Intro to Political Science CH 1-3

politics
Who gets what, when, and how; a process of determining how power and resources are distributed in a society without resorting to violence.
power
the ability to get other people to do what you want.
– significant to politics because politics is centered around who gets power and how they get it.
social order
the way we organize and live our collective lives.
-significant to politics because politics is all about who gets the power, which in turn gives them the ability to say how people live.
legitimate
accepted as right or proper
government
a system or organization for exercising authority over a body of people
-significant to politics because this authority is power, which is the center point of politics, and if that authority changes, so does the political system
authority
power that is recognized as legitimate
rules
directives that specify how resources will be distributed or what procedures govern collective activity
-significant to politics because the rules are the “how they get it” and also frequently the What
institutions
organizations in which governmental power is exercised
-politically significant because institutions are the Where, the places in which people get what they want. i.e. congress, the Presidency, the courts.
economics
production and distribution of a society’s material resources and services.
-politically significant because if you control the production of a mass needed good, then you hold a lot of power which is the center of politics.
capitalist economy
an economic system in which the market determines production, distribution, and price decisions, and property is privately owned.
-politically significant because in this scenario the people hold all the power. They’re the ones who get “what” and they get it easily because of this system. They do not trust their government, and so this a one-sided political system.
laissez-faire capitalism
an economic system in which the market makes all decisions and the government plays no role.
-politically significant because on this scenario the government has no control. The basically hold all the power, meaning they run rampant and take what they want. There are no real examples because this is not plausible. There is no real political system.
regulated capitalism
a market system in which the government intervenes to protect rights and make procedural guarantees.
-politically significant because this is the system of our own country. The people and the government share the power, and for the most part, people view this as a fair compromise.
procedural guarantees
government assurance that the rules will work smoothly and treat everyone fairly with no promise of particular outcomes.
-politically significant because these guarantees are what the people want, and if the government doesn’t uphold them people get angry and it would disturb the political system.
socialist economy
an economic system in which the state determines production, distribution, and price decisions, and property is government owned.
-politically significant because in this scenario the government holds all the power. The people are more looked at as subjects than actual citizens because everything about their life is controlled. example: North Korea
substantive guarentees
government assurance of particular outcomes or results
-politically significant because this is the What people or the government get but they do not care how they get it, only that they do. This could get pretty politically ugly due to greediness
social democracy
a hybrid system combining a capitalist economy that supports equality
_politically significant because this is sort of the middle ground between socialist and capitalist systems. The government doesn’t have too much more or not enough.
authoritarian governments
system in which the state holds all power over the social order
-politically significant because politics is centered around who holds the power. In this case it is the state and the people are viewed as subjects rather than actual citizens.
totalitarian
a system in which absolute power is exercised over every aspect of life.
-politically significant because this system exercises its power over every aspect of life- economic, social, political, and moral- the individuals are subjects and have no say in who gets what.
authoritarian capitalism
a system in which that state allows people economic freedom but maintains stringent social regulations to limit noneconomic behavior
-politically significant because in this case people economically have freedom but socially, the government controls them.
anarchy
the absence of government and laws
-politically significant because the people have all the freedom. They can take and do whatever they want, which would cause extreme chaos and violence.
democracy
government that vests power in the people
-politically significant because in this system democracies try to maximize freedom for individuals and provide procedural guarantees to preserve their rights.
elite democracy
a theory of democracy that limits the citizens role to choosing among competing leaders
politically significant because this system allows people to feel as if they are making a difference in order to keep them active in their politics, otherwise it would not work.
pluralist democracy
a theory of democracy that holds that citizen membership in groups is the key to political power
participatory democracy
a theory of democracy that holds that citizens should actively and directly control all aspects of their lives
advanced industrial democracy
a system in which a democratic government allows citizens a considerable amount of personal freedom and maintains a free market (though still usually regulated) economy
communist democracy
a utopian system in which property is communally owned and all decisions are made democratically
subjects
individuals who are obliged to submit to a government authority against which they have no rights
citizens
members of a political community with both rights and responsibilities
divine right of kings
the principle that earthly rulers receive their authority from god
social contract
the notion that society is based on an agreement between government and the governed in which people agree to give up some rights in exchange for the protection of others
republic
a government in which decisions are made through representatives of the people
immigrants
citizens or subjects of one country who moves to another country to live or work
naturalization
the legal process of acquiring citizenship for someone who has not acquired it by birth
asylum
protection or sanctuary, especially from political persecution
refugees
individuals who flee an area or a country because of persecution on the basis of race, nationality, religion, group membership, or political opinion
political culture
the broad pattern of ideas, beliefs, and values about citizens and government held by a population
values
central ideas, principles, or standards that most people agree are important
normative
describes beliefs or values about how things should be or what people ought to do rather than what actually is
individualism
belief that what is good for society is based on what is good for individuals
ideologies
sets of beliefs about politics and society that help people make sense of their world
conservatives
people who generally favor limited government action and view change as progress
economic liberals
those who favor an expanded government but a limited role in the social order
economic conservatives
those who favor a strictly procedural government role in the economy and the social order
libertarians
those who favor a minimal government role in any sphere
social liberals
those who favor greater control of the economy and the social order to bring about greater equality and to regulate the effects of progress
communitarians
those who favor a strong, substantive government role in the economy and theistical order so that their vision of a community of equals may be realized
social conservatives
those who endorse limited government control of the economy but considerable government intervention to realize a traditional social order; based on religious values and hierarchy rather than equality
feudalism
a social system in which a rigid social and political hierarchy was based on the ownership of land
slavery
the ownership, for forced labor, of one people by another
French and Indian War
a war fought between France and England, and allied Indians, from 1754 to 1763; resulted in France’s expulsion from the New World
popular sovereignty
the concept that the citizens are the ultimate source of political power
Common Sense
1776 pamphlet by Thomas Paine that persuaded many Americans to support the Revolutionary cause
Declaration of Independence
the political document that dissolved the colonial ties between the United States and Britain
constitution
the rules that establish a governement
Articles of Confederation
the first constitution of the United States (1777) creating an association of states with weak central government
confederation
a government in which independent states unite for common purpose but retain their own sovereignty
popular tyranny
the unrestrained power of the people
Shay’s Rebellion
a grassroots uprising (1787) by armed Massachusetts farmers protesting foreclosures
Constitutional Convention
the assembly of fifty-five delegates in the summer of 1787 to recast the Articles of Confederation; the result was the U.S. Constitution
federalism
a political system in which power is divided between the central and regional units
Federalists
supporters of the Constitution who favored a strong central government
Anti-Federalists
advocates of states’ rights who opposed the Constitution
Virginia Plan
a proposal at the Constitutional Convention that congressional representation be based on population, thus favoring the large states
New Jersey Plan
a proposal at the Constitutional Convention that congressional representation be equal, thus favoring the small states
Great Compromise
the constitutional solution to congressional representation; equal votes in the Senate, votes by population in the house
Three-Fifths Compromise
the formula for counting five slaves as three people for purposes of representation, which reconciled northern and southern factions at the Constitutional Convention
ratification
the process through which a proposal is formally approved and adopted by vote
The Federalists Papers
a series of essays written to build support for ratification of the Constitution
factions
groups of citizens united by some common passion of interest and opposed to the right of other citizens or to the interests of the whole community
Bill of Rights
a summary of citizen rights guaranteed and protected by a government; added to the Constitution as its first ten amendments in order to achieve ratification