Intro to Engineering & Design – EOC Study Guide

Unit 1: Design Process
19% of final
1. How might we create the best possible solution to a problem?
-think outside the box
-solve new problems or find ways to improve current solutions.
2. What is the most effective way to generate potential solutions to a problem?
-Brainstorming with a group
-testing possible solutions
3. What is an engineer? What types of work do they do?
-application of mathematics and scientific principles to better or improve life
-person who is trained in and uses technological and scientific knowledge to solve practical problems.
-Research, Develop, Design, Supervise, Manage, Production and Construction, Operations, Plant management, and Sales,
4. Why keep an engineering notebook?
-used as a legal document that is used to patent activities such as to…
a. Prove the origin of an idea that led to a solution
b. Prove when events or ideas occurred
c. Prove diligence in turning the idea into a solution
d. Prove when an idea became a working solution (“reduced to practice”)
5. What are the four best practices for the engineering notebook?
a. Be Neat,
b. be Accurate,
c. be Legible,
d. be Thorough.
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6. Explain the concept of proportion. How does proportion relate to creating a realistic sketch?
-underlying basic shapes and the relative proportions of various features of the object -more accurately reflect the true shapes and proportions of the object in your sketch.
7. Why would the ability to create realistic sketches make someone a more competent designer?
-Representing existing objects and new ideas with sketches
-makes the design process more effective and efficient and greatly enhance the ability of others to understand your ideas.
-communicate their ideas more clearly.
8. What is the purpose of sketching your ideas?
quickly & clearly communicate ideas
9. Define and differentiate between invention and innovation.
Invention: A new product, system, or process that has never existed before, created by study and experimentation.
Innovation: An improvement of an existing technological product, system, or method of doing something.
10. Define the following words:
Unit 1 definitions
group technique for solving problems, generating ideas, stimulating creative thinking, etc. by unrestrained spontaneous participation in discussion
-limit to a design process.
-appearance, funding, space, materials, and human capabilities
-OR limitation or restriction.
-iterative decision-making process that produces plans by which resources are converted into products or systems that meet human needs and wants or solve problems.
-plan or drawing produced to show the look and function or workings of something before it is built or made.
-decorative pattern.
-written plan that identifies a problem to be solved, its criteria, and its constraints
-used to encourage thinking of all aspects of a problem before attempting a solution.
design brief
part of a design brief that challenges the designer, describes what a design solution should do without describing how to solve the problem, and identifies the degree to which the solution must be executed.
design statement
book in which an engineer will formally document, in chronological order, all of his/her work that is associated with a specific design project.
engineering notebook
full-scale working model used to test a design concept by making actual observations and necessary adjustments.
prototype 1
systematic study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.
Describe the order of the Design Process.
define problem, generate concepts, develop solution, construct & test prototype, evaluate solution, present solution
Describe each step of the Design Process.
define the problem, come up with ideas, put together your ideas to create a solution, construct your prototype, evaluate your solution, present solution
Civil engineer
works on buildings and roads, infrastructure
Electrical Engineer
works with the flow of and control of electricity, new products such as computers, etc.
Mechanical Engineer
works on machinery and materials and equipment with moving parts
Aeronautical Engineer
might work for Boeing making and improving aircraft and aircraft systems
Agricultural Engineering
works on improving the infrastructure that supplies our food
Architectural Engineer
designs and builds buildings, housing and city developments, such as city centers, shopping malls, etc.
Biomedical engineer
designs devices that deliver medicine to the body, the materials that interact with the body during medical procedures.
Mechanical Engineeer
builds machines
Industrial Engineer
works to improve factory/manufacturing systems
Chemical Engineer
works with chemicals and chemical reactions to create new products
Unit 2: Technical Sketching & Drawing // 12%
13. What is the representation of light & shade on a sketch or map?
tonal shading
14. Match the words to the proper definition.
unit 2 definitions
a. A line which defines the center of arcs, circles, or symmetrical parts
center line
a. Line which represents where a dimension starts and stops.
extension line
a. A line which represents distance
dimension line
a. A heavy solid line used on a drawing to represent the outline of an object.
object line
a. Line lightly drawn lines to guide drawing other lines and shapes.
construction line
a. A line type that represents an edge that is not directly visible.
