Intro to Ed. Ch. 3

the main goal of education is that
all citizens will have access to, and participate in, the process of becoming educated through a public school system designed to meet their needs
colonial education in the 1600s began in the home when puritans established colonies in the New England US. education was designed to
further Puritan values and ensure that children were well versed in the Bible; religious education was synonymous with general education; FAMILY responsible for educating children
dame schools
some colonial women transformed their homes into schools where they taught reading, writing, and computation (6 to 8 yrs old); informal day-care; women would do chores and teach them letters, numbers, and prayers, instruction in kitchen with little fee; ONLY schooling offered o girls
another form of education in the colonies where after young boys finished dame school, they were sometimes apprenticed to craftsmen to learn a trade; allowed them to learn a craft they could carry into adulthood
however, girls were taught
domestic skills at home and learned to stitch letters and sayings onto embroidered samples (second-rate ed)
latin grammar schools
a type of school that flourished in the New England colonies in the 1600s and 1700s. it emphasized Latin and greek and the Bible to prepare young men for college; Boston in 1635; sons of upper social classes
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founded by Puritans in 1636 to enter boys had to pass an entrance exam that required reading and speaking Latin and Greek
Old Deluder Satan Act
1647- law by Massachusetts that mandated that every town of fifty households must appoint and pay a teacher of reading and writing and every town of 100 must provide a grammar school to prepare youths for university–first education act that ensured ther would be public schools were children would learn to read and write
latin grammar schools in new England colonies and spread to mid-atlantic colonies were run by
an elected board of townspeople and financially supported by the families of the attenders; after finishing dame school or town school, wealthy boys could attend latin grammar school to prepare for college and leadership role in society and girls would continue to study their letters at home while learning domestic chores
latin grammar school is considered the forerunners of the US
high school
where you live (geographical location) had a great impact on
what type of education was available
northern colonies had puritans and people living in towns close together which principally taught the Bible in town schools and became readily available after 1647
connections among individuals that give them access to cultural and civic events and institutions; families with social capital know how to get best education for children-comes from wealth, privilege and other marks of social status; know about travel, museums, libraries
in the first 150 yrs of nationhood, high quality education was readily available only if you were
rich, white and male
pressure for scools to provide more and better services for increasingly
diverse array of students
mid-atlantic colonies had ethnic and religious groups that established diff types of schools and various trades established apprenticeship programs
true; though some latin grammar schools existed, other private schools developed that were dedicated to job training and practical skills (local control was norm)
sourthern colonies had a rural population and had
fewer schools; wealthy plantations hired private tutors for their children instead; many sent to Europe for education
late colonial era options for schools were
-schools managed by private associations, often devoted to the skills needed for a specific type of job
-religious schools sponsored by churches for their members; some charity for urban poor
-boarding schools
-few private academics offering secondary education with a broader curriculum than the early Latin grammar schools
you had to be ______, _______, and _______ to have access to better forms of education in the early colonies
wealthy, white, male
several school options required tuition, others had public funds and some used both
most girls still received _______ schooling after the first few years
Native American or African Americans had
practically no chance of formal education
Pauper’s oath
the oath the poor were required to sign in order for them to attend school, but most families did not want to sign it because of humiliation, so most poor children didn’t go to school. didn’t want to admit poverty
Land of Ordinance Act of 1785 and Northwest Ordinance of 1787
set aside land for public schools; sending kids to school instead of teaching them at home
schools were practical shelters with
one room with benches and a stove; desks and blackboards didn’t appear until many years later. no grades were given in the beginning and one teacher worked with several age levels at the same time; kids learned at own pace
Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin believed schools should move beyond the education of wealthy men for the ministry to a more broadly based education
established by Franklin in 1751 that is a type of private secondary school that arose in the late colonial period and came to dominate American secondary education until the establishment of public high schools. They had a more practical curriculum than Latin grammar schools did, and students typically could choose subjects appropriate to their later careers; took place of Latin schools
