
At what stage of the criminal justice process do police have to decide whether to pursue or terminate involvement in the case?
Investigatory.
The ________ is the step in the criminal justice process at which the accused is read the charges, informed of his/her constitutional rights, enters an initial plea, a trial date is set, and bail issues are considered.
Arraignment.
At the ________ stage in the criminal justice process a judicial decision is made whether or not the defendant is to remain in custody or be released pending further court appearances.
Bail.
Nearly one third of those convicted on felony charges are sentenced to:
Probation and released back into the community.
For every 1000 crimes, approximately ________ people are sent to prison.
20.
The criminal justice system is analogous to a (an) ________ because there are 15 stages with each of them being a decision point and many suspects are released before trial.
Assembly Line.
Which level of Walker’s criminal justice wedding cake model is made up of less serious felonies committed by first-time offenders?
Level III.
Which level of Walker’s criminal justice wedding cake model is made up of serious felonies such as rapes, robberies, and burglaries?
Level II.
Herbert Packer compared the criminal justice process to an ________ to explain how cases proceed through the system
Assembly Line.
Which perspective emphasizes the control of dangerous offenders and the protection of society through harsh punishments such as the death penalty?
Crime Control.
A belief that convicted criminals can be successfully treated within the confines of the justice system is part of which perspective?
Rehabilitation.
A belief that the proper role of the criminal justice system is to prevent crime through judicious use of criminal sanctions is part of what perspective?
Crime Control.
A judge who refuses to allow evidence to be heard during a trial, because police seized it without a proper search warrant, would fall into which of the following perspectives?
Due Process.
Which of the following is not an important goal of the restorative justice model?
Streamlined efficiency of the criminal justice system.
________ is a program that provides non-punitive, community based alternatives compared to more intrusive forms of punishment.
Pretrial diversion.
In which of the following instances would a prosecutor be violating ethical standards?
If s/he proceeds to trial knowing that that key evidence has been illegally seized by police officers.
During the custody stage, the police may do all of the following except?
Charge the person with a crime.
What is the main goal of the court room work group?
Avoid formal trials.
Which statement reflects the conflict view of crime?
Criminal law represents the consensus of public opinion.
The ________ view rests on the assumption that criminal law has a social control function to control behaviors that are inherently destructive and dangerous to society.
Consensus.
According to the ________ view, the legal system is shaped by individuals who hold social power and use their influence to shape the legal process.
Interactionist.
Which is not a Part I Crime?
A. Non-negligent manslaughter
B. Forcible rape
C. Prostitution
D. Motor Vehicle theft
Postitution.
Through a massive and complex survey, the NCVS provides information about?
Victims, offenders and crimes
A methodological problem of the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) is that:
It uses the “hierarchy rule” and records only the most serious crime is a multiple offense incident.
All of the following have been offered as reasons why crimes go unreported to the police, except:
A. Victims have little confidence in the ability of the police.
B. Victims may fear reprisals.
C. Victims consider the crime to be trivial.
D. Victims only report crimes if they personally know the offender.
Victims only report crimes if they personally know the offender.
Which of the following is methodological drawback of the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)?
Over-report due to misinterpretation of events.
Self-report surveys have generally focused on ________ , but are not limited to this population.
Juveniles.
Both the UCR and the NCVS show that crime has ________ since 1991.
Decreased.
Which of the following is discussed in the text as a factor that is related to declining crime rates?
Abortion.
Which of the following is not discussed as a factor that influences crime trends?
A. Immigration
B. Early release from prison.
C. Mental health treatment availability.
D. Age Structure
Early release from prison.
Many other countries, like the United States, have experienced a significant drop in crime and victimization. This drop is most pronounced for which type of crime?
Property.
What is the reason that prostitution has declined significantly in the past decade?
Prostitution conducted via the internet, flies under the radar.
Which of the following are enduring and stable patterns of crime in the US?
A disproportionate number of crimes are committed by young, males from urban communities.