hidden line
a. A method of representing three-dimensional objects on a plane having only length and breadth. Also referred to as Right Angle Projection
Orthographic Projection
a. Line which indicates dimensions of arcs, circles and detail.
leader line
a. Oblique pictorial where depth is represented as half scale compared to the height and width scale.
cabinet pictorial
a. Oblique pictorial where height, width, and depth are represented at full scale.
cavalier pictorial
a. A sketch that shows an object’s height, width, and depth in a single view
pictorial view
a. A form of pictorial sketch in which all three drawing axes form equal angles of 120 degrees with the plane of projection.
isometric sketch
a. A drawing which contains views of an object projected onto two or more orthographic planes.
multiview drawing
a. A form of pictorial in which an object is represented as true width and height, but the depth can be any size and drawn at any angle.
oblique sketch
15. What are the 3 spatial Dimensions?
height, width, depth
16. What is a method of representing three-dimensional objects on a plane?
orthographic projection
17. What is a drawing which contains view of an object projected onto two or more orthographic planes?
multi view drawing
18. What is a drawing that is used to show the material, size & shape of a product for manufacturing?
technical working drawing
Unit 3: Measurement & Statistics
13% of final exam
19. What is the degree of closeness of measurements to the actual or accepted value?
20. Describe the difference between the meaning of the terms ACCURACY and PRECISION in scientific measurement?
Accuracy: The degree of closeness of measurements of a quantity to the actual (or accepted) value.
Precision: The degree to which repeated measurements show the same result.
21. How can statistical and analyzed data be used to inform, justify and validate a design or process?
-Statistics are commonly used in manufacturing processes to control and maintain quality.
-statistical analysis is used to determine measures of central tendency and variation of the data.
22. What is dimensional analysis and how can it help solve problems involving quantities?
Performing a dimensional analysis on a part will assure that all needed dimensions to create the part have been included
-insure the part is made correctly.
23. Why do engineers generally adhere to a set of dimensioning standards and guidelines?
-In manufacturing, a part must be dimensioned fully and correctly and to the proper precision.
-Otherwise, the part may not function properly or may not fit into an assembly as intended.
– Dimensioning errors can lead to a delay in production time, increased design and manufacturing costs, and a potentially unsafe product.
24. Convert the following, and show work, conversation faction & units:
must show work and conversion factors
2,375 trillion meters to giga-meters.
2.375 Giga-meters
23,439 milliliters to liters.
3.439 liters
13 thousand microseconds to seconds.
.13 seconds
9.25 yards to feet.
27.75 feet
1.15 feet to inches.
13.8 in
5 feet 6.5 inches to inches.
66.5 inches
4 feet 3 inches to decimal feet.
4.25 ft
67.5 cm to inches.
26.5748175 in
1.7 yards to inches.
253 in
25. Why would you have to know how to convert measurements when looking at a technical drawing?
If they are not in the units preferred by the engineer, they will need to change them
26. Why is placement of your dimensions so important?
So they can be read clearly without confusion
27. How can you use units help you solve a problem?
If the Units are all the same communication of size and shape are understood with out confusion
28. Why do designers need to fully dimension a part?
communicate clearly how the part is to be constructed
29. What does it mean when a sketch is over-dimensioned?
same measurement/dimension is on 2 or more of the views: such as the over all width is placed in both the front and top views. This can cause confusion and increase the probability of the part being constructed incorrectly
30. What is a graph of vertical bars representing the frequency distribution of a set of data?
31. What is a collection of methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, organizing, summarizing, and presenting, analyzing, interpreting and drawing conclusions based on data?
32. What is the measure of the spread of data values?
standard deviation
33. What is a function that represents the distribution of variable as a symmetrical bell shaped graph?
normal distribution
34. What is the value that occurs the most frequently in a given data set?
35. What is difference between the largest and smallest values that occur in a data set?
36. What is a measure of center in a set of numerical data?
37. What is the digits in a decimal number that carry meaning contributing to the precision or accuracy of the quantity?
significant digits
38. What is central tendency?
center of a distribution; mean, median or mode
39. What is a full-scale working model used to test a design concept by making actual observations and necessary adjustments?