Old Deluder Satan Act was named because puritans believed in the presence of evil in the form of satan, if children studied scriptures, they would need to
resist Satan’s temptations, and learning to read would thwart evil
Franklin academy in Philadelphia had
variety of subjects like science, math, athletics, navigation, and bookkeeping; open to BOYS AND GIRLS if parents could afford tuition
after Declaration of Independence signed, other academies established, but mostly for
boys; (Phillips Academy in Andover, Mass, and Phillips Exeter Academy in Exeter, New Hampshire
academies offered both
elective and required courses; changed model of secondary education. but needed wealth to attend
Jefferson and Franklin believed the new democracy required
an educated citizenry for its survival; to work properly it needed informed citizens and an educational system that allows people to succeed on the basis of their skills and dedication rather than inherited privilege
common schools
a public, tax-supported elementary school. begun in Massachusetts in the 1820s, common schools aimed to provide a common curriculum for children. Horace Mann, an advocate for the common school, is often considered the “father of the public school”
Horace Mann
educational historian and reformer who championed the movement of common schools as promoting civic virtues; ciriticized private academies bc offered different curricula and perpetuated social differences bt priviledged and ordinary citizens
common schools spread from massacusetts, to new England, Midwestern, western and finally southern states and became more rapid after the
Civil War
1830s and 40s brought expansion in manufacturing and transportation as
immigrants can to the northeast and became important part of economy and factory owners needed a trained workforce
population grew in cities and social tensions rose because of
increased poverty, slums, and crime
by centralizing the control of public education
schools could be used to uplift the poor, spread dominant national values, and assimilate immigrant children into the English speaking US culture
state authorities, not immigrant families would be
in control
believed religion couldn’t be completely separate from schools because it was part for
moral development
main thrust in common schools was three Rs, history, science, and some had regular readings of KJV Bible
reading, ‘riting, and ‘rithmetic
parochial schools
a school operated by a religious group. today, in the US, it most often refers to a school governed by the local Catholic parish or diocese; started because Catholic immigrants objected vehemently (1800s)
1963 SC ruled that prayers and Bible readings would no longer be allowed in public schools
more children attended school because
more tax-support
immigrants had to have their kids work instead and viewed education as something they
couldn’t afford
compulsory attendance laws were put into place by each STATE to ensure
immigrant children when to school, not work
began with Mass in 1852 and ended with Alaska in 1929
true; eventually legislation restricting employment of children in industrial settings passed by fed government
as more industrialization happened and laws were passed more parents saw high school as a pathway to
better jobs for their children
by 1890- tax-supported public high schools slowly took hold and became the dominant form of
secondary education
1900s- junior high established (7,8,9) but in 1950s middle school established for 5-8 and replaced junior high by end of twentieth century
emphasis on middle school was
interdisciplinary learning and team teaching
1800s school lasted about
75 to 80 days a year because entire family needed to work the farm
1830s only half of children attended school and for a short period of time
end of 1890s, the ____________ drew people to cities for work and common schools flourished, so more children attended (70 percent of kids)
industrial revolution
such a great need, new high school added every day in some part of US between
1890 and 1914
more diverse students today- girls, women, people of color, the poor are graduating from high school today and post secondary education than ever before
normal schools
promoted by Horace Mann; a type of teacher-education institution that begun in the 1830s; forerunner of the teachers’ college for 2 years; intended to improve quality of growing common school by producing more qualified teachers
first normal school was called
The Normal School in Lexington, mass in 1839
be end of 1800s eventually became 4 year colleges dedicated to teacher education
true, university of California, los angeles were founded as normal schools
only on rare occasion would women get to even teach
young children; assumed women were incapable of discipline necessary to teach effectively
normal schools welcomed _______ students and made elementary school teaching a career path for many woman. by 1900, 71 percent of rurarl teachers were women
after civil war in 1900s teaching became ______ attractive for women wanting to work outside of domestic sphere
Women weren’t allowed to ______
stereotype that if teachers married, they would have divided loyalties if they were allowed to marry while being employed teachers; after WWII married women were allowed to enter the teaching profession
1950s, teaching became a “feminized” profession; while men did administration and secondary math and science
just as its important to have women teaching math, its vital to have men
