Intro to Psych Final

Nature vs. Nurture
The controversy over the relative contributions of genes and experience on psychological traits is known as the
Margaret Floy Washburn
The first woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology later wrote an influential book The Animal Mind. Her name was
Cognitive Neuroscience
The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with mental activities such as perception, memory, and language is called
Thought processes and brain functions
Cognitive neuroscience studies relationships between
Nature vs. Nature
Efforts to discover whether the intelligence of children is more heavily influenced by their biology or by their home environments are most directly relevant to the debate regarding
William James
Who was the American philosopher-psychologist who authored a textbook in 1890 for the emerging discipline of psychology?
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Behaviorism
The view that psychology should be an objective science that studies observable human activity without reference to mental processes is known as
Adaptive value of conscious thoughts and emotions
Functionalism was a school of psychology that focused attention on the
Observable behavior
From the 1920s into the 1960s, American psychologists emphasized the study of
Neuroscience
Which psychological perspective is most likely to examine how group membership influences individual attitudes and behaviors?
Developmental
Dr. Winkle conducts basic research on the systematic changes in intelligence associated with aging. It is most likely that Dr. Winkle is a(n) ________ psychologist.
Positive Psychology
To balance historic psychology’s focus on human problems and negative emotions, Martin Seligman called for the development of
Community Psychology
Which branch of psychology is most likely to study how social institutions affect the well-being of individuals and groups?
The experiment
Which of the following methods is most helpful for clarifying cause-effect relationships?
Operational definitions
Replication of a research study is most likely to be facilitated by
Vary together
Correlation is a measure of the extent to which two factors
Naturalistic observation
University of Texas students were fitted with belt-worn tape recorders for up to four days so that researchers could sample their daily activities. The researchers employed a scientific method known as
Critical thinking
When you question whether anecdotal evidence can be generalized to all people, you are applying
Wording effects
Surveys indicate that people are less likely to support “welfare” than “aid to the needy.” These somewhat paradoxical survey results best illustrate the importance of
Hindsight bias
Formulating testable hypotheses before conducting research is most directly useful for restraining a thinking error known as
The experiment
Which research method provides the best way of assessing whether cigarette smoking boosts mental alertness?
Curiosity, skepticism, and humility
Three key attitudes of scientific inquiry are
2
Approximately 95 percent of the cases represented by the normal curve fall within ________ standard deviation(s) from the mean.
Bar graph
The average price for different brands of toothpaste could be visually displayed in a
Discerning human similarities and differences
Studying people of all races and cultures is most helpful for
Positively correlated
If psychologists discovered that poor people are more satisfied with their marriages than wealthy people are, this would indicate that wealth and marital satisfaction are
Naturalistic observation
Professor Ober carefully observes and records the behaviors of children in their classrooms in order to track the development of their social and intellectual skills. Professor Ober is most clearly engaged in
Biological
A focus on the links between brain activity and behavior is most characteristic of psychologists who work from a ________ perspective.
Sensory cortex
Which part of your brain receives information that you are moving your legs?
Neurons
Dendrites are branching extensions of
Myelin sheath
The speed at which a neural impulse travels is increased when the axon is encased by a(n)
Cerebrum
The cerebral cortex is the covering layer of the
Playing his guitar
After Kato’s serious motorcycle accident, doctors detected damage to his cerebellum. Kato is most likely to have difficulty
Constraint-induced therapy
By restraining the use of his left hand, doctors helped Bruce to use and improve the coordination skills of his right hand. The doctors employed a technique known as
Cognitive neural prosthetics
Using a brain-computer interface, some paralyzed people may be able to move a robotic limb simply by thinking about moving it. This best illustrates
Endorphins
José has just played a long, bruising football game but feels little fatigue or discomfort. His lack of pain is most likely caused by the release of
Positively charged ions are pumped back outside a neural membrane
With regard to the process of neural transmission, a refractory period refers to a time interval in which
Brainstem
The reticular formation is located in the
Amygdala
To demonstrate that brain stimulation can make a rat violently aggressive, a neuroscientist should electrically stimulate the rat’s
Phrenologist
The person most likely to suggest that the shape of a person’s skull indicates the extent to which that individual is argumentative and aggressive would be a
Sympathetic nervous system
You come home one night to find a burglar in your house. Your heart starts racing and you begin to perspire. These physical reactions are triggered by the
Pychoactive
Chemical substances that alter perceptions and moods are called ________ drugs.
