Intro To Film 8-10

a kind of literary or artistic work
Film Genre
A set of conventions and formulas, repeated and developed through film history, which organize and categorize films according to repeated subjects, icons, and styles.
What Makes A Genre
Different degrees
Typically, we think of a genre as consisting of clear, core cases, however, fuzzier examples exist
subcategories of media content genres,to distinct and fairly long-lasting types
The Usefulness of Genre Categories
Conventions of story
behavior of character
Conventions of style
Center on plot patterns. Broad meanings that summoned again and again. Stylistic patterns-techniques that would be jarring in one genre may become common in another.
Plot patterns
change in knowledge
goal oriented plots: like investigations
Genre Iconography
recurring symbolic images that carry meaning from film to film
Genre History
A cycle is a batch of related genre films that enjoys intense popularity and influence over a fairly short period
Genres and Cycles
A genre inevitably passes from a phase of maturity to one of parody, when it begins to mock its own conventions
Genre Mixing
– The combination of genres to achieve a new effect. Examples of genre mixing include The Office, The Swan, The Daily Show with John Stewart, Cowboys and Aliens
a television combination of the elements of drama and comedy
a comedy with serious elements or overtones
another name for ceremonies or rites
mixed feelings or emotions
Genres as Social Reflection
The hypothesis is that genre conventions, repeated from film to film, reflected the audience’s persuasive doubts and anxieties
Genre Innovations
• Problem of generic repetition= risk of bored audience
o They want the familiar, but don’t want the same thing over and over again
o RESULT: interplay between imitation & innovation to add difference
• Imitation: follow established codes & conventions
• Innovation: deviate from generic codes & conventions
different points in history, stories, themes, values or imagery harmonize with social attitudes.
3 Genres
The Western, The Horror Film, The Musical
The Western
The central theme of the genre became the conflict between civilized order and the lawless frontier
The Horror Film
Most recognizable by the emotional effect it tries to arouse
It aims to shock, disgust, and repel
Emotional effect
created by a character convention: a menacing unnatural monster
Thematic pattern
plays on fears about the environment
The Musical
Came into being in response to a technological innovation
Devised plots that could motivate the introduction of musical numbers
Two subgenres
Backstage musical
Straight musical
Backstage Musical
musical film where each song and dance number narratively motivated by plot
Straight Musical
everyday situation where people just start singing.
a film or TV program presenting the facts about a person or event
Stage Events
in covering those events that are unusual or involve conflict, the media will furnish some rationale for the story, and the rationale may at least partially explain the agitators’ ideology.
Staging Events for the Camera
Unreliable if it manipulates the events that are filmed… w/o scripting or staging
Truth and Opinion in Documentary
Factually trustworthy, but have been challenged as inaccurate
Inconvenient Truth
Weak arguments or skewed data does not turn it into a fiction film.Takes a stand, state an opinion, or advocate a solution to a problem
Fictional Film
a movie that tells an untrue story
Blurring the Boundaries
Test our ability to distinguish documentary from fiction
Fake documentaries
Compilation film
produced by assembling images from archival sources
interview or talking-heads
records testimony about events or social movements
characteristically records an ongoing event as it happens, with minimal interference by the filmmaker
centers on aspects of the life of a compelling person
Narrative structure
a textual organization based on sequences of connected events, usually presented in a straightforward, chronological framework
Non-narrative structure
–Retrograde (reversely)
Categorical form
categorized formal pattern
Rhetorical form
an argument that will convince the spectator of something
Avant Garde
a group active in the invention and application of new techniques in a given field, especially in the arts
someone who refuses to conform to established standards of conduct
Found-footage films
Scavenged works. relies on editing, express distinct feelings or ideas through staging.
Abstract Form
Organize a film around colors, shapes, sizes, and movements in the images
The whole film’s patterning will be determined by such qualities
Associational Form
Suggests ideas/emotions to the viewer by assembling images and sounds that may not have any logical connection
general activity and motion Create a series of images by shooting one frame at a time
Between the exposure of each frame, the animator changes the subject being photographed
process allowed animators to save time and to split up the labor among assembly lines of people doing drawing, coloring, photography, and other jobs
a part that is cut out or is intended to be cut out
a form of single-frame animation in which three-dimensional objects, often people, are made to move in staccato bursts through the use of stop-action cinematography
Clay animation
claymation can involve modeling clay or plasticine is used sine it is less messy and available in a wider range of colors. they create objects with plasticine and then presses plasticine to change it slightly between exposures. Example: wallace and gromit
is a type of animation made by taking photos of clay characters, moving the characters slightly between each shot.
bends, twists, or stretches between exposures
Computer Animation
All images, objects and animation are created on the computer.
Typically uses 3-D images. It adds two steps to the animation process.
CGI(computer-generated imagery)
the application of the field of computer graphics to special effects
3D computer animation
Digitally generated series of images that imitate the rounded look of people, puppets, or models ( not to be confused with stereoscopic 3D images viewed through glasses).Toy Story
2D computer animation
Digitally generated series of images that give the appearance of flat drawings or paintings. Prince of Egypt.
Analyzing Style
Step 1: Determine the Organizational Structure

Step 2: Identify the Salient Techniques Used

Step 3: Trace Out Patterns of Techniques

Step 4: Propose Functions for the Salient Techniques and the Patterns They Form

Film Form
The overall system of relations that we can perceive among the elements in the whole film
Primary Techniques
return the body to a state of ease and balance by eliminating the uneven pulls on the skeleton caused by contracted muscles and constricted fascia
a customary way of operation or behavior
the act of observing
the act of hearing attentively
Decision Making
the cognitive process of reaching a decision
Creative Decisions
Identify product benefits
Develop and evaluate advertising appeals
Execute the message
Evaluate the campaign’s effectiveness
Whip Pan
Panning the camera so rapidly across a scene that the image blurs on the screen. Also called a flash, zip or swish pan.