represented in early childhood and elementary; this breaks down stereotypes for teachers and models for students
Booker T. Washington
African American teacher in 1881 who became first head of what was then the Tuskegee Normal School for Colored Teachers in Tuskegee, Alabama and then Tuskegee Institute and now Tuskegee University; advanced education of blacks and reps in teaching profession
Catherine Beecher
started Hartford (Connecticut) female seminary in 1828 and made a major contribution to the professional education of women; believed education should prepare women to assume roles of high responsibility in society; believed women should become teachers because extended family roles; with Stanton and Anthony, she promoted educational and political equality for women
Tuskegee Normal School prepared black teachers to be self reliant and acquire practical vocational skills in teaching and
agriculture and other occupations
WEB Du Bois
graduate of Harvard College and Black scholar, criticized washingtons emphasis on vocational training and insisted that formal education in an academically rich course of study was necessary for black people
blacks are more than 15 percent of US and same with latinos, but only about 6 percent are black teachers and 5 percent are hispanic
blacks are more than 15 percent of US and same with latinos, but only about 6 percent are black teachers and 5 percent are hispanic
tom combate this problem, state departments of education and many colleges and universities are offering financial incentives to minority students for becoming teachers like
1985, Minority Teacher Recruitment Project at University of Louisville
teaching is a profession dedicated to
student learning
TJ it’s impossible for a nation to be both
free and ignorant
to be successful educators we need to make sense of
1. who we are in the world
2. what conditions we believe are important for learning to occur
end of Civil war to late 1800s, high school curriculum expanded and retained old subjects like languge and math and new ones as demand arose like
botany, physiology, anatomy, physics, and astronomy
students not pursing college education courses like
commercial arithmetic, banking, business correspondence, stenography and typewriting were added
opinions on high school were divided
some believed it should groom students for college, others though it should prepare students for more practical endeavors (it was termination of their formal education)
Committee of Ten in 1892
ten scholars led by Harvard University President, Charles Eliot, that determined the proper curriculum for high schools ; recommended 8 yrs of elementary school and 4 years of high school and proposed curriculum common for both college bound and terminal students; featured fewer subjects studied for longer time- foreign language, math, science, history, and English; rigorious curriculum
1918- NEA reversed course when Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education came out that recommended
a differentiated curriculum for the comprehensive high school, offering four different tracks: college prep, commercial, industrial, and general academic; commericial was bookkeeping, shorthand and typing and industrial was domestic, agricultural and trade endeavors
core courses (English, history, foreign language, science, math) all persisted in high school curriculum
the practice of placing students in different classes or courses based on achievement test scores or on perceived differences in abilities. Can be identified by ability (high, average, or low) or by the kind of preparation they provide (academic, general, or vocational)
1930s William Bagley coined the term
an educational philosophy holding that the purpose of education is to learn specific knowledge provided by core academic disciplines such as mathematics, science, literature, and history. teachers must impart the key elements of these subjects so that all students have access to this basic or “essential” knowledge; basics, Three Rs (reading, riting, rithmetic)
believe students take classes in algebra and history, not
ceramics and interpretive dance
essentialists assume a common
culture should remain for Americans
teachers are the dominant figures and know best, they
transfer their knowledge and wisdom for the good of students “teacher knows best” and students listen to teacher and learn what is taught
the most influential educator of the twentieth century
John Dewey
Dewey (University of Chicago, pop magazines, in political causes like womens rights)
viewed students as active participants in their own learning; they learn by doing and their interests must be a driving force behind curriculum an classroom experiences
by Dewey; an educational philosophy that stresses active learning through problem solving projects and hands-on experiences
also known as pragmatism
progressive in that it gave more responsiblility to students and pragmatic (practical) because it embedded teaching and learning in the context of daily living; contradicted strict authoritarian model of education that thrived in colonial times and in essentialist approaches
Dewey believed
the school is a laboratory where the curriculum was to integrate education with real-life experiences and a child’s curiosity defined the process of learning; not bound by rigid rules about what to teach and built on students strengths and talents
progressivism adovated a
vibrant school setting with curriculum following interests of students and encouraged active learning and problem solving and assessment of students through close observation by well prepared caring teachers