40. What is a measuring instrument having two adjustable jaws typically used to measure distance or thickness?
Unit 4: Modeling Skills
4% of final exam
41. What is the role of models in the design process?
Provides a visual for all to see and helps them to see the viability of the idea
42. How can we use technology to make the design and manufacturing of a product more efficient and less prone to error?
Allows us to investigate the properties digitally before it is built physically
43. What is the purpose of a portfolio? How do you decide what information to include within a portfolio?
The Purpose of a portfolio is to effectively communicate the details of a project. Title page, working technical drawings and an “exploded” presentation page with a parts list (i.e., whatever is necessary to communicate all the details of a project)
44. Match the word with its definition.
Unit 4 definitions
a. A visual, mathematical, or three-dimensional representation in detail of an object or design, often smaller than the original.
a. To add explanatory notes to a drawing
a. A part or element of a larger whole
a. A physical representation of an object. Prototypes and appearance models are physical models.
physical model
a. An enlarged or reduced representation of an object that is usually intended for study purposes.
scale model
a. Constant, non-numerical relationships between the parts of a geometric figure. Examples include parallelism, perpendicularity, and concentricity.
geometric constraint
a. A type of 3D CAD modeling that represents the volume of an object, not just its lines and surfaces.
solid modeling
a. The process of choosing and using appropriate mathematics and statistics to analyze empirical situations, To understand them better, and to improve decisions.
mathematical modeling
a. A full-scale working model used to test and improve a design concept by making actual observations and necessary adjustments.
prototype 2
a. Drawings that convey all of the information needed to manufacture and assemble a design
working drawings
Unit 5: Geometry of Design
13 % of final exam
45. What are physical properties and why are they important to the design of a product?
The material it is made of, its mass, density, etc.
46. What advantage does Computer Aided Design & Drafting provide over traditional paper & pencil design.
1. easily modified, and reproducible. Usually faster to produce. Can be looked at in 3 dimensions and seen at different angles
47. How does the material chosen for a product impact the design of the product.
It determines the products weight and density, its durability, etc.
48. Match the word with its definition.
Unit 5 definitions
g. A triangle that contains only angles that are less than 90 degrees.
acute triangle
l. A 3D point where the total weight of the body may be considered to be concentrated.
center of gravity
f. 3D point defining the geometric center of a solid.
d. A straight or curved line that intersects a circle or arc at one point only.
e. A triangle located round a polygon such as a circle. To draw a figure around another, touching it at points but not cutting it.
i. The lines of intersection created from three mutually perpendicular planes, with the three planes’ point of intersection at the centroid of the part.
principle axes
a. The measure of mass density is a measure of mass per volume.
h. The amount of three-dimensional space occupied by an object or enclosed within a container.
a. To draw a figure within another so that their boundaries touch but do not intersect.
j. A triangle with one angle that is greater than 90 degrees.
obtuse triangle
a. A curve formed at the interior intersection between two or more surfaces.
k. A triangle that has a 90 degree angle.
right triangle
49. How is a geometric constraint different from a numeric constraint in the inventor program?
Geometric constraint “bonds” two geometric parts (surfaces, edges, centers) together (i.e., mate, flush). A numeric constraint is a measurement or distance and constrains an object to be a certain length.
50. What advantages do CAD sketches have over freehand sketches?
It is usually faster to produce and more accurate. Can be looked at in 3 dimensions and seen at different angles
51. A Drum cylinder serves as storage for used grease in a restaurant. The cylinder has a height of 3.25ft and a diameter of 2ft. The weight density of Steel Iron is 0.2836 lbs/in cubed. Use this info to answer the following questions. (PAY ATTENTION TO UNITS OF MEASUREMENT)
What is the volume of the cylinder? (Precision = 0.00)
V = r2h
V = (3.14)(12)(3.25) = 10.205 ft3
What is the surface area of the cylinder? (Precision = 0.00)
SA = (2r)h + 2(r2)
SA= (2)(3.14)(1)(3.25) + (2)(3.14)( 12) = 20.41 + 6.28 = 26.69 ft2
What is the weight of the cylinder? (Precision = 0.00)
W = VDw

W = (10.205)(.2836) = 2.894138 lbs

What will the total cost be to ship the 30,000 cylinders from the factory to a facility for distribution to area restaurants at $4.25 per pound?
Shipping Cost = # of Cylinders x Weight x Shipping Cost per lb.