Increase, decrease
Traffic accident rates have been found to ________ after the spring change to daylight savings time and to ________ after the fall change back to standard time.
90 minutes
The human sleep cycle repeats itself about every
Physical dependence
Physical pain and intense cravings indicate
Sleep
A periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness that involves distinct stages is known as
Drink a glass of wine 15 minutes before bedtime
Which of the following is bad advice for a person trying to overcome insomnia?
Blindsight
A condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it is known as
REM sleep
Evidence suggests that we consolidate our memories of recent life events through
A biopsychosocial approach
Professor Smith emphasizes that gender similarities and differences are products of a continuous interplay among genetically predisposed traits, culturally shaped roles, and personally constructed expectations and assumptions. The professor’s emphasis best illustrates
Children are more likely to be valued by their biological fathers than by their stepfathers
Evolutionary psychologists would be most likely to predict that
Natural selection
Evolutionary psychology studies the evolution of behavior and the mind using principles of
Molecule
DNA is a complex
Reproductive success
Evolutionary psychologists are most likely to emphasize that human adaptiveness to a variety of different environments has contributed to human
Gender typing
Migdalia insists on wearing very feminine-looking outfits because she wants to be treated like a woman. This best illustrates the impact of
A fearful temperament
One form of a gene that regulates the neurotransmitter serotonin contributes to the development of
Increase in the incidence of depression and an increase in work hours
Since 1960, Americans have experienced a(n)
Role
Behaviors expected of those who occupy a particular social position define a
Teens
Men in their ________ are most likely to be sexually attracted to women who are several years older rather than several years younger than themselves.
Molecular geneticist
Assessing possible links between specific chromosome segments and alcohol dependence would be of greatest interest to a(n)
Individualism
A willingness to switch jobs and move from one part of the country to another best illustrates one of the consequences of
Person-to-person differences within cultural groups are larger than differences between groups
Cross-cultural research on human development indicates that
Form a lifelong attitude of trust toward the world
Marlys is a sensitive, responsive parent who consistently satisfies the needs of Sara, her infant daughter. According to Erikson, Sara is likely to
Social mentoring
Piaget emphasized how the child’s mind grows through interaction with the physical environment. Vygotsky emphasized how the child’s mind grows through
Alzheimer’s disease
During the last few years, 75-year-old Mrs. Yamaguchi has gradually become so mentally disoriented that she can’t find her way around her own house and often fails to recognize her husband. It is most likely that Mrs. Yamaguchi is suffering the effects of
Stability and change
The fact that many happy and well-adjusted adults were once rebellious and unhappy as adolescents is most relevant to the issue of
Ratio of positive to negative interactions with each other
The best predictor of a couple’s marital satisfaction is the
Human infants do not have well-defined critical periods for the formation of a mother-infant attachment
Carol is distressed because post-childbirth complications prevented her from being in close physical contact with her child during its first few hours of life. Carol should be told that
Peer relationships
In teen calls to hotline counseling services, the most discussed topic is
10 and 30
When asked to recall the one or two most important events over the last half century, older adults tend to name events that occurred when they were between ________ years of age.
They become increasingly prone to car accidents
Research on older people has shown that
Adolescent
According to Erikson, achieving a sense of identity is the special task of the
Menarche
Puberty is most closely related to the onset of
Those who express the strongest grief immediately do not purge their grief more quickly
During the time following the death of a loved one
A death-deferral phenomenon
In one 15-year period, more Americans died on the two days after Christmas than on the two days before Christmas. It has been suggested that this illustrates
The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
Cognition refers to
Mental operation
According to Piaget, imagining an action and mentally reversing it would be an example of a
Underestimated the cognitive capacities of infants
Infants accustomed to a puppet jumping three times on stage show surprise if the puppet jumps only twice. This suggests that Piaget
Secure attachment
Providing children with a safe haven in times of stress contributes most directly to
None of these feelings or events
Researchers have discovered that the midlife transition between early and middle adulthood is characterized by unusually high levels of
Adolescence
According to Erikson, trust is to infancy as identity is to
Have the most intimate relationships with girlfriends
Research indicates that the high school girls who have the most affectionate relationships with their mothers also tend to
The difficulty perceiving things from another person’s point of view
According to Piaget, egocentrism refers to
A decline in recall but not in recognition
When adults of varying ages were tested for their memory of a recently learned list of 24 words, the older adults demonstrated
Embodied cognition
When put in a foul-smelling rather than a pleasant-smelling room, people expressed harsher judgments of immoral acts such as lying. This best illustrates the importance of
High-pitched sounds is associated with large vibrations of the basilar membrane closest to the oval window
According to place theory, the perception of
Below one’s absolute threshold for awareness
A subliminal message is one that is presented
Bitter, sweet, sour, salty
Our sense of taste was once thought to involve only the following four sensations
Mirror neurons
Psychologists are currently debating whether our physical capacity for mentally simulating the observed behavior of others is due to specialized
Operant conditioning
Shaping is a(n) ________ procedure.