progressivism fell out of favor when US needed stricter teaching during the
Cold War following WWII; Soviets launched Sputnik and had that nation first in space and symbolized what US failed to achieve; therefore, went back to stricter and new wave of essentialism took over and prepared students for engineering
1960s was the
“child centered” movement
today progressivism seen in “whole language” reading programs, multiage approaches, experiential education, problem-based learning, and student-centered instruction
an educational philosophy that emphasizes enduring ideas conveyed through the study of great works of literature and art. believe in a single core curriculum for everyone
perentialism was found a strong expression in 1980s in the Paidei Proposal by
Mortimer Adler
Adler proposed one universal curriculum for elementary and secondary students allowing for
no electives; everyone would take same courses and reflect history’s finest thinkers and writers
differs in essentialism by
placing greater emphasis on classic works of literature, history, art, and philospophy (ancient Greeks and Romans) and on teaching values and moral character; essentialism is okay with practical, vocation-oriented courses like computer skills, but perennialism leaves little room for frivolity like such
programs centered on
“great ideas” great books, like University of Chicago, Columbia, some parochial schools
Adler emphasized the
Socratic Method
Socratic Method
teaching based on extensive discussion with students, less teacher centered than esentialists, little room for flexibility in this curriculum and little opportunity to reflect changing demographics
social reconstructionism
an educational philosophy that emphasizes social justice and a curriculum promoting social reform; believe schools must produce an agenda for social change
critical theory (Freire)
or critical pedagogy, which stresses that students should learn to challenge oppression. education should tackle real world problems like hunger, violence, poverty, and inequality. students are at center of this curriculum with teacher adovocating social reform
focus of the previous 2 are the
transformation of systems of oppression through education to improve the human condition
Brazilian whose experiences living in poverty led him to champion education and literacy as the vehicle for social change; wrote Pedagogy of the Oppressed published in 1970
existentialism (Soren Kierkegaard)
takes student-centered learning to an extreme,by Soren Kierkegaard, gained popular notice in mid twentieth century through worse of Jean Paul Sartre; only authoritative truth lies within the individual;
defined as
what it rejects– namely existence of any source of objective truth other than the individual person, who must seek the meaning of his/her own experience; proposes all students make all decisions about their choice of subject matter and activities as they seek to make meaning of their place in the world; not as prominent on US schools as other theories
best known model of existentialism in England founded by A.S. Neill in 1921 where students at center of curriculum
more than one-third of US public schools have NO color on the faculty
Maxine Greene
US philosopher, social activist and teacher who has been an active scholar and educator at Teachers College, Columbia University, since 1965 and her belief is that the role of education is to create meaning in the lives of students and teachers through an interaction between knowledge and experience with the world; followed Dewey in that arts essential to human experience and allow to grow socially and culturally
aesthetic education
traditionally, this term referred merely to education in the fine arts, like painting and music. In broader view of Maxine Greene and other recent philosophers, however, it means education that enables students to use artistic forms and imagination to approach all fields of learning, including the sciences, and to share their perspectives with others
goal of education is to help students realize they aren’t responsible for merely for their own individual experiences
but they also have a deep connection to, and responsibility for, other human beings who share this world; asks us to consider how being able to express oneself in a number of “language” like imagery, music, and dance help with meaning of ideas and that teachers and students need to discover their own truths; “wide awakeness”, respect for differences, shared perspectives
Lincoln Center Insitute for the Arts in Education in NYC founding member, Greene began the
Maxine Greene Foundation for Social Imagination, the Arts, and Education here which prepares teachers to guide students in merging artisitic expression with social justice; break down diversity and encourage equity; liberty of children and imagination of children
Mrs. Nelson looking at Starry Night by VanGough is an example and encourages students to make
careful observations; integrates arts in education
Dewey and Greenes shared views
-making connections with social issues should be central to school curricula
-the arts are creative tools that can expose children to new perspectives and new ways of communicating
-learning is an experiential process. Students learn by interacting with material in intellectual and sometimes manipulative ways; that is what “learning by doing” means
-all forms of education should emphasize learning by inquiry