Shipping Cost = (30,000)(2.894138)(4.25) = $369,002.60
52. A wood board is one of 6 different parts in a shelf kit. The width, depth and height dimensions of the board are 42in X 8in X .75in. The board is made from southern yellow pine, which has an air dry weight density of .021lbs/in cubed. (PAY ATTENTION TO UNITS OF MEASURE)
What is the volume of the wood board? (Precision = 0.00)
V = wdh
V= 42 x 8 x .75 = 252in3
What is the surface area of the wood board? (Precision = 0.00)
SA = 2(wd + wh + dh)
SA = 2((42 x 8) + (42 x .75) + (8 x .75))
SA = 2(336 + 31.5 + 6)
SA = 2(373.5) = 747 in2
What is the weight of the wood board? (Precision = 0.00)
W = VDw

W = 252 x .021 = 5.292 lbs

If one gallon of paint will cover 35,000 square inches, how many gallons would be needed to give two coats of paint to 15,000 boards? (ROUND ANSWER TO NEAREST GALLON)
# of gallons of paint needed = (SA x # of Boards)/# of sq. ins 1 gallon covers

# of gallons of paint needed = (747 x 15,000)/35,000 = 11,205,000/35,000= 320.14 gallons

53. What 3D CAD functions could be used to create a wire paper clip?
54. What feature would be used to create a 3D representation of a baseball / softball hat that was created on a wood lathe?
55. What do you need to know in order to perform a physical property analysis?
material & dimensions
56. Why is it important to perform a physical property analysis prior to producing a part?
to find wt & density
57. Why is it important to understand the mathematic used in physical property analysis?
The Mathematics is important for you to determine the volume, density, mass, weight and size of the object you are developing.
58. A WORK POINT is an independent entity whose location is defined in ______. Work points may be placed or projected onto _______, ________, or onto an _______ or _______. Work points can be constrained to the ______ points of arcs, circles and ellipses.
part faces, linear edges, arc, circle.
59. A WORK AXIS is a line that extends forever in ______ directions. Work axes are useful for locating the ______ of a _______ or __________, are used in the creation of __________ features, and may be __________ to in assembly models.
center, hole, cylinder, revolved, constrained
60. WORK PLANES are continuous __________ planes that can be used to establish __________ planes. __________ constraints can also be applied to work planes.
2-D, sketch, assembly
Unit 6: Reverse Engineering // 13%
61. Why do engineers perform reverse engineering on products?
-learn how it operates and how internal parts were constructed.
¥ Documentation
¥ Discovery
¥ Investigation
¥ Product Improvement
62. Identify a product that you feel is aesthetically pleasing. What is it about the product that you find appealing? Use vocab words in your description.
barbie house
well proportioned
63. Match the words with their definitions.
a. Symmetry in which both halves of a composition are not identical. Also referred to as informal balance.
a. The correspondence in size, shape, and relative position of parts on opposite sides of a median line or about a central axis. Also referred to as formal balance.
a. The relationship of one thing to another in size, amount, etc. Size or weight relationships among structures or among elements in a single structure.
a. A condition in which different elements are equal or in the correct proportions. There are three types of visual balance: symmetry, asymmetry, and radial
a. Having the three dimensions of length, width, and depth. Also referred to as a solid. The organization, placement, or relationship of basic elements, as volumes or voids in a sculpture, so as to produce a coherent image.
a. The property possessed by an object of producing different sensations on the eye as a result of the way it reflects or emits light.
a. A regularly recurring sequence of events or actions.
a. The art of combining text and pictures in advertisements, magazines, books, etc.
graphic design
a. The state of being noticeably different from something else when put or considered together
a. The feel, appearance, or consistency of a surface, substance, or fabric.
a. A repeated decorative design.
a. Symmetry about a central axis.
radial symmetry
a. The lightness or darkness of a color in relation to a scale ranging from white to black
a. The process of taking something apart and analyzing its workings in detail.
reverse engineering
a. The two-dimensional contour that characterizes an object or area, in contrast to three-dimensional form.
a. Special importance, value, or prominence given to something.