Classical conditioning
An organism learns associations between events it does not control during the process of
Instinctive drift
Animals tend to revert from newly learned habits to their biologically predisposed behaviors. This is an example of
Generalization
Toddlers taught to fear speeding cars may also begin to fear speeding trucks and motorcycles. This best illustrates
Fixed-interval
An executive in a computer software firm works with his office door closed. At the same time every hour he opens the door to see what his employees are doing. The employees have learned to work especially hard during the five minutes before and while the door is open. Their work pattern is typical of responses that are reinforced on a ________ schedule.
Punishment
Myron quit gambling after he lost over a thousand dollars betting on horse races. This best illustrates the effects of
Negative
Mason, a stockbroker, runs two miles every day after work because it reduces his level of stress. Mason’s running habit is maintained by a ________ reinforcer.
Acquiring new information or relatively enduring behaviors
Psychologists define learning as the process of
CS; US
Extinction occurs when a ________ is no longer paired with a ________.
Variable-ratio
Asking women for dates is most likely to be reinforced on a ________ schedule.
Continuous reinforcement followed by partial reinforcement
A response is learned most rapidly and is most resistant to extinction if it is acquired under conditions of
Classical conditioning
A learned association between two stimuli is central to
Generalization
After learning to fear a white rat, Little Albert responded with fear to the sight of a rabbit. This best illustrates the process of
Spontaneous recovery
The reappearance, after a time lapse, of an extinguished CR is called
Discrimination
Learning that some responses, but not others, will be reinforced is called
Interference
People should avoid back-to-back study times for learning Spanish and French vocabulary in order to minimize
Sensory
An iconic memory is a ________ memory.
Effortful processing
The use of mnemonics such as the peg-word system illustrates
Amygdala
Stress hormones provoke the ________ to initiate a memory trace in the frontal lobes and basal ganglia.
Retroactive interference
Memory of your familiar old e-mail password may block the recall of your new password. This illustrates
Memory consolidation
Removing a rat’s hippocampus 48 hours after it learns the location of some tasty food does not prevent it from forming a long-term memory of where the food is located. This best illustrates the importance of
Retrieval cues
Memories are primed by
Retention; acquisition
Storage is to encoding as ________ is to ________.
Infantile amnesia
A lack of conscious memories of your first three years of life best illustrates
Flashbulb
Joshua vividly recalls his feelings and what he was doing at the exact moment when he heard of his grandfather’s unexpected death. This best illustrates ________ memory.
Effortful processing
Encoding that requires attention and conscious awareness is called
Encoding failure
Our inability to remember information presented in the seconds just before we fall asleep is most likely due to
The spacing effect
By consciously rehearsing facts you need to learn in many separate study sessions occurring throughout the semester, you are most clearly taking advantage of
Recognition
Which measure of memory is used on a test that requires matching glossary terms with their correct definitions?
The availability heuristic
Dean overestimates the proportion of family chores for which he takes sole responsibility because it’s easier for him to recall what he has done than to recall what other family members have done. This best illustrates the impact of
Syntax
To combine words into grammatically sensible sentences, we need to apply proper rules of
4; 2
The word “cats” contains ________ phoneme(s) and ________ morpheme(s).
Underestimate the extent to which our beliefs and judgments are inaccurate
The overconfidence phenomenon refers to the tendency to
Aphasia
An impairment of language is known as
Temporal
Wernicke’s area is typically located in the left ________ lobe.
Universal grammar
Noam Chomsky suggested that all human languages share a(n)
Insight
After spending two hours trying to solve an engineering problem, Amira finally gave up. As she was trying to fall asleep that night, a solution to the problem popped into her head. Amira’s experience best illustrates
Aptitude
A test of your capacity to learn to be an automobile mechanic would be considered a(n) ________ test.
Require less energy to solve problems than the average person
Brain scans indicate that smart people
Mental age divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100
For the original version of the Stanford-Binet, IQ was defined as
Grammar test
Girls are most likely to outperform boys in a
8
Howard Gardner identified a total of ________ intelligences.