a multifaceted activity that involves making observations, posing questions about subject matter, and conducting research or investigations to develop answers. Inquiry is common to scientific learning but also relevant to other fields
Greene thinks that teachers should be ones who have learned importance of being reflective to think about own thinking and become conscious of their own consciousness
no mention of education in the
school became domain and responsibility of the
states, and most of control of schools to local communities
US schools traditionally run by local school boards and the bulk of money they need is raise through
local taxes; debates on fairness become districts are wealthier
local school districts now supply less than _____ of the funding for public schools
half; although local schools happy to receive government money, not always pleased with strings attached, reducing local control over the way schools operate
1896 SC ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson
“separate but equal” public facilities for different races were legal and in 1900s found not to be equal and didn’t share equally in the resources available for public schooling; had fewer tax dollars and inferior conditions
1954 Brown. v Board of Education of Topeka Kansas
case in which the US SC outlawed segregation in public education
had impact on South because schools were segregated by law
de jure segregation
many northern schools were segregated informally because of separate living patterns for whites and blacks
de facto segregation
lots of turmoil and resistance and some educators argue that de facto segregation still exists today in many cities and suburbs of US
Civil Rights Act of 1964
federal legislation that reinforced the importance of creating educational opportunities for all Americans regardless of race, gender, or ethnicity
Bilingual Education Acts of 1968 and 1974
provided supplemental funding for school districts to establish programs for large numbers of children with limited English-language ability
Equal Educational Opportunities Act of 1974
provided specific definitions of what constituted denial of equal educational opportunity like “failure to take the appropriate action to overcome language barriers that impede equal participation by all students in an instructional program
percentage of school funds derived from local, state, and federal sources have decreased since the early 1900s while the proportion contributed by federal and state governments has grown
most extensive federal financing of schools in the US was made possible in 1965 when Congress passed the
Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)
Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)
part of Johnson’s war on poverty bc ensured that federal assistance would be sent to the poorest schools and communities in nation and immediate impact was to provide 1 billion to improve ed of students and families below poverty line; been reauthorized every 5 yrs since
Esea is single largest source of federal support for
k-12 education; federal government distributes funds to states and its the states responsibility to identify the schools and districts to receive the funds
Title 1
the section of the federal education law that provides funds for compensatory education; creates better opportunities for kids with disadvantages, like high poverty, Head Start (prepares prek for school on not only academics, but health and family environment, tutoring, afterschool centers, computer labs fo poor schools, drop out prevention services, job training, parental ed, and professional development for teachers
No child left behind (NCLB) Act of 2002 revised
ESEA and called for states to develop content area standards and annual testing of math and reading in grades 3-8; also gives parents greater choice on where children go to school
Title IX of Educational Amendments of 1972
part of the federal Educational Amendments of 1972 that states that no person in the US shall on basis of sex be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance; main objective is to avoid federal money to support sexually discriminating practices
Title VI of Civil RIghts act
prohibits discrimination based on race, color, or national origin, which IX was modeled after. but unlike this one that applies to all federal financial assistance, IX is limited to education programs or activities that receive federal financial assistance
TItle IX protects males and females from prek thru graduate school in
sports, financial aid, employment, counseling, and school regulations and policies; especially on girls sports activities and facilities bc requires schools provide equal opportunities, funding, and facilities for boys and girls teams, but this enforcement has been fairly lax
single sex private school have had
positive experiences; put all girls in physics class in public school and in Australia put all boys in English class– big controversy
Title IV of Civil Rights Act
authorizes federal assistance to prohibit discrimination in education on basis of sex, race, and national origin
Title VII
prohibits sex discrimination and other types of employment discrimination both in and outside of education contexts
A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform
a 1983 federal report that found US schools in serious trouble and inaugurated a new wave of school reform focused on academic basics and higher standards for student achievement; report issued by National Commission on Excellence in Education; called for tougher standards for graduation, increases required number of math and science courses, higher college entrance requirements and return to academic basics (including computer skills), increase in hw, longer school day, more rigorous requirements for teachers, updated textbooks