64. What considerations should be made in when reverse engineering?
visual, functional & structural analysis
65. What makes a product aesthetically pleasing or eye-catching?
Elements of design: Color, value, form, shape, texture, line, point, balance; symmetry, radial, and asymmetry, emphasis, contrast, rhythm, proportion, unity, and economy,
66. How are principles and elements of design used with engineering practice to develop a successful product?
1. incorporated into the Visual, Functional and Structural Analysis to develop a product that is not only aesthetically pleasing but also economical reproducible that solves the problem.
67. Why do engineers need to understand the design principles and elements when designing or innovating a product? (include vocab words)
Engineers use Color, value, form, shape, texture, line, point, balance; symmetry, radial, and asymmetry, emphasis, contrast, rhythm, proportion, unity, and economy to make it as aesthetically pleasing, while still being functional, as possible
68. Describe the process of reverse engineering.
Reverse engineering (RE) is the process of taking something apart and analyzing its workings in detail, usually with the intention of understanding its structure, function, and operation.
69. A system input / output is used in unit 6 Functional Analysis helps to determine what about a product we are Reengineering / Innovating – fill in this chart.
A black box systems model is used to identify what goes into and out of the product in order to make it work as a system. The “black box” is used to represent the product’s internal components or processes, which are deemed unknown at this point.
70. Describe how important it is to have good interpersonal communication skills in a technically related field, such as engineering and design.
You must be able to communicate clearly and succinctly with the people with whom you work in-order for them to understand how your design is going to solve the problem at hand.
Unit 7: Documentation // 20%
71. Arcs and angles are dimensioned in views that __________.
show arc or circle
72. Arcs are dimensioned with a __________ to identify the __________; in some cases, a center mark is included.
leader, radius
73. Circles should have a __________ marks and are dimensioned with a __________ to identify the __________.
center, leader, diameter
74. What is an offset and how is it used?
An offset is used when constraining two parts and you don’t want to constrain them completely flush (you might offset one part so that it sticks out from another part).
75. What is the difference between a mate and flush constraint?
• Mate: two surfaces face to face.
• Flush: two surfaces side by side or two edges side by side.
76. What constraint would you use to place a pine inside a hole?
77. What is a subassembly? How is it useful in the assembly of a complex product that involves multiple parts?
A subassembly is when some of the parts of a product are put together, and then those subassemblies are put together in one total assembly
78. Why is detailed documentation important in the design of a product?
If documentation is incomplete, the part cannot be produced as it was intended to be made.
79. Angled surface may be dimensioned using __________ method to specify the __________ location distances of the angle.
coordinate, two
80. Angled surfaces may also be dimensioned using the __________ method by specifying __________ location for distance & angle.
angular, one
81. What 4 things need to be answered in a Design Brief?
Client / End User / Target Consumer
Problem Statement
Design Statement
82. What is a Decision Matrix?
1. It is used to compare design solutions against one another, using specific criteria that are often based on project requirements.
83. Identify Ideas or Alternatives for Reverse Engineering (innovations) and inventing new products?
¥ Product life span
¥ Development time
¥ Size
¥ Material costs
¥ Development costs
¥ Manufacturing costs
¥ Company standards
¥ Manufacturing capabilities
¥ Safety
¥ Cost
¥ Reusability
¥ Geometry
¥ Connections
¥ Cleanliness
¥ Resilience
¥ Testability
¥ Function
84. Importance of Technical Writing: is a type of expository writing that is used to __________ information to a particular __________ or __________ purposes.
convey, audience, technical, business
85. Technical Reports communicate __________ information and __________ about project to _____, _____, legal authority figure and other __________.
It contains the following sections:
a. Front Matter: title page, abstract, table of contents, list of tables and figures
b. Text: summary, introduction, methods, assumptions & procedure, results & discussion, conclusion, reference
c. Back Matter: appendices, list of symbols, abbreviation and acronyms
technical, conclusions, customers, managers, engineers
86. Match the word with its definitions.
Section 1: Dimensioning
a. A system of dimensioning which requires all numerals, figures, and notes to be aligned with the dimension lines so that they may be read from the bottom (for horizontal dimensions) and from the right side (for vertical dimensions).
aligned dimension
a. Dimensioning in which all dimensions are placed from a datum and not from feature to feature.
baseline dimensioning system
a. Also known as point-to-point dimensioning where dimensions are established from one point to the next.
