Intro to Sociology, Ch. 3 & 4

About how many adults in the United States speak a language other than English at home?
55 million
Cultural universals are elements of culture that:
are part of every known culture.
Standards by which people who share culture define what is desirable, good, and beautiful are called:
values.
The United States and Canada are both _______; however, Canadian culture is more _______ than U.S. culture.
multicultural; collectivist
The intangible world of ideas created by members of a society is referred to as:
nonmaterial culture.
Counterculture refers to:
cultural patterns that oppose those that are widely held.
The United States is the most _______ of all countries.
multicultural
What is the term for the application of cultural knowledge to the task of living in an environment?
technology
An act of kindness, such as opening the door for an elderly man, illustrates conforming to:
folkways.
Compared to college students of the late 1960s, more of today’s college students are concerned with:
making money.
Weber traced the origins of the capitalist economy in Europe to:
the Protestant Reformation.
Which of the following concepts was used by Durkheim to name a condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals?
anomie
When Weber used the concept “rationality,” he had in mind:
deliberate, matter-of-fact calculation of the most efficient way to accomplish any task.
Weber could see the advantages of industrial capitalism,
but he was pessimistic about the future.
The social standing of women and men in hunting and gathering societies is:
fairly equal, with men and women making a vital contribution to survival.
The Roman Empire at its peak power was what type of society?
agrarian
Of the following sociologists, which one was most interested in how society is divided?
Karl Marx
The first type of society to generate a material surplus is:
horticultural and pastoral.
According to Lenski, the term sociocultural evolution refers to:
changes that occur as a society acquires new technology.
Karl Marx used a philosophical approach called _____, Max Weber followed an approach called _____.
materialism; idealism