Longitudinal study
The same people are tested and retested over a period of years in a(n)
Normal curve
The distribution of intelligence test scores in the general population forms a bell-shaped pattern. This pattern is called a
A general intelligence that underlies successful performance on a wide variety of tasks
Spearman’s g factor refers to
6
Five-year-old Benjy has an IQ of 120 on the original version of the Stanford-Binet. His mental age is
Emotional intelligence
The ability to delay immediate pleasures in pursuit of long-range rewards is most clearly a characteristic of
Identify children likely to have difficulty learning in regular school classes
Binet and Simon designed a test of intellectual abilities in order to
Cannon-Bard theory
According to the ________, you would be able to experience emotion even without sympathetic nervous system arousal.
cognitive label; physical arousal
According to the two-factor theory, the two basic components of emotions are ________ and ________.
Are more likely to declare the innocent guilty than to declare the guilty innocent
Research on the accuracy of lie detector tests suggests that they
Insula
A deep neural center activated when people smell some disgusting food or when they feel moral disgust in response to a perceived injustice is called the
The facial feedback effect
The tendency of facial muscle states to trigger corresponding feelings such as fear or happiness is called
Guilty knowledge test
A polygraph examination of a suspected murderer included an assessment of his reaction to a detailed description of the victim’s clothing and death wounds—details that would be known only to a person at the scene of the crime. The investigators were using the
Reduced immune responses
A loss of perceived control tends to result in
Type A
Friedman and Rosenman referred to competitive, hard-driving, impatient, and easily angered individuals as ________ personalities.
Tendency for standards of judgement to be heavily influenced by previous experiences
The adaptation-level phenomenon refers to the
Sleeping difficulties
Two-thirds of Americans responding to surveys taken in the three weeks after the 9/11 terrorist attacks reported
Coronary Heart Disease
Depression increases the risk of death, especially death from
Lowering blood pressure
Social support helps to promote cardiovascular health by
Strong superego
No matter how long and hard Lerae studies, she always feels she hasn’t studied as much as she should have. A Freudian psychologist would suggest that Lerae shows signs of a
Rationalization
The defense mechanism in which self-justifying explanations replace the real, unconscious reasons for actions is
Overestimate; overestimate
If we are nervous about our personal appearance after adopting a new hairstyle, we are likely to ________ the extent to which others notice our nervousness and we are likely to ________ the extent to which they notice our new hairstyle.
Psychodynamic
Projective tests are most closely associated with ________ theories.
Openness
Unlike country, pop, and religious music lovers, those who prefer classical, jazz, blues, and folk music tend to score high on the Big Five trait dimension known as
Criticize others
A person whose self-esteem is momentarily threatened is especially likely to
Learned helplessness
After experiencing inescapable brutalities as a prisoner in a Nazi concentration camp, Mr. Sternberg became apathetic, stopped eating, and gave up all efforts to physically survive the ordeal. Mr. Sternberg’s reaction most clearly illustrates
Fixation
According to Freud, an adult who exhibits biting sarcasm and an exaggerated denial of his or her dependence on others shows signs of a(n)
MMPI
Dr. Zytowics wants to assess the extent to which a client is suffering from depression, social withdrawal, and other symptoms of an emotional disorder. Which personality inventory would be most helpful for this purpose?
Personality traits
Factor analysis has been used to identify the most basic
more; less
Those with an internal locus of control act ________ independently and feel ________ depressed than those with an external locus of control.
Selectively studied people with qualities he admired
Maslow’s description of self-actualized individuals was said to reflect his own personal values because he
Free association
A psychotherapist instructs Dane to relax, close his eyes, and state aloud whatever thoughts come to mind no matter how trivial or absurd. The therapist is using a technique known as
Self-control
The ability to delay short-term gratification for greater long-term rewards illustrates
Unlearned instinct
The fact that human aggression varies widely from culture to culture most strongly suggests that it is NOT
Reinforcement
Animals that have successfully fought to get food or mates become increasingly ferocious. This best illustrates that aggression is influenced by
Role playing aggression
In contrast to watching violence on television, participating in violent video games involves
Deliver electric shocks to a learner for giving the wrong answers
Participants in the Milgram obedience studies were ordered to
Be perceived as more socially skilled
Svetlana, a 20-year-old undergraduate, is beautiful. Research suggests that she is likely to ________ than less attractive women.