chain dimensioning
a. The largest and smallest possible boundaries to which a feature may be made as related to the tolerance of the dimension.
limit dimensions
a. A location dimension that defines the relationship of features of an object.
location dimension
a. A dimension, usually without a tolerance, used for information purposes only. A reference is a repeat of a given dimension or established from other values shown on a drawing. they are enclosed in ( ) on the drawing.
reference dimensions
a. A dimensioning system where each dimension originates from a common surface, plane, or axis. Also known as baseline dimensioning.
datum dimensioning
a. A tolerance in which variation is permitted in both directions from the specified dimension.
unidirectional dimension
a. The acceptable amount of dimensional variation that will still allow an object to function correctly..
a. The designation of the size established for a commercial product.
nominal size
a. A tolerance in which variation is permitted in both directions from the specified dimension. (ONE) +-
bilateral tolerance
a. The tightest possible fit between two mating parts.
a. Limits the size of mating parts so that a clearance always results when mating parts are assembled.
clearance fit
a. The amount of overlap that one part has with another when assembled
Section 2: Organizations & Technical Writing
a. A private, non-profit organization that coordinates the development and use of a voluntary consensus standards in the United States.
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
a. A type of expository writing that is used to convey information for technical or business purposes.
technical writing
a. A professional engineering organization that is known for setting codes and standards for mechanical devices in the United States.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
a. A list of materials or parts specified for a project. Also referred to as a bill of materials or BOM.
parts list
a. This is a worldwide organization that creates engineering standards.
International Organization for Standardization (IOS)
a. A tool used to compare design solutions against one another, using specific criteria.
decision matrix
a. The activity of gathering information about consumers’ needs and preferences.
market research
Part 3: Drawing Types
a. A view that is used to show features that is located on an inclined surface in true size and shape
auxiliary view
a. Thin lines used in a section view to indicate where the cutting plane line has cut through material.
section lines
a. A section of an object broken away to reveal an interior feature for a sectional drawing
broken-out section
a. Drawings that convey all of the information needed to manufacture and assemble a design.
working drawings
a. A sectional drawing based on a cutting plane line that extends completely through an object.
full section
a. A view that is used to show a magnified view of features that are too small to adequately specify in another view.;
detail view
a. A drawing that contains all the information for making one part of the design.
part drawing
a. A sectional drawing based on a cutting plane line that cuts through one-quarter of an object. A half section reveals half of the interior and half of the exterior.
half section
a. Used to show “inside” details not apparent on the exterior of the part
section view
a. A line drawn on a view where a cut was made in order to define the location of the imaginary section plane.
cutting plane line
Part 4: Holes
a. A hole that does not go completely through the work piece.
blind hole
a. Gradual diminution of width or thickness in an elongated object
a. A cylindrical recess around a hole, usually to receive a bolt head or nut
counter bore
a. has internal threads
tapped holes
a. A conical-shaped recess around a hole, often used to receive a tapered screw.
Unit 8: Advanced Computer Modeling // 4%
a. A line used to show the alternate positions of an object or matching part without interfering with the main drawing.
phantom line
a. An assembly drawing in which parts are moved out of position along an axis so that each individual part is visible
exploded assembly
a. The quantitative relation between two amounts showing the number of times one value contains or is contained within the other.
a. A relatively thin flat member acting as a brace support. Also called a web.
a. A number value or algebraic equation that is used to control the size or location of a geometric figure.
numeric constraint
a. A property of a system whose value determines how the system will behave.
a. A CAD modeling method that uses parameters to define the size and geometry of features and to create relationships between features. Changing a parameter value updates all related features of the model at once.
parametric modeling
Unit 9: Design Team // 2%
a. The US federal agency with a mission to protect human health and the environment
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
a. The study of workplace equipment design or how to arrange and design devices, machines, or workspace so that people and things interact safely and most efficiently.
a. A group of people that rely primarily or exclusively on electronic forms of communication to work together in accomplishing goals.
virtual team
a. A government organization whose mission is to assure the safety and health of America’s workers by setting and enforcing standards; providing training, outreach, and education; establishing partnerships; and encouraging continual improvement in workplace safety and health.
Occupation Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
a. The moral principles governing or influencing conduct.
a. Principles of right action, binding upon the members of a group and serving to guide, control, or regulate proper and acceptable behavior.