According to the ________ hypothesis, as the percentage of minorities in a population increases, so too does the amount of social control that police direct at minority group members.
Racial threat.
Which of the following groups may be responsible for a disproportionately high amount of all serious criminal behavior?
Chronic offenders.
According to ecological factors related to victim patterns what can be said about public spaces and places?
One of the most dangerous places is a public school building.
Which of the following is not a principle of the rational choice theory?
A negative home environment influences a person to commit crime.
________ theory maintains that an individual’s interactions with key social institutions, such as family, school, and peer group, shape their behavior.
Social Process.
According to this perspective, criminals perceive the world as stacked against them; they believe they have little control over the negative events in their life.
Cognitive Theory.
________ theory holds that crime is a function of the conflict between the goals people have and the means they can use to obtain these goals legally.
Strain.
Which theory suggests that people gain knowledge of techniques and attitudes of crime from close and intimate relationships with criminal peers?
Social learning theory.
Which theory links crime rates to neighborhood ecological characteristics?
Social disorganization theory.
________ theory combines elements of strain and social disorganization theory to suggest that a unique lower class culture has developed in disorganized neighborhoods due to strain.
Cultural deviance.
The branch of the law that defines crimes and their punishment, and involves such issues as the mental and physical elements of crime, crime categories, and criminal defenses is:
Substantive criminal law.
________ is the set of rules governing relations between private parties, including both individuals and organizations, and is used to resolve, control, and shape such personal interactions as contracts, wills and trusts, property ownership, and commerce.
Civil law.
What is the evidentiary standard in the civil law system?
Proof beyond a preponderance of evidence
What is the earliest known written criminal law?
Code of Hammurabi.
Common law is based on the principle of ________ which means “to stand by decided cases”.
Stare Decisis.
In early English law, the rules of behavior in local villages were called what?
Common law.
Which of the following would be an example of a mala prohibitum crime?
A. Murder
B. Embezzlement
C. Burglary
D. Arson
Embezzlement.
Which of the following does not meet the definition of an ex post facto law?
A law that makes it possible to bring charges against someone in civil court for behavior that is also criminal.
Crimes are grouped into which of the following categories?
Felonies, Misdemeanors, and Violations
Which of the following terms refers to the deliberate and voluntary element of a crime?
Actus Reus.
Which of the following would be a strict liability offense?
Illegal dumping of hazardous waste.
Three months ago, Suzie and three of her friends were leaving a party. All parties had been drinking alcohol however Suzie volunteered to drive because she had the least to drink. On the way home, she lost control of her car, and two of her friends were killed in the wreck that ensued. The assistant district attorney assigned to try Suzie for the deaths of her two friends, decided to charge her with intoxicated manslaughter. Why did he not try her for murder, since after all, she did kill two people?
Despite the fact that the actus reus was present, Suzie lacked mens rea.
Under common law, there is generally a conclusive presumption of incapacity for a child under the age of:
7.
Which defense is a viable justification when the offender relies on an official statement of the law that is later deemed incorrect?
Ignorance or mistake.
Which of the following is not a justification defense?
Insanity.
A person undergoing treatment for a psychological disorder at the time of the crime could be judged as what?
Legally sane if he had the capacity to understand their actions.
The laws that require sex offenders to register with local authorities when they move into a neighborhood are termed:
Community notification laws.
Megan’s Law is an example of a recent change in the American Criminal Law. This law is intended to protect the public from:
Sexual predators.
The Fourth Amendment:
Bar illegal search and seizures.
The ________ Amendment provides that no state shall “deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law.”
Fourteenth.
The Fifth Amendment includes:
The right against self-incrimination.
Which amendment provides for the right to a speedy and public trial?
Sixth.
Which Amendment prohibits excessive bail?
Eighth.
Which of the following statements about the US Patriot Act is true?
The Act was modified in 2006 with provisions to limit surveillance and wiretap authorizations.
The concept of due process has been found in which two amendments?
The Fifth andFourteenth.