Intro to Sociology Final Exam

Sociological Imagination
C. Wright Mills defined this as the ability to identify and explain the connection between people’s personal troubles and the social structures in which they are embedded. Example: Recent graduates’ unemployment and the economy
Social Structures
Stable patterns of social relations. Examples: law systems, and caste systems
Symbolic Interaction
Theoretical tradition that deals with social interaction based on the shared meanings people attach to things.
Conflict Theory
Based on inequality, power, and class relations.
Functionalist Theory
theoretical perspective that views society as a set of related parts that work together to produce a stable social system
Examples of Force/Fraud
1.NYPD moving protestors out of Zucchati Park
2. Controlling media as a source of info distribution
3. Presenting distorted info from a “credible” source
4. Withholding vital information
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Examples of Culture
1. hair-style, NOT hair
2. vertical gardens
3. air pollution caused by automobiles
Culture is…
the entire human-made environment
The two faces of culture are…
1. freedom: Dec. of Human Rights is man-made; gives us freedoms
2. constraint: norms/values (because of pushback)
Two Questions of Post-Modernism
1. Who has authority
2. What is the truth?
Why are the Two Questions of Post-Modernism significant?
Because many different value systems compete for our attention because we are able to choose our own culture.
Symbolic Interationists are inclined to…
regard culture as a dependent variable
Socialization
process by which people learn their culture whilst entering into and disengaging from a succession of roles.
The part of personality that parents represent to us during our primary socialization is..
Superego
What is the looking-glass self?
Charles Horton Cooley;
you being reflected back to your parents and family; “social self”
Social Self – “I”
The subjective self
Social Self – “Me”
The objective self – the part of the self which becomes an object for oneself and others to “look at” and shape
Questions associated with the historical view of childhood socialization:
1. When did childhood emerge?
2. Is childhood now prolonged? Why?
3. Are adults absent from lives of their adolescent children?
4. Are young people socializing themselves through high-risk behaviors?
5. Has the outside world invaded the school environment?
Examples of total institutions:
Monastery, Marine Boot Camp, Prison
Social Interaction is structured around…
norms -generally accepted ways of doing things
statuses – social positions
roles – expected behaviors
Social cement for norms, statuses, and roles:
discussing, arguing, coming to an agreement, and voting
Erving Goffman claims that we are constantly…
engaged in role playing.
Role-playing allows us to…
establish a single stable identity.
Everyday interaction cannot take place without…
preexisting shared norms and understandings
When people interact they…
do NOT do so in a spontaneous or natural way, and are almost always attempting to manage the impression they make on others
Dramatergical Approach, Erving Goffman Approach
Analyzing social interactions as if the actors involved were performing roles on a stage
Great sociological puzzles of our time:
globalization; culture change, post-modernism, economics, politics, culture
Main Criticisms of Bureaucracy
1. They tend to dehumanize people
2. They become ritualistic
3. They tend to be run from the top (oligarchy)
4. They can product inertia (slow down)
If a group exists…
it follows that some people must not belong to it
One of the ongoing functions of groups is…
boundary maintenance
The way McDonald’s sells food is an example of
the societal processes of rationalization
Freudian Insights:
1. Our parents are the source of both love and control over us in childhood
2. We never get rid of our id impulses
3. Sex includes anything and everything that gives us bodily pleasure
Sociological view of interaction
Whenever people communicate face-to-face, norms, roles, and statuses structure their interaction
One can form a coalition with one against another in..
a triad, NOT a dyad.
social group
A collection of people who regularly interact with one another on the basis of shared expectations concerning behavior and who share a sense of common identity
Group boundaries crystallize when…
people compete for scarce resources
structural mobility
a shift in the social position of large numbers of people due more to changes in society itself than to individual efforts
globalization
The trend toward increased cultural and economic connectedness between people, businesses, and organizations throughout the world
Gini index
a mathematical formula that measures the amount of economic inequality in a society
modernization theory
a functionalist approach that proposes that modernization and development will gradually improve the lives of people in developing nations
The new global economy puts pressure on global companies to…
get rid of hierarchies and middle-level managerial positions
Wealth and income are the same thing. T/F?
False
Why does the text define middle class as between $20,000 and $99,999?
Because of vertical social mobility: Many middle-class Americans (within that bracket) often move up and down the stratification system drastically in their lifetime.
Which class has experienced the pain of economic restructuring the most?
The lower-middle/working class
True statements about global inequality:
1. 1/5 of world’s population lacks shelter and safe water
2. 1/3 is without electricity
3. 2/5 lacks adequate sanitation
4. richest 10% of Americans earn 10,000 times more than the poorest 10% of Ethiopians
5. There are about 27 million slaves in African countries
Davis and Moore believed social stratification was inevitable and necessary to…
motivate talented individuals to fill important positions in society.
Functional theory of stratification says that…
some of the most functionally important jobs in society are unpaid or low-paid
The sources of globalization are…
1. Technological progress
2. Political openness
3. New international division of labor
Has globalization opened up growing gaps between rich/poor countries/people?
Yes
Robinson Crusoe
believed that people get rich is they possess the virtues of good businessmen, and stay poor if they do not.
Swept Away
1. possible to be rich without hard work (inheritance)
2. you can work hard without getting rich
3. something about the structure of society causes inequality
Transnational corporations are…
increasingly autonomous from national governments
Homogenizing effect
Globalization is making the world look like the United States; McDonaldization
Symbolic Interactionists believe that..
people create their own social circumstances and negotiate their own identities.
regionalization
the process by which specific regions acquire characteristics that differentiate them from others within the same country
Did global inequality increase between 1975 and 2000?
yes
Dependency theory states that…
citizens of poor countries are poor because they lack sufficient capital to invest in western style agriculture and industry
Example of noneconomic dimension of class:
Music – Eminem vs. Beethoven
Clothing styles
Countries able to emerge from poverty…
1. have a colonial past that left them with industrial infrastructures
2. enjoy favorable geopolitical position
3. have socially cohesive populations
neoliberalism
A strategy for economic development that calls for free markets, balanced budgets, privatization, free trade, and minimal government intervention in the economy.
Four reforms for democratic globalization
1. offering stronger support for democracy in developing world
2. contributing more and better foreign aid
3. forgiving the debt owed by developing countries
4. eliminating tariffs that restrict exports from developing countries
Wal-Mart
Employs more people in the US than any country.
Mom and Pop Businesses vs. Wal-Mart
M&P businesses go out of business because they cannot compete with the low prices and brand diversity of Wal-Mart.