She easily recalls her negative feelings about shoplifting
Vanna is tempted to shoplift a gold necklace even though she has negative feelings about shoplifting. Vanna is LEAST likely to steal the merchandise if
Lower divorce rates and consider passionate love as less important for marriage
Which of the following is true of non-Western cultures, as compared with Western cultures? They have
A provocation
Jason was fouled by an unfamiliar opponent during a basketball game at a neighborhood park. His consumption of alcohol prior to the game is most likely to lead him to interpret the foul as
Even when the group judgement was clearly incorrect
Solomon Asch reported that individuals conformed to a group’s judgment of the lengths of lines
Equity, self-disclosure, and positive support
Three keys to an enduring compassionate love include
Social psychology
Which branch of psychology is most directly concerned with the study of how people think about influence, and relate to one another?
Explicit and implicit attitudes
At a conscious level, Aaron doesn’t think he’s prejudiced. Yet he automatically feels uncomfortable in situations where he has to interact with people of different races from his own. Aaron’s experience best illustrates the distinction between
You know you would feel terribly guilty for refusing their request
Two classmates ask you to spend a couple of hours helping them prepare for a chemistry test. According to social exchange theory, you would be most likely to help them if
They perceive their orders to come from legitimate authority figures
In 1942, German reserve police officers obeyed orders to kill some 1500 Jews in the village of Jozefow, Poland. This incident illustrated that people are most likely to be destructively obedient when
A loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that fosters arousal and anonymity
Deindividuation refers to
The bystander effect
When 12-year-old Jamilah saw an old man lying on the sidewalk, he prepared to offer help. But when he noticed several adults walk past the man, he concluded that the man did not need any help. His reaction most clearly illustrates one of the dynamics involved in
Frustration
According to the scapegoat theory, prejudice is likely to result from
Situational influences; personal dispositions
The fundamental attribution error refers to our tendency to underestimate the impact of ________ and to overestimate the impact of ________ in explaining the behavior of others.
Stimulus generalization
A person attacked by a fierce dog develops a fear of all dogs. This best illustrates
Persistent and distressing
Anxiety is considered disordered if it is
Preventing her from functioning effectively
Alexis is socially withdrawn and has few close friends. This behavior is most likely to be diagnosed as a symptom of psychological disorder if it is
Bulimia nervosa
Twenty-two-year-old Tawana is slightly overweight and loves to eat, particularly snack foods and rich desserts. Fearful of becoming overweight, she frequently takes a laxative following episodes of binge eating. Tawana most clearly suffers from
Schizophrenia
Some psychological disorders occur primarily in one culture. However, ________ occurs worldwide.
Phobia
Kaylee is so afraid of spiders and insects that she avoids most outdoor activities and even refuses to go to the basement of her own house alone. Kaylee appears to suffer from
A lack of guilt feelings
Antisocial personality disorder is most likely to be characterized by
Schizophrenia
Danes born in densely populated areas have been found to be at increased risk for
Learning
Melissa is fearful of men and refuses to go out on dates. Her therapist suggests that she is fearful because she was sexually abused by her father when she was young. The therapist’s suggestion most clearly reflects a ________ perspective.
Deviant
Ongoing patterns of behavior that are different from those of most other people in your culture are best characterized as
Biological
It has been suggested that compulsive acts typically exaggerate behaviors that contributed to the survival of the human species. This idea best illustrates the ________ perspective.
Classical conditioning
Rats that received unpredictable electric shocks in a laboratory experiment subsequently became apprehensive when returned to that same laboratory setting. This best illustrates that anxiety disorders may result from
Abnormally large and the thalamus is abnormally small
Among schizophrenia patients, the fluid-filled areas of the brain are
Limbic system
Some people are more vulnerable to PTSD because they have a sensitive ________, which floods the body with stress hormones.
Schizophrenia
In which type of disorder is a person’s speech likely to be so full of unrelated words and phrases that it could be characterized as a “word salad”?
The therapeutic alliance
Researchers have found that matching Asian-American clients with counselors who share their cultural values facilitates
Become aware of their repressed conflicts and impulses
Psychoanalytic techniques are designed primarily to help patients
Psychodynamic theories
Principles derived from psychologists’ understanding of classical conditioning have most directly influenced the development of
Cognitive behavioral therapy
Dr. Jackson reinforces depressed patients for their participation in pleasant activities and trains them to take increasingly more credit for the rewards they gain from engaging in those activities. Dr. Jackson’s treatment approach best illustrates