implied US was at rick of its global competitiveness if attention to skills and standards weren’t used to increase academic rigor opposed to progressive concerns in
A Nation at Risk
these reforms came from federal government, but implemented in different ways at local, state, and district levels
1975 Education for all Handicapped Children Act
ensured all children with disabilities could receive free, appropriate public education, just like other children and now known as IDEA
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
federal law that guarantees that all children with disabilities receive free, appropriate public education (2004 revised)
b4 1975, kids with disabilities were often taught in
separate classrooms, and provided with watered-down curricula; but strong efforst in legislation have been made to include students with disabilities in regular classroms
the practice of educating students with disabilities in regular classrooms alongside nondisabled students
partial inclusion
when special educational needs kids are included in general education classroom some of the time
special eduation students
self-contained class as well for students with special needs
research shows inclusion benefits both special education students and students from general population
Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (1989)
language arts, science, social studies, and foreign languges developed standards for wat children at each grade level from prek to 12 should know and be able to do in each content area; states were asked to prepare content standards based on these national guidelines and create assessments to match standards
we went to school in standards-based education reform and refers to
clear, measurable, academic standards for all school students in all academic areas; national standards and testing that assesses whether students are meeting those standards is a policy issue that has supporters and critics; bc of NCLB model of considerable rigor, accountablility and strict benchmarks; encourages higher standards for students to meet high standards
critics insist curriculum needs to be connected to
students lived experiences and standards will stifle creativity and innovation
NCLB (most dramatic federal education legislation since ESEA)
emphasized increased funding for less wealthy school districts and higher achievement for financially poor and minority students; new rules for standardized test requiring students in grades 3-8 be tested every year in reading and math- this made less instruction in science and social studies (still don’t know if this actually improved student learning)
2012 NCLB will revert to Elementary and Secondary Education Act and providing states with
flexibility from some of NCLB requirements in how they raise standards and undertake essential reforms to improve teacher-effectiveness; means state can determine assessment measure for student performance and don’t have to rely on single type of testing and use multiple measures
each state will get waivers that let local states and distrcits make
spending decisions and determine best measures for assessing learners bc with NCLB classrooms becoming test prep centers will subjects not tested get too little attention; ppl not a fan of one size fits all formula for achievement and accountability cant work as diverse as ours
more schools failed in 2011 than in 2010
true; most feel the standards don’t reflect genuine progress and teachers feel they have little freedom
Mrs. Bennet used her civil engineering in each grade level to add creativity in schools curriculum and many believe that rigid testing has caused
creative aspects like these to “take a back seat” to prepare for exams
although there are many local and national academic standards there is no standard ________!
Common Core State Standards Initiative by NGA and CCSSO
state-led effort to develop a clear and consistent framework to prepare students for college and the workforce through the collaboration with teachers, school administrators, and experts; standards define knowledge and skills students should have within their k-12 education careers so they can graduate high school to succeed in academic college courses and in workforce training programs
2009 first official public draft of college and career readiness standards in English language arts and math were released
true; could be used in any state
these common core standards are a significant part of statewide initiatives for educational reform
Race to the Top (RTTP) initiative
federal funding program that creates a statewide competition for education grants; heavily funded US department of Education initiative that began in 2009 by OBama administration and Secretary of Education Arne Duncan; funding awarded to states that have submitted credible proposals with plans for implementing educational reforms that have the promise to help lowest performing schools as well as provide blueprints for measuring teacher effectiveness and student learning; competition designed to provide states with extra funding for education if they can demonstrate the criteria (PAGE 66); hope it will be an example for states and local districts to follow, in its 3rd yrs and want to innovate design of school with charters